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E^oC M3R»-2/v\€> 



HARVARD COLLEGE 
LIBRARY 




THE BEQUEST OF 

EVERT JANSEN WENDELL 

(CLASS OF 1882) 
OF NEW YORK 



1918 




"THE SHOP" 

THE STORY OF THE ROYAL MILITARY ACADEMY 




CL 
O 
X 
CO 

HI 

X 

I- 



o 



44 



THE SHOP" 



THE STORY 

OF 

THE ROYAL MILITARY ACADEMY 



BY 



CAPTAIN F. G. GUGGISBERG, RE. 



WITH EIGHT COLOURED PLATES, TWO PLANS, AND NUMEROUS 
OTHER ILLUSTRATIONS 



CASSELL and COMPANY, Limited 

LONDON, PARIS, NEW YORK & MELBOURNE 
1900 

ALL RIGHTS RESERVED 






HARVARD COLLEGE UBRARV 

FR(Mf 

THE BEQUEST OF 

ftVEtfl MWSEN WENDELL 

iiii 





A RIDING CLASS AT "THE SHOP." 



PREFACE. 



" Ubique." In every country and every clime where floats 
the Union Jack the Gunner and the Sapper are to be 
found. Though they are divided in name and duty, and 
though a healthy corps rivalry exists between them, 
Sappers and Gunners have, besides their motto, one other 
heritage in common — the good old days spent together at 
" The Shop." If the " Story of the R. M. A." is successful in 
arousing pleasant recollections of those days in the minds 
of my comrades in the Corps and my friends in the 
Regiment, I shall feel I have not laboured in vain. 

I have adopted the system of dividing " The Shop's " 
story into "periods," and then grouping together, as far as 
possible, all events coming under one heading in each 
period. For instance, any incidents connected with "ad- 
mission," "conduct," "uniform," are respectively placed together, 
even when extending over so long a period as 1806-54. 

A short preliminary account of my sources of information 
will be of interest, as adding the value of authenticity to 
this work. 

Colonel W. D. Jones, R.A., when Inspector of Studies in 
the 'forties, made, with great care and trouble, a most 
exhaustive collection of "facts and documents" relating to 
"Shop" history from its earliest days. In 1851 Captain 
F. M. Eardley-Wilmot, R.A., Captain of the Cadet Company, 
had these printed by the Royal Artillery Institution, brought 
up to the date 1840, and entitled the Records of the R. M. A. 

A little over twenty years later occurred the disastrous 
fire which completely gutted the Centre Building, containing 



vi PREFACE. 

— among other rooms — the Inspector's Office. So, if these 
records had not been printed, Colonel Jones's work would 
have been consumed with all the other valuable papers 
referring to the R. M. A.* 

In the " introduction " to the Records Colonel Jones said 
that they were printed for their preservation " towards 
drawing up an Historical Account of the R. M. A. at some 
future period." In 1892 Lieut-Col. H. D. Buchanan-Dunlop 
added a Second Part to the volume, which was then re- 
printed and published by Mr. F. J. Cattermole, of Woolwich. 
As the original part was reproduced just as it stood, it is 
doubtful whether the amalgamated result was the form of 
" Historical Account " intended by Colonel Jones. 

In writing the present story 1 have had great assistance 
from the original Records; and Mr. Cattermole, with much 
courtesy, gave me permission to make what use I considered 
desirable of his edition. 

Some of the coloured plates are copied from those in 
the original book, which were made from sketches by 
Colonel Gravatt, R.E., Assistant Inspector, and afterwards 
Inspector, from 1814 to 1840. These are given additional 
value by the fortunate discovery in the R. A. Record Office 
of a letter written by him, not only describing these sketches 
— apparently executed when he was a cadet — but also his 
life at the R. M. A. about 1782. This letter is given in 
Chapter II. 

Printed volumes of the Reports of Colonel Yolland's 
Commission in 1857, the Royal Commission of 1868, and 
of the various Boards of Visitors since 1872 were placed 
at my disposal by the kindness of the Governor, Major- 
General F. T. Lloyd, C.B., R.A., and proved veritable mines 
of information. Indeed, I am indented to the Governor 
not only for every encouragement, but also for the original 
idea of writing this book. 

Unfortunately, no cadet of the " Shop's " first century 
was available as a raconteur, and therefore I am afraid 
that the early parts of my story are not lightened by over 
many anecdotes ; but in later days both Gunners and 



* Another debt of gratitude we owe to Captain Eardley -Wilmot is for 
his institution of the "Shop" Sports. "Eardley the Upright," Major-Generai 
Strange calls him in his " Gunner Jingo's Jubilee," where he again alludes 
to him thus : " It was the turning point of their (the cadets') lives when 
they came under the influence of Eardley- Wiimot, the Military Arnold of 
Woolwich." 



PREFACE. vii 

Sappers have given me a helping hand. To the following 
officers I tender my sincere thanks for their kind assistance : 
Col. C. M. Watson, C.M.G., RE., Col. H. F. Turner (late RE.), 
Col. J. W. Savage, RE., Lieut.-Col. L. E. Coker, RA., Lieut.- 
Col. W. D. Conner, RE., Major Hon. T. Sidney, RA., and 
Captain R P. Benson, RA. Major B. R Ward, RE., has 
given me a great deal of advice and help, and my best 
thanks are due to him. Lieut. R A. Williams, RA., gave 
me every assistance in my hunt through the well-organised 
R A. Record Office ; while Mr. Allen, R A., and Mr. Lawson, 
RA., rendered me very great service. 

Indeed, I have to thank the whole R M. A. Staff, and not 
least for the facilities accorded to Mr. Higgins (late RE.), 
who, circumventing all difficulties of glare and mist, has 
stalked the shy cadet from place to place with great 
patience and a camera, and with what I venture to think 
will be considered most excellent results. 



F. G. G. 



R. M. Academy, Woolwich, 
October 31st, 1900. 




"G. C.'S IN THE FIELD.' 



CONTENTS. 



CHAPTER I. 

EARLY DAYS. 1741-1703. pa«;b 

The Opening of •' The Shop"— The Mansion in Woolwich Warren— 
Once Prince Rupert's— The " Raw and Inexperienced People " — 
How They were Dealt With— A G. C. of 1744— Nominations— " The 
Company of Gentlemen Cadets" — Moved into Barracks — The First 
Twenty Years— A G.C. of 1760 l 

CHAPTER II. 

THE PERIOD 1704—1806. 
I.— THE COMPANY OF GENTLEMEN CADETS. 

Lieut. -Colonel James Pattison. Lieutenant-Governor of the Academy, 
1764— The Right Man in the Right Place— The New Berime— The 
Company Officers— Strength of the Company — Extra and East India 
Cadets— The Establishment at Woolwich and Mar low— The Gentle- 
man-Attendant — Admission — Age and Period of Residence, Food 
and Pay — Conduct and Discipline — Reminiscences of Colonel 
Gravatt — Uniform — Cost of the Company to the Nation *.> 

II.— THE EDUCATIONAL COURSE. 

The Staff— Pay of the Masters- The Course, 1764— Books, etc.— Diffi- 
culties of the First Lieutenant-Governor — The Inspector and 
Improvements Enacted by Him— Course, 1772 — Resistance by the 
Masters — Changes ... ... 23 

III.— FINAL EXAMINATIONS AND COMMI8SION8. 

Public Examinations— Ages of Cadets Obtaining Commissions — Com- 
missions During the Peace of 1783-93 — An Excess of Commissions, 
Its Evil Effects, and the Remedies Adopted ... 32 

CHAPTER III. 

THK PERIOD 1800- 18M. 
I.— THE COMPANY OF OKNTLEMKN CADETS. 

The Pollock Medal— The Strength of the Company— " The 1st Company 
of the R.A."— The Officers— Admission in 18110; Increase in the 
Qualifications, 1814; Alterations in 1835; Insufficiency of the 
Entrance Examinations, 18()<> 18.">4 ; Ineligible Candidates— Age 
and Residence ; Effect of Variation in Residence on Seniority ; 
Quarters ; Use of the Term "Academy " ; Grounds of the R. M. A., 
180ti ; the Lower Barrack* in the Arsenal ; Changes in Quarters ; 
Buildings for Recreation -Food — Pay— Conduct and Discipline: 
Idleness Causes Bullying ; Eleven Cadets Dismissed ; Other Causes 
of Bullying ; Punishment Nullified by Influence ; Forms of 



CONTENTS. ix 

l'AOK 

Bullying; the "Angle of 45°"; "Looking Out for Squalls" — 
Miscellaneous Offences — " Gunner Jingo's " Reminiscences — The 
Horn Fair Riot — The Sword — Improvement in Conduct — Uniform — 
The Cost of the Company to the Nation 38 

II. — THE EDUCATIONAL COUBSE. 

The Staff and its Pay— Study Organisation, 1806— Formation of Prac- 
tical and Theoretical Classes, 1820 — Changes in Study Organisation 
from 1823 to 1836 — Surveying — Classes vice Academies, 1840 — Car- 
shalton, 1347— Changes in 1848— Time Table, 1848— Prizes and 
Madals — General Review of the Course, 1806 to 1854 65 

III. — FINAL EXAMINATIONS AND COMMISSIONS. 

System of Commissioning, 1806 to 1810 — Public Examinations Resumed 
in 1811 — Stagnation in Promotion Commences, 1814 ; a Grave 
Situation in 1816 ; and State of Promotion in 1820 — Important 
Decision by the Duke of Wellington — Scarcity of Commissions 
Alters the R. M. A.'s Organisation — Commissions, 1820-25 — Foreign 
Tours, 1822— End of the Scarcity of Promotion, 1825— Final Ex- 
aminations, 1826 to 1847, and 1848 to 1854 — "Humorous Description 
of a Public Examination,'* by an Addiscombe Cadet — Charles George 
Gordon — Adam Lindsay Gordon 74 

CHAPTER IV. 

A PERIOD OF TRANSITION. 1855—1864. 

Changes in Admission— Addiscombe and Carshalton Break-up — A 
Medley of Cadets — Competitive Examinations — The Lower 
Barracks Vacated — Uniform — "Life at the 'Shop' in 1857," by an 
Old Cadet. He describes the Work, Meals, and Habits of the 
G. C, and also the " Toshes," " Snookers," and " Persons " — The 
Course ; Practical Classes Abolished, Independent Examiners 
Appointed, etc. — The Company Organised into "A," "B," and 
-C" Divisions — Conduct; Espionage, Treatment of Cadets by 
their Officers, etc. — The Mutiny of '61 : its Causes, Events, and 
Results, by an Old Cadet 87 

CHAPTER V. 

THE STORY OF A BATCH, 18t>3— 18<>5. 

TOLD BY ONE OF THEM ... ... 103 

CHAPTER VI. 

THE "SHOP" FROM 1S05 TO 1870. 

The Trials of the " Snooker " — Games and Recreations Increased — The 
G. C. Smokes and Plays Billiards — Time Table, 1S67— -Table 
Squads — Uniform — Changes in Study Organisation — G.-C. Prince 
Arthur — The Royal Commission on the " Shop " — Its Results — 
G.-C. Coffey Fights for France 112 

CHAPTER VII. 

THE "SHOP" IN THE 'SEVENTIES. 

Reminiscences by an " Old Cadet " — The Prince Imperial — Time Table, 
1872 — Alterations in Admission — Three Terms to a Year — The 



* CONTENTS, 

PAGE 

Under Officer* Reduced in Number— The Waterloo Sword— Sir 
Liutoru >Ununons— The Amalgamation of Woolwich and Sand- 
hurst— The Power* of the Captain of the Cadet Company — The 
First Hoard of Visitors— The Cricket Ground Enlarged— The West 
Wing Attended — Alterations in Buildings — The Fire of 1873 — 
The Htory of the " Tombs "—An "Old Cadet" on the Food and a 

Cricket Match 127 

CHAPTER VIII. 

THE "SHOP" IN THE 'EIGHTIES. 

The Justice of theO.C. — Constant Acceleration Leads to Many " Drops" 
— Provisional Promotion — Excessive Demands for Officers Cause 
Reorganisation — " A " Division Abolished — The " Shop " Does Well 
at an Open Examination — "Drops "Not to Take Sappers — " Crib- 
bing "—Time Tables, 1885 and 1887 — The Jubilee — The Swimming 
Hath Huilt— Uniform — Prince Ilbrahim Hilmy— Azziz Izzet Bey — 

Fatal Accident— Chemistry 151 

CHAPTER IX. 

THE "SHOP" IN THE 'NINETIES. 

Ill furcation— A G. C. Passes In Last and Out First— The Queen Victoria 
Medal — Instructions and Commissions— Rajoelson of Madagascar 
and the " Soccer " Eleven— Prince Bovaradej — Uniform— Death of 
the Governor — The Diamond Jubilee — Unveiling the New Windows 
in the Hull -The Queen's Visit— The "Shop " Starts a Paper—" Ye 

Hong of Ye liar " 167 

CHAPTER X. 

THE O. C. OF THE PRESENT DAY. 

II |m Arrival -His Room— Breakfast Parade— The Hall— Hospital— 
Htwdie*— Digging — Drills—" Hoxters " — Riding: — After Dinner — 
•• ItoNh Hands "—Tea Squads— Dances— The G. C. and the Cabbie- 
Public Day— The End 181 

CHAPTER XI. 

GAMES AT THE "SHOP." 209 

APPENDICES. 
I. Mant«r-Generals of the Ordnance and Governors of the R. M. A. 
II. Lieutenant-Governors and Governors, R. M. A. III. Inspectors 
and Assistant-Commandants, R. M. A. IV. Captains of the Com- 
pany. V. Adjutants of the Company. VI. Lieutenants of the 
Company. VII. Surgeons of the R. M. A. VIII. Chaplains of the 
Company. IX. The Mathematics Staff. X. The Fortification Staff. 
XI. The Artillery Staff. XII. The Military Topography Staff. 
XIII. The Military History and Tactics Staffs. XIV. The Foreign 
Languages Staff. XV. The Landscape Drawing Staff. XVI. The 
Chemistry Staff. XVII. The Electricity Staff. XVIII. The History 
and Geography Staff. XIX. The Course in 1741. XX. The Estab- 
lishments of the R. M. A. XXI. A Return of Offences Com- 
mitted at the R. M. A. from 1835-1868. XXII. Commissions, 1820- 
1899. XXIII. (a) Marks Distribution in 1848 ; (b) A Comparison of 
the Instructional Courses of 1868, 1892, and 1900. XXIV. Entrance 
Examinations, 1857-1899. XXV. The "Shop's" Roll of Honour... 258 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS 



PAGE 

"The Shop" Frontispiece 

A Riding Class at " The Shop " v 

G.C.'s in the Field vii 

The First Cadet Barracks in the Warren— Rupert's Tower ... 5 

The Hut Builders 37 

The Pollock Medal 42 

The Hospital 52 

"Disqualified!" 73 

A Public Examination about 1820 83 

The Steeplechase 8ft 

Field Gun Drill To face 86 

''The Shop," from the South 103 

Freehand Drawing To face 108 

"To Commemorate Old Butler's Gallantry" Ill 

The East Gate 113- 

Major-General Sir J. Lintorn Simmons, K.C.B., R.E., Governor 1869-75 . 124 

The Ironwork Shop 125 

" Turned Up ! " 129 

Gentleman-Cadet the Prince Imperial 135 

The Prince Imperials Signature on the Wall of his Quarters . . 136 

The Prince Imperial's Statue 137 

Major-General Sir John Adye, K.C.B., R.A., Governor 1875-80 . .140 

The Governor's House 141 

The East Library 144 

Study 145 

Major-General J. F. M. Browne, C.B., R.E., Governor 1880-87 ... 156 

phy8ical exercise8 157 

Siege Works 159 

Major-General R. Hay, C.B., R.A., Governor 1837-89 160 

Major-General Sir Richard Harrison, K.C.B., C M.G., R.E., Governor 

1889-90 161 

"The Battery" 16a 

A Corporal's Room 165 

"The Captain" 166- 

The New Wing 167 

Major-General W. Stirling, C.B., R.A., Governor 1890-95 . . . .168 

The Queen Victoria Medal Tablet 170 

The Queen Victoria Medal 171 

The Cricket Ground To face 172 

The Swimming Bath 174 

A Group of Corporals 175 

Major-General E. O. Hewett, C.M.G., R.E., Governor 1895-97 . . .177 

Major-General F. T. Lloyd, C.B., R.A., The Present Governor . 17& 

Bridging 179 

The Donkey Race To face 180 

"Snookers" at Squad Drill 18a 

"Office" 181 

The Dining Hall, 1900 185 

Lunch Parade: Just Before the "Fall In" 186 

Lunch Parade 187 

Brushing 18& 



xii LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS. 

PAGE 

A Gym. Sqvad 190 

Sketching 191 

Volcntary Class at Woodwork 193 

Major F. Daniell. R.M.L.I., Professor ok Military Topography . . 194 

Major R R Ward. RE.. Professor of Fortification 196 

Major R St. J. Rarter. 10th (Lincoln) Regt., Professor of Tactics . 196 
Major F. H- Crampton. R.A., Professor of Artillery . .196 

I jevt.-Col. R T. C Relgraye. R W. K. Regiment. Professor of Drawing 198 

H. Hart. Eso^. M.A.. Professor of Mathematics ,198 

Major W. P. Brett. UK. Professor of Experimental Science . 300 

Dr. G. Weiss. M.A.. Professor of German 301 

M. Albert Rarroul. Professor of French 301 

Uevt.-Colonel L. E. Coker. RA. Assistant-Commandant .... 302 

Capt. A. E. J. Perkins. R.A . Adjctant 303 

ILJ* A.M. SaTVRDAY 3M 

And Five Mini-tks Later! 305 

Dckes Day t**k* 308 

A Start 309 

Term Athletk* Cup 309 

The Rcwje Winxers' Race. IS» . :• .*»•« 210 

Twt Bc^le 211 

Term Ty^-of-War Ccp 212 

Swimming Ccp 212 

The Storts. I9W . . . . r .»v* 212 

R. M~ A. .-•. R M- C Athlkttc Sports Shields 214 

H. W. Rexnt-Tailyocr . 21$ 

COLONTEL X FCLLOWKS 219 

The Term Csksit Crr 224 

W. C Hkdlky 2?1 

The *5S Curscr Team 235 

~ Very Olp Frieze. Circa 2f» r.c~ " 23S 

Twe Hk« Jrmr ... 211 

C W**ram ... 312 

M. OV Taxtvt 243 

W U FttfTCR .2a 

A. J. Ttrxex 217 

Tekm Rp«ry Oct* 253 

Tekm Ass»ocaATrffs Footraia. Crr . 253 

A. Cawtcr-Ket . . . 2» 

Term Racv-tct Crr 2S» 

R M. A. t. R M-C. ant. Term Gtmxastio> Shields . . . 25S 

R M A. t.. R M. C Revolver Shield 257 



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xii LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS. 

PAGE 

A Gym. Squad 190 

Sketching 191 

Voluntary Class at Woodwork 193 

Major F. Daniell, R.M.L.I., Professor of Military Topography . . 194 

Major B. R. Ward, R.E., Professor of Fortification 195 

Major B. St. J. Barter, 10th (Lincoln) Regt., Professor of Tactics . 195 
Major F. H. Crampton, R.A., Professor of Artillery . . . . . 196 
Lieut.-Col. D. T. C. Belgrave, R. W. K. Regiment, Professor of Drawing 198 

H. Hart, Esq., M.A., Professor of Mathematics ,198 

Major W. P. Brett, R.E., Professor of Experimental Science . . 200 

Dr. G. Weiss, M.A., Professor of German 201 

M. Albert Barrere, Professor of French 201 

Lieut. -Colonel L. E. Coker, R.A., Assistant-Commandant .... 202 

Capt. A. E. J. Perkins, R.A , Adjutant 203 

11.30 a.m. Saturday 204 

And Five Minutes Later! 205 

Duke's Day To face 206 

A Start 209 

Term Athletic Cup 209 

The Bugle Winners' Race, 1899 To face 210 

The Bugle 211 

Term Tug-of-War Cup 212 

Swimming Cup 212 

The Sports, 1900 To face 212 

R. M. A. v. R. M. C Athletic Sports Shields 214 

H. W. Kenny-Tailyour 218 

Colonel J. Fellowes . ■ 219 

The Term Cricket Cup 224 

W. C. Hedley 231 

The '85 Cricket Team 233 

"Very Old Frieze. Circa 20 B.C." 235 

The High Jump 241 

C. Wigram 242 

M. O'C. Tandy 243 

W. L. Foster 243 

A. J. Turner 247 

Term Rugby Cup .252 

Term Association Football Cup 253 

A. Cooper-Key . 255 

Term Racquet Cup 255 

R. M. A. v. R. M. C. and Term Gymnastics Shields 256 

R. M. A. v. R. M. C. Revolver Shield 257 



COLOURED PLATES. 

I. The Second Cadet Barracks in the Arsenal, 1752 . . To face 8 

II. Dress in 1783 „ 22 

III. Interior of a Barrack-Room „ „ 58 

IV. Corporals, R. M. A „ „ 62 

V. Dress in 1845 and 1875 „ ,, 64 

VI. Uniforms in 1886 „ ,, 116 

VII. Uniforms in 1900 „ ,, 176 

VIII. Cricket and Football Colours , ,, 250 

PLANS. 

" The Shop ". in 1806 : Plan of the Buildings To face 42 

"The Shop" in 1900 „ „ 178 



"THE SHOP"-: 

THE STORY OF THE ROYAL MILITARY 
ACADEMY, 

CHAPTER I. 

EARLY DAYS. 1741—1763. 

The Opening of "The Shop" — The Mansion in Woolwich Warren — Once 
Prince Rupert's — The " Raw and Inexperienced People M — How They 
were Dealt With — A G.C. of 1744 — Nominations— "The Company of 
Gentleme 1 Cadets" — Moved into Barracks — The First Twenty Years — 
A G.C. of 1750— His Letter Home. 

14 \TTHEN was the Academy started ? " The point is fre- 
VV quently in dispute. The existence of "cadets" 1 so 
far baek as 1722 has led some writers to contend 
that it must have been already established in that year ; but 
we have no less an authority than that of his Majesty King 
George the Second, for fixing upon the 30th of April, 1741, 
as the right and proper date. Here are the words of the 
Royal Warrant signed on that day; the word "instituted" 
seems to leave no room for doubt: — 

"George K., 

"Whereas you, our right trusty and right entirely beloved 
Cousin and Councillor, John, Duke of Montagu, Master-Ceneral of our 
Ordnance, hath laid before us a representation . . . that it would 
conduce to the good of our service if an Academy or School was 
instituted, endowed, and supported, for instructing the raw and inex- 
perienced people belonging to the Military branch of this office, in the 
several parts of Mathematics necessary to qualify them for the service 

1 These cadets were probably attached to the various marching companies 
of the lioyal Regimtnt of Artillery, in the same manner as they were later in 
1741. 

B 



2 EARLY DAYS. 1741— 17G3. 

of the Artillery, and the business of Engineers ; and that there is a 
convenient room at Woolwich Warren, which is our property, and may 
be fitted up for that purpose ; we having taken the subject into our 
Royal consideration, and approving thereof, our will and pleasure is 
that we do hereby authorise, empower, and direct you to nominate, 
constitute, and appoint an able and skilful Master and Assistants, and 
to prescribe such Rules, Orders, and Regulations, from time to time, 
as you shall think fit and expedient for the instruction and improve- 
ment of the people, and for the good government of the said Academy 
or School ; &c, &c. . . ." 

In accordance with the instructions contained in the 
warrant, the Master-General issued " Rules and Orders for 
the Royal Academy at Woolwich," 1 and the work of the school 
was actually started at the end of the year in Woolwich 
Warren. The building first occupied was erected in 1719, 
close to a mansion inhabited years before by Prince Rupert, 
the tower of which was still standing. The position of this 
and of other buildings subsequently occupied by the cadets 
are distinctly traceable in the Royal Arsenal of the present 
day. 

From the " Directions for Teaching the Theory and Prac- 
tice " l we find that the "raw and inexperienced people ;y 
quoted in the warrant were chiefly the practitioner engineers, 
officers, non-commissioned officers, and cadets of the Royal 
Regiment of Artillery, who were ordered to attend the lec- 
tures when not on duty. So it is evident that the original 
object of the Academy was not only to prepare cadets for the 
service, but to instruct the ordnance corps generally in mathe- 
matics, engineering, and artillery. 

The course in 1741 was, for the age, eminently sound and 
practical. It is fully set forth in the afore-mentioned 
"Directions," the trouble of perusing which will be well repaid 
by their interesting nature. As only two masters — Mr. John 
Muller and Mr. Derham — were appointed, their work was 
pretty well cut out for them ; but doubtless the " Practice ' 
was chiefly supervised by artillery officers. 

The following account of the working of the Academy and 

1 Vide Appendix XIX. 



A CADET GUNNER OF 1744. 3 

the status of the gentlemen cadets was written by one who 
was a cadet gunner in 1744 l : — 

" His Grace the late John, Duke of Montagu, was Master- 
General of the Ordnance; to him the chief master of the 
Academy reported the first of every month what progress the 
cadets, non-commissioned officers and private men who were 
his pupils made, and in what way they distinguished them- 
selves most; the names of the officers who attended were 
likewise carried to his Grace by the chief master. 

" At this time the Kegiment of Artillery consisted of seven 
companies only, and five cadets to each company. They were 
distinguished by cadet gunners and cadet mattrosses. The 
cadet gunners (of which I was one) had sixteen pence per 
day, and the cadet mattrosses twelve pence per day. The 
cadet gunners, when the companies were formed, took the 
right of the gunners, and the cadet mattrosses the right of 
the mattrosses. 

"They were mustered in the companies to which they 
belonged, and the captain of the company had the sole 
command of them, in like manner with every other part of 
his company. They were treated as officers and gentlemen 
by all officers of the regiment, who frequently had them to 
dine with them when their spare hours from their studies 
permitted. 

" The cadets lodged and boarded at the most creditable 
houses in and near Woolwich, which many of them were able 
to do on their pay. Government was at no other expense, 
except the uniforms that were given the cadets without any 
stoppages being made out of their pay." 

A boy desirous of becoming a cadet had to obtain a 
nomination from the Master-General, in whose hands alone 
lay all appointments to the Academy. If no vacancies 
existed, the candidate could either study at Woolwich as 
a gentleman attendant, or else remain at home until one 
occurred. At this time there were no regulations fixing the 

1 Col. Griffiths Williams' MS. Notes, Rulis an I Others, R. M. A. 1741. 
In R.A. Regimental Library, Woolwich. 



4 EARLY DAYS. 1741—1763. 

age of a cadet. The oldest of whom any trace can be 
found was thirty, and the youngest must have been very 
young indeed, for witness the following incident. When a 
lieutenant-governor was first appointed to the Academy in 
1764. he found that many cadets on the muster-roll had 
never joined from their homes. He wrote and ordered 
them to report at Woolwich forthwith. The answers of 
the parents may be divined by the fact of an Academy 
order appearing shortly afterwards giving permission for 
certain cadets, who were under the age of ten, to remain 
absent until they were twelve years old ! 

In 1744 all the cadets were withdrawn from the 
various artillery companies, and formed into a separate 
unit, entitled " The Company of Gentlemen Cadets." The 
establishment consisted of a captain, three lieutenants, a 
drum-major, and forty cadets, a number increased two 
years later to forty-eight. No barracks were provided as 
yet, and the gentlemen cadets continued to lodge them- 
selves as before, turning up at the Academy only for 
studies and parades. Their discipline was of the slackest, 
for, once away from the Warren, their officers had no 
control over them ; they did what they liked and went 
where they pleased. In Academy matters were but little 
better. The young officers attending lectures turned the 
class room into a bear-garden, and the constant example 
of their disorderly behaviour did great harm to the cadets. 

In 1752 the company was moved into barracks especially 
built for it in the Warren. Henceforward the cadet came 
slightly more under the discipline of the private soldier, 
but was still allowed too much liberty. An officer of the 
company went on duty every week, and practically carried 
out the same kind of work as that of the " Shop " subal- 
tern of the present day. He attended meals and parades, 
inspected the barrack rooms, and saw that the cadets 
were present and safely locked up every night. In addi- 
tion to these duties, he was supposed to stay in the class 
room during lectures. 






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6 EARLY DAY8. 1741—1763. 

During these first twenty- odd years of the Academy's 
existence its organisation as a training ground for cadets 
was very faulty. Besides the obvious disadvantages of 
educating together young officers and schoolboys, the con- 
tinuity of the course was frequently interrupted by sending 
drafts of cadets on foreign service with the artillery! In 
1754, for instance, a party of twelve gentlemen cadets 
embarked with a detachment for the East Indies. The 
cadet company, in fact, practically included those at 
Woolwich, in other parts of Great Britain, and in countries 
across the sea, a palpably undesirable arrangement. 

With regard to commissions in these early days, cadets 
were promoted to the Ordnance Corps as vacancies occurred. 
The final examination, if one was held at all, consisted in 
appearing before a Board of Officers and answering a few 
questions verbally. The Ordnance Corps consisted of the 
artillery and engineers, but at first the latter was a corps 
of Warrant Officers only. Consequently all the commissions 
were given in the artillery. In 1757 the corps of Royal 
Engineers was first formed as a body of commissioned 
officers. For several years afterwards, however, the custom 
still prevailed of all cadets joining the Royal Artillery as 
second lieutenants, and then, after a sufficient service and 
training, being transferred to the Royal Engineers. Not 
until 1761 were cadets promoted direct to vacancies in 
the latter corps. 

But commissions were not confined to the Ordnance 
only. Many, tired of waiting for vacancies in this corps, 
entered the East India Company's service and his 
Majesty's regiments of the line, although the Academy was 
not officially recognised as a source of supply for those 
branches of the Army. W T hether these purchased their 
rank, or whether their course at Woolwich exempted them 
from so doing, is not known. 

But what of the private life ot the cadet of the period, 
and in what fashion was he different to the G.C. of the 
end of the nineteenth century? Let us turn to some 



A CADET OF 1750. 7 

letters — written by Mr. R Sandham, who was at the 
Academy in 1750 — and see. 1 

" I suppose, Mamma, you are desirous of knowing what 
acquaintance I have commenced during the short time I 
have been at Woolwich. I believe I need not inform you 
of the caution that is required in choosing an intimacy 
among a set of young fellows whose most honourable 
epithet is wild. The generality of them bear the worst 
of characters, being ever engaged in riots and drunken 
broils, in one of which a lieutenant of the train was lately 
wounded in the hand, and has lost the use of his middle 
finger; he lodges in the same house with me. 

" I suppose your fears are heightened by this descrip- 
tion of the cadets, but to your comfort I must inform 
you, there are some who most deservedly should be 
excepted from this general character. Amongst these is 
Sir G. Morningham's son (I was recommended to his ac- 
quaintance by Mr. Winnington of Blackheath). He is 
a middle-aged gentleman, that is, near thirty, of a sober, 
sedate aspect, and something resembles Mr. Winnington ; 
a very good scholar, an entertaining and agreeable com- 
panion, endued with a calm and mild temper, and has a 
vast deal of sweetness in his disposition ; in short, he is 
respected by everybody, and I flatter myself to be very 
happy in his acquaintance. He was ready to go to 
the University when he first came to Woolwich, and indeed 
he has more of the clergyman in his appearance than 
the officer, especially as he is in mourning — so much so, 
that when the woman of the house directed me to his 
room, I thought I had disturbed the reverend gentleman 
in his study, and was going to retreat. ... 

" Our situation here is vastly pleasant ; a great many 
delightful views all round us ; from my window I see all 
the ships that go to London, and an extent of land beyond 
the river. The cadets act a play once a month. There 
is a room opposite the Academy in which the Board of 

1 Mr. R. Sandham's letters in the " Records of the R. M. A." 



8 EARLY DAYS. 1741—1763. 

Ordnance sits : this makes an exceedingly good theatre. 
Their scenes, stage, etc. are so contrived to take down or 
erect in half-an-hour's time. They perform The Constant 
Couple, or the Trip to the Jubilee. . . . 

" Since I have been at the Academy I have drawn a 
cannon and a mortar-bed by a scale, and begun a land- 
scape after the mezzotinto manner ; the French master 
has been ill ever since I came, so I have not seen him. 

" I have written all Mr. Mutters Artillery, which is 
forty octavo pages ; I am now constructing the plates 
with Mr. Simpson ; I am in multiplication of fractions. . . . 
As to the French master, / have not seen him these 
two months, but I can read Telemachus with the aid of a 
dictionary. ... 

" I hope my dear mother will not think me extravagant, 
when I inform her I have 2J guineas left of my pocket 
money. I assure her I spent it only on necessaries, viz. coals, 
candles, and tea when any acquaintance visit me. I have 
not been in a tavern since I have been in Woolwich, except 
once, which was on the King's birthday, which I could 
not avoid without being thought particular, or perhaps a 
disaffected person. . . . " 

Sandham's letters, priggish though they be, give us a 
lifelike picture of " The Shop " of those days. " Whose most 
honourable epithet is wild " stamps the G.C. of the period 
as the thoroughgoing young scapegrace he undoubtedly was. 
The roughest kind of practical joking and a fiendish kind 
of bullying were the favourite amusements within barracks ; 
while, outside, mixing as he did with the young officers, 
and taking part in their " riots and drunken broils," he 
naturally got quite out of hand. In short, " The Shop " of 
the early days may be described without hesitation as a 
" small Hell upon earth." 












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CHAPTER II. 

THE PERIOD 1764—1806. 
I.— THE COMPANY OF GENTLEMEN CADETS. 

Lieut. -Colonel James Pattison, Lieutenant-Governor of the Academy, 1764— 
The Right Man in the Right Place— The New Regime— The Company 
Officers— Strength of the Company — Extra and East India Cadets — The 
Establishment at Woolwich and Marlow — The Gentleman Attendant — 
Admission — Age and Period of Residence, Food and Pay — Conduct and 
Discipline — Reminiscences of Colonel Gravatt — Uniform — Cost of the 
Company to the Nation. 

WELL might James Pattison, captain-lieutenant of the 
cadet company for the past five years, have heaved a 
sigh of relief, and squared his shoulders to meet the 
task before him, when he was appointed the first lieutenant- 
governor of the Academy in 1764 : the sigh because, being 
an earnest man, and rising above the mediocrity of his fellows, 
he had longed for the power to grapple with the evils that 
he saw surrounding him on every side ; and with his appoint- 
ment came his opportunity : the squaring of the shoulders 
because he knew the enormous power of the demons of 
idleness, intoxication, bullying, and corruption then ramp- 
ant in the R. M. A., and he meant to defeat them. 

Up to this time the government of the Academy had 
been in the sole care of the Master-General of the Ordnance. 
He acted as captain of the cadet company, and issued all 
orders connected therewith through the officer commanding 
Woolwich Garrison. By the new arrangement the entire 
working of the R. M. A, the discipline of the cadets, and 
the supervision of the masters were placed in the hands 
of " a man on the spot." The supreme control, however, 
was to remain with the Master-General, who was also to 



10 THE PERIOD 1764—1806. 

retain his titles of governor and captain of the cadet 
company; but the lieutenant-governor was given a free 
hand to effect such changes in the regime as experience 
had shown were necessary. 

Besides the creation of this new office, several other 
important steps were taken which placed the organisation 
of the Academy on a much sounder basis. An adequate 
staff' was provided both for purposes of discipline and of 
education; the Academy was reserved for the teaching of 
cadets only, and the latter were no longer sent away on 
command with the various artillery companies. The im- 
portance of the action taken in dispensing with the attend- 
ance at lectures of officers and non-commissioned officers 
cannot be over-rated ; we have before pointed out how 
deleterious was their presence to the conduct of the cadets. 
Through this step the Academy became what it now is — 
an establishment for imbuing a certain number of young 
gentlemen with discipline, and preparing them for com- 
missions in the Artillery and Engineers. 

Lieutenant-Colonel Pattison entered on his new duties 
with great zeal, and his knowledge of the faults of the 
old system was exemplified by the very complete s$t of 
rules and regulations that he shortly produced. He met 
with great opposition on all sides. From the cadets, an 
unruly rabble, unaccustomed to work, and loathing it ; 
and from the masters, unused to any supervision, and no 
better, it is to be feared, than many others in authority 
at that period of English history with regard to the morals 
of bribery and corruption. 

But he stuck to his duty unflinchingly. If he did not 
produce perfection, he at least reduced chaos to order by 
guiding his charge in the direction of the lines on which the 
present institution is run. He lessened, but could not entirely 
banish, intoxication and bullying. 

The establishment and daily pay of the cadet company 
in 1764 was as follows 1 : — 

1 Compiled from a table in the " Record.3 of the R. M. A." 



THE COMPANY OFFICERS. 










£ 


s. 


d. 


1 Captain 1 


1 


6 





1 Captain-Lieutenant 





6 





1 First Lieutenant 





5 





1 Second Lieutenant 





4 





1 Lieutenant Fireworker 





3 


8 


48 Gentlemen Cadets (at 2s. 6d.) 


6 








1 Fife-Major 





1 


4 



11 



Total pay of the company per diem 8 6 

The number of officers on the above establishment re- 
mained unaltered until 1797, when a quartermaster was 
added to the list. Until 1785 the lieutenants belonged to 
other companies of the artillery at Woolwich, and were merely 
attached to the cadet company for duty. In that year this 
system was abolished, and they were appointed direct to the 
latter. In 1790 the Duke of Richmond, then Master-General, 
made an attempt to secure officers to fill these billets per- 
manently ; but the advantages offered were not sufficient to 
compensate for the loss of promotion entailed, and conse- 
. quently the movement met with but partial success. Five 
years later it was ordered that the subalterns should be 
changed annually, it not being deemed advisable for the good 
of the service that an officer should spend the whole of his 
time as a lieutenant in the cadet company. With the excep- 
tion of a few cases, this rule held until the Crimean War. In 
1805 the regimental pay of the lieutenants was supplemented 
by the addition of half-a-crown per diem. 

The number of cadets at the Academy increased periodic- 
ally. In addition, there were a few extra cadets 2 and many 
gentlemen attendants, whose names were not shown on the 
muster - roll of the company, and whose status will be 
described later. The first increase occurred in 1782, 
when, the Royal Regiment of Artillery having been 
augmented from one to five battalions, and the corps of 

1 The Master - General ; but whether he or the captain-lieutenant (who 
pnctically commanded the company) drew the 26s. is uncertain. 
- See page 13. 



12 THE PERIOD 1764—1806. 

engineers from 29 to 75 officers, the establishment of cadets 
was raised to 60. * In 1793 the total was advanced to 90. 2 

In 1798 it was determined that the Royal Military 
Academy should provide officers for the East India Com- 
pany's service as well as for the King's service. The 
cadet company was thereupon increased to 100, 40 of 
whom were for the former and 60 for the latter. This 
total, however, was hardly large enough to meet the 
demand, so it was arranged that a number of young 
gentlemen were to be educated at schools in the neighbour- 
hood of Woolwich, to be ready to fill up the vacancies at 
the Academy as they occurred. 

These "extra cadets," as they were called, had to pass 
the same entrance-examination as the ordinary cadets: 
they were borne on the muster-roll of the company ; and 
their education was carried on under the supervision of 
the inspector of studies. The paymaster of the Academy 
drew their pay, and made all settlements with the school- 
master, who, for the sum of 2s. daily, provided them with 
everything except clothes, which were supplied by the 
parents, as a uniform was not worn. Two years later this 
sum was increased to 2s. 6d., and in no case was the 
master allowed to make out a bill, or charge of any sort, 
against the extra cadets' parents. 

The system thus instituted worked well; the vacancies 
at the Academy were filled by cadets already grounded in 
the subjects they would have to tackle there ; and although 
there was a certain amount of friction between those 
intended for the two services, it did not interfere in any 
way with the course of study. Cadets who joined for the 
East India Company could not compete for commissions 
with those who joined for the King's service, and vice- 
versa. 

The number of extra cadets in the first few years is 
uncertain, but in 1803 they were all transferred in a body 
to the Royal Military College at Great Marlow, Bucking- 

V 2 Report of Colonel Yolland's Commission. 



GENTLEMEN ATTENDANTS. 13 

harashire. The establishment and distribution of the cadet 
company was then fixed as follows: — 











1803. 


For King's 
Service. 


For 
E.I.C.S. 


Total. 


At R. 


M. 


A, 


Woolwich ... . 


.. 60 .. 


. 40 .. 


. 100 


At R. 


M. 


c, 


Gt. 


Marlow 
Total . 


.. 60 .. 


. 20 .. 


. 80 




.. 120 .. 


. 60 .. 


. 180 



The whilom extra cadets were now all full-blown cadets, 
but the rank was not altogether abolished, for a few were 
still educated at private schools, their numbers being 
additional to the above table. 1 

So, summarising, we have in 1803 the following chain 
of supply: — The Academy filling vacant commissions in the 
King's and East India Company's services ; the college fill- 
ing vacancies at the Academy ; extra cadets filling vacancies 
at the college ; and schoolboys filling vacancies among the 
extra cadets. 

Up to the year 1797 a number of gentlemen attendants 
studied for commissions at the Academy. They received 
no pay, were not shown on the actual muster-roll of the 
company, and provided their own quarters, food, and 
uniform. Each paid a fee of thirty guineas per annum, 
which was divided up among the masters. They were 
particularly noted for the badness of their discipline, where 
all were bad ; and there can be no doubt that they were 
a great factor in the unruliness of the cadets. 

We have already seen (on p. 11) that a few extra 
cadets existed at the Academy between 1764 and 1797. 
These must not be confused with the extra cadets created 
in 1798. The former neither paid fees nor received pay; 
they were not borne on the muster-roll of the company, 
nor were quarters found for them. They simply studied 
under the masters of the Academy until there was a 
vacancy in the cadets' ranks. They were as great a nui- 

1 Colonel Yoiland's Report. 



14 THE PERIOD 1764—1806. 

w sance as the gentlemen attendants, and their existence 

ceased at the same time. Both were, however, popular 
with the masters, forming as they did a welcome private 
increase to a somewhat meagre official pay. 

For the first ten years of this period the system still 
held of granting boys admission to the Academy merely 
on the nomination of the Master-General, and with no pre- 
liminary examination. As has before been mentioned, 
several cases occurred of cadets joining with practically no 
previous education. They occupied a great deal of the 
masters' time in learning what they should already have 
known, and often a considerable period elapsed before they 
were capable of grappling with the military subjects in 
the course. Consequently the Academy ran the risk of 

III becoming a mere scholastic establishment for children; but 

in 1774 the Master-General approved of an entrance 
examination on the strong recommendation of Colonel 
Pattison. The subjects in which it was necessary to 
qualify were simply " the lirst four rules of arithmetic, 
with a competent knowledge of the rule of three," and 
the elements of Latin grammar. Not a very formidable 
list when looked at in the light of these days, but it was 

lfj not every officer in his Majesty's army of 1774 that could 

multiply and divide successfully ! 

The examination itself was held before a Board, which 
generally consisted of the lieutenant-governor or some 
officer appointed by him, the inspector, and one or two of 

*■ the masters. There were no fixed dates, the Board assem- 

bling whenever the Master-General thought tit to nominate 
a candidate for a cadetship. The latter paid no entrance- 
fee except, on passing the test satisfactorily, the sum of 
thirty shillings for the Master-General's Warrant appointing 
him " one of the company of gentlemen cadets." 

In 1764 the youngest age at admission was fixed at 
twelve years, but no limit was placed in the other direc- 
tion. Rare cases did occur of cadets joining who were 
over twenty-five, but as a rule the age of seventeen or 



I) 



THE CADETS LIFE IN THOSE DAYS. 15 

eighteen was seldom exceeded. About 1782 the Master- 
General increased the minimum to fourteen years; but 
the rule was elastic, and chiefly observed in the breach 
thereof. 

As for the period of residence at the Academy, any 
time, from one month to five years, was allowable. In 
time of peace it went up, and in time of war it went down. 
As the years wore on the final examinations became 
slightly more difficult; not, perhaps, in themselves, but 
through increased competition among the cadets. A cer- 
tain length of stay became necessary to learn those sub- 
jects proficiency in which was requisite to gaining a 
commission. The minimum period of residence thus 
practically, though unsatisfactorily, settled itself. 

The cadets were still quartered in the barracks in the 
Warren. Only two class-rooms existed until 1782, when, 
on the augmentation of the company, a third was pro- 
vided. All meals were taken in the hall, the officer on 
duty attending to preserve order in the manner of the 
present day. 

The number occupying a bedroom varied from one to 
seven or eight; and there were two occupants to every 
bed until 1766, when a " new set of iron, single, turn-up 
bedsteads" were provided. The staff of servants consisted 
merely of three men and two housemaids. There were 
no recreation rooms of any sort or form. 

The diet of the company was looked after by a house- 
keeper, who was generally the widow of an officer. The 
food was of the plainest description, and required the 
good, healthy appetite of youth. Breakfast was at 7.30, 
dinner at one, and supper at 7.30 p.m. The composition 
of the various meals was as follows : — " Breakfast : bread 
and milk, milk-porridge, or water-gruel. Dinner : Sundays, 
roast veal, with potatoes or greens; Mondays, roast legs 
of mutton and potatoes; Tuesdays, shoulders of mutton 
and apple pies ; Wednesdays, buttocks of beef and greens ; 
Thursdays, roast legs of mutton, with salads and pickles; 



16 THE PERIOD 1764—1806. 

Fridays, boiled legs of mutton, with greens; Saturdays, 
roast beef, with greens or potatoes. Every other Saturday, 
roast pork when in season, and on those weeks when pork 
is given, the Sunday dinner to be roast beef. In summer, 
roast lamb, with fruit pies once a week, sometimes beans 
and peas; and every Michaelmas roast geese and apple 
pies. For Supper, bread and cheese five nights, and bread 
and butter two nights, or cold meat when left at dinner." l 

The last proviso savours of sarcasm ; considering the 
absence of puddings, there was probably a heavy run on 
the meat at dinner. Even the treat of an apple pie was 
denied the cadets in 179(3, for we find that in January, 
il the inhabitants of Woolwich having signed an agreement 
to leave off pastry during the high price of flour, the lieu- 
tenant-governor dispensed with the company being supplied 
with pies or puddings made of flour. . . . But he recom- 
mended Mrs. Roskruge," the housekeeper, " to substitute 
rice puddings for them* on Tuesdays." 

The half-crown per diem which the cadet received was 
distributed in the following manner : — To the housekeeper, 
for his food, he paid one shilling a day; and to the pay- 
master, for clothing, 6d. a day. The surgeon received 8d. 
a month, and the servants 2s. After deducting other 
incidental expenses (including a fee of four guineas per 
annum for dancing lessons), he was left with between 
7 id. and 8d. a day for providing himself with luxuries. 
The Government supplied him with his uniform, but any 
damage thereto had to be made good out of his own pocket. 

Besides his pay, the cadet received a certain " official " 
allowance for pocket-money. This was paid to him by 
the authorities, and afterwards recovered from his parents 
or guardian. Those in the lower Academy were allowed 
one shilling, in the second one shilling-and-sixpence, and 
in the upper two shillings a week This, of course, did 
not limit the private allowance which the cadet received 
from his home, and from time to time the lieutenant- 

1 " Records of the R. M. A." 



CONDUCT AND PUNISHMENTS. 17 

governor felt it his duty to protest to the parents against 
the giving of too large amounts, as being likely to lead 
the recipients into extravagance and consequent trouble. 

There can be no doubt that the conduct and discipline 
of the cadets left much to be desired ; and the causes of 
this state of affairs are not far to seek. The great dis- 
crepancy in the ages, the absence of any internal arrange^ 
ment for amusement, and the situation of the barracks 
in the heart of the worst portion of the town, were all 
subversive of good conduct. (As early as 1750 we find, in 
a letter lrom a cadet to his parents, the expression, " the 
dirty town of Woolwich.") The general tendency of the 
age, too, in the matter of drink, was against the chances 
of any young fellow, straight from school or the quiet of 
a country home, leading an orderly and sober life. Allowed 
(until 1797) to dine at the officers' mess whenever invited, 
he had the intemperate conduct of his seniors often before 
him. Excess in liquor was not considered disgraceful then; 
it was merely a customary proceeding, if not an example to 
be emulated. 

There were many ways of dealing with breaches of 
discipline, and corporal punishment was by no means un- 
common. Confinement to a dark cell on a bread-and-water 
diet, degradation to a lower Academy, dismissal with dis- 
grace, and temporary suspension, were among the more 
stringent sentences ; while for the minor cases were reserved 
arrest, confinement to the green, extra drills, and mounting 
sentry over the lieutenant-governor's quarters. 

But in spite of the severity of the punishments, the 
tone of the company remained in a very low state during 
the whole period in which the Academy remained in the 
Warren. Perhaps a great deal of the blame may be 
attributed to the custom which prevailed of allowing an 
oftender to apologise for the commission of some grave 
fault, and thus to escape the consequencea Many even 
avoided expulsion by this means, although, of course, 
there were numerous cases in which an apology was not 
c 



18 THE PERIOD 1764—1806. 

accepted. These were chiefly when the honour of the 
delinquent was affected, a hard-and-fast line being drawn 
between a boyish escapade and a dishonourable action. 

A great number of cadets were by no means pleased 
at being sent to the Academy. They would have preferred 
to stay at home until their parents could obtain com- 
missions for them in the line by purchase or interest. 
" What a saving of labour that would be ! " thought these 
hopeful ones. " Why not have a good, exciting time here, 
and get expelled? The pater will then have to buy us 
our commissions ! " And they did ; for at one time no 
regulation existed which prevented a dismissed cadet from 
becoming an officer in his Majesty's army. This defect, 
however, was remedied early in the eighties, and a stop 
put to the afore-mentioried little subterfuge. 

Certain cadets in the upper Academy were selected for 
the post of corporal, but the possession of this rank was 
not indispensable to gaining a commission until 1797. This, 
again, was injurious to discipline, many of the corporals 
abusing the powers conferred on them by the most atrocious 
bullying. If detected, they were reduced ; but what did 
that matter ? — their chances of a commission were not 
affected. Again, as it was open to the ordinary gentleman 
cadet to beat the corporals in the competition lor the top 
places in the upper Academy, the latter would combine 
together and hold a mock court-martial on the wretched 
youth who dared to work too hard. By this means they 
could ensure the retention of their seniority in the class 
by checking the diligence of their juniors. A premium on 
idleness was created, and the standard of the qualifications 
for a commission very much reduced. In these early days, 
too, the masters were not over-inclined to hard work, and 
did not trouble greatly to ascertain the cause of the slow 
progress of their pupils. In spite of the bullying to which 
they were subjected, the cadets held to the corporals, and 
consequently the inspector had the greatest difficulty in 
dealing with the evil* 



REMINISCENCES OF 1783. 19 

The following is an extract from a letter written, in 1845, 
by Colonel William Gravatt, RE., who joined the Academy 
as a gentleman cadet about 1783. For the two years 
previous to this he had been studying at a private school 
with a view to entering the Royal Navy, for, as he says in 
the first part of his letter, " all my ideas were pointed to 
the sea." 

He continues, " Thus my mind was thoroughly convinced 
that a sodger officer was little short of a pusillanimous 
creature ; and a clean pipe-clay sodger, soaped and tloured, 

the dirtiest animal in nature The Duke (of 

Richmond), remembering the esteem he entertained for 
my father, placed my name (without reference to my 
mother, or paying the least regard to my contempt for the 
army) on the books of the Academy, which, be it remem- 
bered, gave me £45 per annum when not twelve, and in 
spite of his recent regulation that no boy should be ad- 
mitted under full fourteen. But things were oddly managed 
in those days — especially before the Duke became Master- 
General. Conceive, for instance, the cadets being lodged in 
Woolwich Town l — at tailors' and shopkeepers' ; the elder 
ones, as I have heard, wearing swords, and being eternally 
in serious quarrels with the dockyard men, carrying on a 
sort of town and gown warfare. But this was just, and 
only just, before my time. At the tailor's who made the 
clothing had lodged a respectable physician and a lew of 
the best- conducted cadets, and my friend before mentioned 
hoped to get me placed there, but found it unnecessary, 
as, in the Warren (Arsenal), barracks were opened for the 
company. 

" This was on a Sunday. Think, then, what I suffered 
on Monday to find myself not only enlisted, but that also 
I should be obliged to have my front hair soaped -up, 

1 This must have been considerably before Colonel Gravatt's time, as the 
cadets were put in barracks in 1752. Perhaps some of them may have lodged 
outside from want of room, or possibly he may be referring to the gentlemen 
attendants. 



20 THE PERIOD 1764—1806. 

powdered, to wear a pig- tail, and to be incessantly annoyed 
by dock boys calling ' Little sodger, where's your sword ? * 
or, ' My cat wears a long tail, and she cries " inew ! " ' 
Yet, such was my vanity, that when I saw some of the 
elder cadets in laced clothes, especially one little fellow 
named Hadden, so decorated, I thought he was a king, 
and I hoped in time to be as fine as — General Hadden. 
But this was not to be. This finery ceased by order of 
the Duke; but, as the half-year's clothing had been just 
delivered out, it was permitted to be worn out. 

" There were 64 cadets, eight of whom were corporals and 
had an epaulette on the right shoulder, and wore a sword 
on Sundays and all grand occasions, such as reviews, etc. 
All the cadets, after being dressed alike, whether of 
the first or second Academies (there were but two rooms l ), 
and being out of the awkward squad, were reviewed with 
the Regiment, forming the right-hand company. Especially 
proud we were of our marching and manoeuvres. For my- 
self, the firelocks being too heavy, I was permitted the 
use of a beautiful fusil adopted at the maritime school. . . . 

" I was on the sick list altogether nearly three years, 
but I should explain that in the spring and autumn I was 
sent home for months with ague. This arose, had it been 
done in. malice, from what might be called a diabolical 
trick ; but though done in good - humour I never quite 
recovered the shock on my constitution, and a fellow 
sufferer fell a victim to the fun. Cline, the celebrated 
surgeon, said I must have had a constitution not of iron 
but of steel; but I have never mentioned particulars lest 
the fun might be repeated." 

Colonel Gravatt must have been a victim of one of 
the severe practical jokes in vogue at the time. Though 
it would be interesting to know the precise nature of the 
trick, the writer does not enter into details. With reference 
to his statement that he was on the "sick list" for three 
years, Colonel Gravatt meant, of course, that he was suffering 

1 A third was added in 1783. 



UNIFORM. 21 

from the effects of the "fun" (?) for that period, and 
not that he was actually incapacitated from doing any 
work at all. 

The plates showing the types of dress worn at the 
Academy are reproduced from those in the "Records of 
the R. M. A.," by the kind permission of Mr. Cattermole. 
The drawings were made originally by Colonel Gravatt, 
w r ho, in the same letter from which we have already quoted, 
thus describes them : l 

" I now draw your attention to my tailor's figures. 

II. 1. "A young cadet of the second Academy in 1783. 

II. 2. "Cadets in flannel gowns queuing each other and 
dressing for parade, whether of first or second Academies — 
the gowns called banyans. The two frustrums of cones hanging 
against the wall was an invention of the late Colonel West, 
R.A., to save hair-powder, of which it took at least half- 
a-pound to form a handsome queue, placed with pomatum 
in the back hair. To economise, West cast false thickenings 
or queues of lead, covered with leather ; and the joke was, 
if the cadet to be queued was in haste for parade, or going 
to dine or drink tea with a party, to place the leaden queue 
the thick end downwards ! 

II. 3. " Corporals as on my first entrance (viz. 1782) : one 
figure (drawn from Sir Richard Fletcher) to show the 
sword and black waistbelt; the other in the pulpit, prob- 
ably carving his name, to show the gold-laced hat and 
epaulette. The pulpit was placed in the second Academy. 
The cadets of the first Academy had no second or frock 
dress at this time ; those who were not corporals wore the 
laced hat and dress, but no sword or epaulette. The hilt 
of the sword was a little curved to suit the hand ; grooved, 
and the groove had a twisted gold wire inserted. The 
sword-knot was gold and crimson ; the blade was a straight 
cut-and-thrust ; scabbard, black leather. 

"The upper cadets, whilst their gold-laced uniform 

1 The numbers refer to the plates and figures in this volume. 



22 THE PERIOD 1764-1806. 

lasted, 1 wore a gold-laced cocked hat (see the pulpit figure, 
Fig. 3), the younger cadets a plain cocked hat (Fig. 4), and 
at length all wore a plain cocked hat; but, as we were 
required to salute or tip all artillery officers, the cock of 
the hat became worn out, and was like a boltsprit without 
a jib-boom. However, we did our best to take off the hat 
gracefully, and we had no feather." 

Up to 1783, then, the cadets in the two Academies were 
not dressed alike, those in the lower Academy receiving 
the frock-suit only. The first Academy wore the full dress 
(laced), the corporals being further distinguished by an 
epaulette on the right shoulder, and a sword. On the 
augmentation of the establishment at the end of 1782, 
when three Academies were started instead of two, it was 
deemed unwise, on account of the expense, to have a different 
uniform for each, and so the whole of the cadets were 
dressed alike. The uniform then adopted was much the 
same as that shown in Fig. 4. The gold-lacing on the hats 
and coats was abolished, and the dress consisted of a plain 
cocked hat, a blue frock with red collar and cuffs, a buff- 
coloured waistcoat, with a black stock and lace ruffles, 
with knee-breeches and stockings and shoes. The corporals 
still retained the epaulette on the right shoulder. 

In 1795 a round hat, with a rose cockade on the right 
side, took the place of the cocked hat, and in 1797 dark blue 
pantaloons were issued for use on week-days, with spatt shoes. 
The white breeches were then ordered to be worn only on 
Sundays, or at balls or other similar occasions. In summer 
the cloth waistcoats were replaced by ones that could be 
washed. This type of uniform held until 1807, when, as will 
be seen in the next chapter, it was slightly altered. 

The Ordnance cadets at the Royal Military College at 
Great Marlow r wore the same uniform as the other cadets 
there, and had to change it when they came to Woolwich.' 
The practice of queuing and powdering the hair existed up to 
1800. It was then discontinued, and the hair cut quite short. 
1 To the end of 1782. 



A CADET OF THE 2nd ACADEMY, 1783, CADETS DRESSING FOR PARADE 17B3 



I 






MALA. 17H3. CO*K>a*U 1790. 

DRESS IN 1783. 

'ftrr.Wft tf ih* ft, V A ir ) 



THE "SHOP" STAFF. 23 

As will be gathered from the foregoing portions of this 
part of the second chapter, the Royal Military Academy was 
in no sense a self-supporting institution. The Government 
paid the cadets and the military and civil staffs, and received 
nothing in return. The system obtained during the whole 
of this period. 

The first annual vote for the Academy was £1,000, and 
this was considered sufficient until 1771, when it was raised 
to £1,364. From that date, however, it increased year by 
year, until, in 1806, it reached £4,143 18s. Id. 1 



II.— THE EDUCATIONAL COURSE. 

The Staff— Pay of the Masters— The Course, 1764— Books, etc.— Difficulties of 
the First Lieutenant-Governor — The Inspector, and Improvements Effected 
by Him — Course, 1772 — Resistance by the Masters — Changes. 2 

In glancing through the lists of the staff, one cannot help 
being struck by the very long time that some of the instruc- 
tors filled their billets. Professor P. Barlow (mathematics) 
heads the list with regard to length of service with forty- 
one years, although he is run very close for first honours 
by the thirty-nine years of Doctor Bonnycastle (mathematics) 
and the thirty-eight of Mons. I. Landmann (fortification). 
The Rev. W. Green, Doctor O. Gregory, and Professor Hutton, 
with thirty -five, thirty -five, and thirty -four respectively, 
closely compete for the fourth place ; and there were many 
others who served over twenty years. Among the lieutenant- 
governors, too, until 1840, it was an exception to stay for less 
than ten years. It will be seen that they have always been 
chosen alternately from the artillery and the engineers 
Lieu tenant G. W. Phipps, R.E., filled the post of inspector for 
thirty-six years ! 

1 Col. Yolland's Keport, 1857. 

2 The establishments of the Royal Military Academy for the years 1764, 
1776, 1796, 1798, and 1802, will be found in Appendix XX.; and the names 
of the various professors and masters from 1741 to 1900 in Appendires VIII. 
to XVIII. 



24 THE PERIOD 1764—1806. 

The teaching of fortification and artillery was com- 
bined (until 1821) under one staff'; hence the names of 
several professors occur in both lists. The Mons. Landmann 
whom we have just referred to was a French gentleman 
of great ability. Previous to his appointment to the 
Academy, he had held the position of professor of forti- 
fication and artillery at the Ecole Royale Militaire in 
Paris. It will be seen that he had two compatriots as 
assistants at different times, and also Herr Bluinenheben, 
a German officer of engineers. 

The professors and masters were not entirely depend- 
ent on their pay in 1764. To begin with, many of them 
were employed in teaching at private schools, or in run- 
ning similar establishments of their own in the neighbour- 
hood of Woolwich, Then they received, as we have already 
seen, a certain amount of money from the gentlemen 
attendants. A large number of cadets also paid them fees 
for private tuition out of Academy hours. 

From time to time the salaries of the staff' were 
raised, so as to render their billets more valuable, and 
thus cause them to make stronger efforts to retain them. 
In 1797 gentlemen attendants were abolished and private 
tuition 1 stopped ; and, in consequence, a fresh and satis- 
factory addition to the official pay of the masters was 
made. In the following year the system of paying the 
whole educational establishment of the Academy was 
altered, with the exception of the lieutenant-governor. 
Each member of the staff was to receive a certain fixed 
annual salary, in addition to which he was paid so much 
for each attendance, according to the length of his service 
at the Academy. 

When Lieutenant-Colonel Pattison was appointed as the 
first lieutenant-governor in 1764, new regulations were 
issued for the conduct of the studies. The cadets were at 
first divided into four classes for each subject, the fourth 

1 But the masters were still allowed to give lessons to candidates for the 
R. M. A. and others. 



THE LOWER ACADEMY STARTED. 25 

class being the highest; but two years later it was deemed 
advisable to start a lower school in addition to the exist- 
ing one. This was due to the extremely ignorant condi- 
tion in which many of the cadets, admitted solely on the 
nomination of the Master-General and without any entrance 
examination, joined the Academy. 

The R. M. A. was now divided into two Academies, the 
upper and lower. In the latter no military subjects, ex- 
cepting drills and exercises, were taught, but a thorough 
grounding was imparted in the elements of mathematics, 
drawing, Latin, and French, When the cadet could satisfy 
his masters that he had grasped the foregoing, and ccyld 
write freely and well, he was then promoted to the upper 
Academy. We will merely give a brief outline of the 
course for the latter, as it was altered in 1772. 

Extracts from the "Rules and Orders for the Royal Military Academy 
at Woolwich" showing the nature of the course of studies during the 
years 1764-1771. 1 

" 4. The Academy hours from 9 a.m. to mid-day ; and from 3 p,m. 
to 6 p.m. 

"6. The Professor of Fortification and Artillery shall teach prac- 
tical geometry and mathematics, particularly applied to the raising 
and transporting heavy weights, the arts of surveying and levelling, 
with their application to the conveying of water or draining morasses. 

" 7. He shall teach the science of fortification in all its parts, with 
the manner of attacking and defending places, as likewise the use, 
conduct, and direction of mines. 

" 8. He shall teach the rudiments of military architecture, particu- 
larly the method of making plans, elevations, and sections of powder 
magazines, guard rooms, barracks, storehouses, and other buildings that 
may be necessary in fortified towns. 

"9. He shall teach the theory of artillery, viz., the doctrine of 
projectiles, so as to apply the same to gunnery, the principles on 
which the several pieces of ordnance and their carriages are con- 
structed, and the method of forming exact draughts of the same, 
according to the tables used by the ofl}ce of ordnance ; likewise the 
names, uses, and dimensions of all other engines and implements of 
war. 

"11. The Professor of Mathematics shall teach the principles of 
1 " Records of the R. M. A." 



26 THE PERIOD 1764—1806. 

arithmetic, algebra, the elements of geometry, the mensuration of 
superficies and solids, plane trigonometry, the elements of conic 
sections, and the theory of perspective, as also geography and the use 
of the globes. 

"13. The Drawing Master shall teach the method of sketching 
ground, the taking of views, the drawing of civil architecture, and the 
practice of perspective. 

"14. The Writing Master shall perfect the gentlemen cadets 
in writing, and qualify them in arithmetic as far as the rule of 
three. 

" 18. That the professors and masters take care that their pupils do 
fairly transcribe in books, or preserve in portfolios, such parts of their 
performances as may be necessary, from time to time, to show the 
proficiency they have made in their different studies. 

"23. The gentlemen cadets shall be conducted at the stated hours 
to the Academy by their proper officer, and delivered over to the care 
of the professor or master on duty. . . . 

"24. The cadets to be divided into four classes under each pro- 
fessor or master, and to take their seats in the Academy accordingly. 

" 27. There shall be annually a general examination of the gentle- 
men cadets, made in the presence of the Master-General, or principal 
officers of the ordnance, or any three of them, on the 1st March 
(unless it should fall on a Sunday, and then to be on the day follow- 
ing), when prizes of honour will be given to those who shall then 
distinguish themselves by the proficiency they have made in their 
studies." 

The difficulty of teaching in these early days was 
greater than at present, owing to the scarcity of printed 
books of instruction. The cadets themselves had none to 
guide them in military subjects, and could only learn by 
copying the masters' MSS. and drawings, making notes from 
their lectures, and carefully acquiring by memory the prac- 
tical part of the sciences. In mathematics there was con- 
siderable improvement in this respect, as several treatises 
existed on the various branches. Latin and French books, 
grammars and dictionaries were fairly abundant. 

A certain weekly allowance of paper and quill pens 
was made to the cadets, which, with their drawings and 
manuscripts, they kept locked up in their desks in the 
Academies. Any additional amount required was made 
good out of their own pockets. While on this subject, it 



AN INSPECTOR APPOINTED. 27 

may be noted, that the work was often greatly hindered 
by the almost universal habit, among the elder cadets, 
of "smouching" the writing materials of the younger ones. 
To " smouch " was to " appropriate by force, or otherwise " ; 
practically, it was a theft, although, of course, it did not 
rank as such in the gentlemen cadets' code of honour ! 

As was remarked in the first part of this chapter, the 
newly created lieutenant-governor had a very formidable 
task in the reorganisation of the Academy, The conduct 
of the masters was the chief difficulty he had to overcome. 
Previous to 1764 they had practically been answerable to 
no one for the proper performance of their work, and 
they seem to have allowed their private pursuits to 
interfere greatly with their public duties. They were un- 
punctual in their attendance, and often a room full of 
turbulent cadets and rowdy young officers would be wait- 
ing for half an hour before they arrived to deliver their 
lectures. In view of the fact that promotion from class 
to class depended on the opinion of the masters only, the 
system of allowing them to receive fees for private tuition 
from the cadets opened the way to the showing of much 
favouritism. This evil was still further increased by the 
existing custom of receiving presents, either in money or 
kind, from the latters' parents. 

Colonel Pattison did his utmost to cope with these 
difficulties ; but, in the absence of any assistance, he 
apparently did not make any great headway in the matter 
of the masters, although he considerably improved the 
discipline of the cadets themselves. In 1772, however, he 
received a valuable addition to his staff in the appoint- 
ment of an inspector of the Royal Military Academy. 
This official — whom we find referred to on several occasions 
as the " inspector of studies " — was charged with the duty 
of supervising the course of education by seeing that the 
work of the Academies was conducted in an orderly and 
efficient manner, and in accordance with the regulations. 

Captain George Smith was the first officer to hold the 



28 THE PERIOD 1764-1806. 

appointment, the beneficial results of which were not long 
in becoming apparent. Before two months had elapsed the 
lieutenant-governor made the following alterations, at his 
suggestion :-^ 

1. The upper and lower Academies to be each divided 
into four distinct classes, and the qualification and course 
for each class definitely laid down. 

2. A cadet's promotion from the lower to the upper 
Academy to be conditional to his passing an examination 
held in the presence of the inspector. 

3. Lists of the classes, showing the seniority of the 
cadets, to be hung up in each Academy. 

4. The masters to render monthly reports showing the 
progress of their pupils. 

5. The masters to give more individual attention to the 
cadets. 

THE COURSE OF INSTRUCTION, 1 1772. 

Lower Academy. 

First Class? 

Mathematics. . The Elements of Arithmetic. 
Classics . . . Latin Grammar and Cordory. 
Drawing . . . Simple and Easy Drawings in Black-lead. 
French .... Boyer's Grammar, and Abrege de VHistoire de 
L Angleterre, par demande et r^ponse. 

Seco?id Class. 

Mathematics. . The Elements of Arithmetic applied to practice. 
Classics . . . Phaedrus, Erasmus, Ovid's Epistles, and Nepos. 
Drawing . . . Easy but instructive Drawings in Indian Ink. 
French. . . . Louis XIV., par Voltaire ; Revolutions de Portugal, 
par Vertet. 

Third Class. 

Mathematics. . Vulgar and Decimal Fractions, with extraction of 

Square and Cube Roots. 
Classics . . . Ovid's Metamorphoses and Caesar's Commentaries, 

Virgil and Sallust. 
Drawing . . . Landscapes and Military Embellishments. 
French .... Memoires du Marquis de Fenehieres, et Gil Bias. 

1 Compiled from a table in the " Records of the R. M. A." 

2 The lowest class in the R. M. A. 



THE COURSE IN 1772. 



29 



Fourth Class. 

Mathematics. . The Principles of Algebra, as far as Quadratic 

Equations. 
Classics . . . Horace and Cicero. 
Drawing . . . Theory and Practice of Perspective. 
French .... Travels of Cyrus and Belisarius, by Marmontel 

to be translated into French. 



The Upper Academy. 
First Class. 1 

The Elements of Fortification regularly explained. 
The Elements of Euclid. 
Landscapes in Indian Ink. 

Second Class. 

The Attack and Defence of Fortifications, Practical 
Geometry, and the Art of Surveying. 

Trigonometry applied to Fortification, and the 
Mensuration of Superficies and Solids. 

Large and more difficult Landscapes, coloured. 

Third Class. 

The Theory of Artillery, with the Construction of 
its Carriages, and the principles on which all 
pieces of ordnance are constructed according 
to the tables used in the Office of Ordnance. 

Conic Sections. Mechanics applied to the raising 
and transporting heavy bodies, together with 
the use of the lever, pulley, wheel, wedge 
and screw, &c. 

Landscapes, coloured from Nature. 

Fourth Class. 2 

Fortification 3 . The Theory of Mining, together with the use and 

construction of Fougasses. 
Mathematics. . The Laws of Motion and Resistance, Projectiles, 

and Fluxions. 
Drawing . . . Perspective applied to Buildings, Fortifications, <kc. 

One day in each week ought to be fixed by the Professor of 
Fortification and Artillery to read lectures in that science, assisted 
by the model ; likewise, one day per week for the Professor of Mathe- 
matics to teach the use of the globes, both scientifically and historically.. 

1 The lowest class in the Upper Academy. 

2 The highest class in the R. M. A. 

3 The practical parts of these sciences depends upon such days 

as the lieutenant-governor may think proper to order. 



Fortification 3 
Mathematics. 
Drawing . . 



Fortification 3 
Mathematics. , 
Drawing . . 



Artillery 3 



Mathematics. 



Drawing . 



30 THE PERIOD 1764—1806. 

As will be seen from the foregoing table, neither 
classics nor French were taught in the upper Academy. 
The omission of the latter, considering the relations be- 
tween France and Great Britain at the time, is incompre- 
hensible. 

The clearly defined course for each class which we have 
just given was the work of Captain Smith. The advent of 
a mad dog could scarcely have created more consternation 
than did his arrival among the little coterie of easy-going 
masters. And their worst prognostications were fulfilled ! 
First came the order for the qualifying examination for 
admission to the upper Academy — they must show no 
favouritism and be fair, with its attendant disadvantages ! 
Then came reports from the inspector to the governor re 
their lateness or absence — they must be punctual. Lastly 
came the monthly reports and the " individual attention " 
— crowning blow of all, they must work ! 

As was to be expected, their opposition to the new in- 
spector was great. One professor, indeed, went so far as 
to lock him out of the class-room. But the governor 
strongly backed up his subordinate ; and finally, finding 
personal exhortation of no avail, he brought one of the 
offenders before the Board of Ordnance, who issued a severe 
reprimand, accompanied by a caution as to future conduct. 
After this, affairs quieted down a little ; but for many years 
there was a certain amount of skilful obstruction offered to 
the inspector in the performance of his duties. 1 

In 1774 the standard of education at the Academy 
received some slight advancement by the establishment of 
an entrance examination. 2 In 1776 geography (included 
in the course in 1764, but omitted in 1772) was added to 
the list of subjects taught by the mathematics staff, and, 
in 1777, Latin was temporarily suspended. This year saw 
the appointment of Lieutenant Colonel James Bramham, 
R.E., as lieutenant-governor; and also the beginning of 

1 See extract from Colonel Gravatt's letter, page 34. 

2 Vide page 14. 



A THIRD ACADEMY FORMED. 31 

M. Landmann s long career as professor of fortification and 
artillery, vice Dr. Pollock, pensioned 

In 1782 the cadet company was augmented from 48 to 
60, and the R. M. A. was divided, for purposes of study, into 
the upper, 1 second, and lower academies. As far as can 
be ascertained from existing records, the same rules were 
carried out as heretofore in dividing each Academy into 
four classes, and in holding examinations for promotion 
from lower to second and second to upper. A dancing- 
master was also added this year to the establishment, and 
in 1788 a lecturer on chemistry was appointed. 

In 1800 a limit was placed, in consequence of the 
numerous failures, on the number of times a cadet could 
attempt to pass the qualifying examination for Academy 
promotion. The lieutenant - governor ordered that a cadet 
was to be allowed three trials ; if he failed, he was sent 
back to work for two months longer, when he was again 
permitted to make three attempts. On failing again, his 
removal from the Academy was recommended. 

With the exception of the introduction of chemistry, 
there were few changes of importance in the course after 
1772. The syllabus for that date was, of course, revised 
to suit the organisation of the three Academies instituted 
in '82, and from year to year the fortification and artillery 
courses were brought up to date. According to a list 2 
issued by the lieutenant - governor in 1792, the former 
then included the first, second, and third systems of M. De 
Vauban, and those of M. Coehorn and M. de Cormontaigne. 
Also the " Estimating of revetments, ramparts, ditches, 
batardeaux, powder magazines, turned and groined arches, 
etc., all done in a fair note-book, containing calculations, 
plans, etc." An elaborately drawn set of 68 plates had also 
to be completed. Mons. Landmann's manuscripts and plates 
formed the chief guide in fortification. 

The artillery course chiefly consisted of the construction 

1 Often called the "First Academy." 
, 2 In the Report of Colonel Yolland's Commission. 



32 THE PERIOD 1764-1806. 

of guns and carriages, their dimensions, the weight of shot, 
etc. Both in this subject and in fortification, however, 
there was a fair amount of sound, practical outdoor work. 



III.— FINAL EXAMINATIONS AND COMMISSIONS. 

Public Examinations — Ages of Cadets obtaining Commissions — Commissions 
during the Peace of 1783-93— An Excess of Commissions, its Evil Effects, 
and the Remedies Adopted. 

Public examinations, instituted in 1764, were held annually 
in the hall of the cadet barracks before a Board usually con- 
sisting of two or three generals, several field-officers, and the 
lieutenant - governor. The cadets who most distinguished 
themselves were nominated to commissions in the ordnance 
corps, according to the number of existing vacancies. 

As a rule, there were very few officers required by the 
engineers, and anyone particularly desirous of serving in that 
corps was allowed to remain at the R. M. A. until a vacancy 
occurred. Nor were there over-many commissions in the 
artillery, especially in times of peace ; and every year several 
gentlemen cadets were promoted to ensigncies in regiments of 
the line, doubtless despairing of getting anything else. 

Although nothing definite can be ascertained, it is be- 
lieved that these early public examinations differed consider- 
ably from those held in later years, in that they really did 
affect the future career of the examinee, and were not merely 
public exhibitions of knowledge. 1 Their practical results were 
unsatisfactory in many cases, and full justice was not done to 
the cadets. The nervous suffered, and the bold gained a 
corresponding advantage ; a candidate full of cheek and self- 
confidence often scored with a ready answer but with very 
little knowledge. The nephew, too, of a member of the Board 
probably seldom lost the advantage which the relationship 
conferred on him. 

In 1768, however, public examinations gave place for 

1 Vide description of a public examination, page 80. 



COMMISSIONS. 33 

many years to private ones, held in the presence only of the 
lieutenant-governor, the inspector (after his appointment 
in 1772), and two or three masters. They were resumed 
again in 1786, from which time they were supposed to hold 
good for the remainder of the period dealt with by this 
chapter, although practically, as will be seen, they did not. 

As we have already seen in Part I., there was neither 
a minimum period of residence at the Academy nor a limit 
to the age of joining and leaving. It might be thought 
that the absence of such a rule would have resulted to the 
great advantage of the older cadets in the examination for 
commissions. Such, however, does not appear to have been 
the case, as on several occasions we find that the ages of cadets 
promoted to lieutenancies cover a wide period of years. As an 
illustration of this, " The oldest (Mr. Brissac) was twenty-seven 
years of age, and had been but four months at the Academy ; 
. . . and one, Mr. G. A. Wood, only fourteen years, four months ; 
he had been a year and eight months at the Academy." 1 

Several protests were made during these years with 
regard to the extreme youth of the second lieutenants 
joining the artillery from the Academy. In 1779, General 
Belford wrote a very strong letter to the Master-General on 
the subject, incidentally mentioning that he wished " the 
Academy was detached as a repository for Captain Con- 
greve's curiosities," and that the old system of attaching 
cadets to every company of the artillery could be reverted 
to. On two or three occasions after this letter the newly 
made officers were returned to the R. M. A. to continue 
their studies until old enough to carry out their responsible 
duties. The effect of this step on the discipline of the 
company of gentlemen cadets can be imagined ! 

From the date of the termination of the American War, 
in 1783, no commissions were given to cadets for over three- 
and-a-half years. To explain this we must turn again to 
Colonel Gravatt, extracts from whose letter we have already 
seen in Part I. 

1 "Records 'of the K. M. A." 



34 THE PERIOD 1764—1806. 

" .... I have to add that, at the close of the 
American War, a number of artillery officers were un- 
employed. I think there were thirty or forty so circum- 
stanced, all of whom were to be called upon before a single 
cadet could obtain a commission. 1 I am surprised such a 
long-headed man as the Duke " — of Richmond — " did not 
introduce classics, 2 but, as he did not, neither professors, 
masters, or attendants or draftsmen worked too hard. One 
professor frequently had a ' distressing headache ' ; this 
malady he usually relieved by standing on the roofs of 
the field-officers' quarters, then building by him, to see 
the workmen duly attended to their duty. 

" I wonder I ever got through the courses of fortification 
and artillery, though I ought not, for I am sure I executed 
at least ten sets — for others ! At length, however, the 
supernumeraries being provided for, we worked like race- 
horses, especially after the tallest were brought forward for 
commissions, the unemployed officers filling first the 
vacancies as they occurred. . . ." 

Only two cadets were promoted in 1786, five in 1787, 
eleven in 1788, six in 1789, and eight in 1790. In 1791 
the artillery was augmented by the addition of two com- 
panies, and the vacancies thereby increased to thirty-five; 
but the lieutenant-governor did not consider that they 
should be filled from the Academy at once on account of 
the backward state of the cadets. At the end of 1792, 
however, he notified the company that there would be 
thirty vacancies to be competed for in the following January. 
The fact of there being such an unusually large number as 
this apparently gave the cadets the idea that no great 
amount of labour was necessary to obtain the commissions. 
Of this idea, however, they were sadly disabused. The 

1 The unemployed officers were placed on half -pay; as vacancies occurred 
in the full-pay list they were again employed. As, in time of peace, not 
more than eight casualties occurred in tho commissioned ranks, this meant 
an interval of nearly four years before a cadet C0U14 be promoted. 

2 This subject was suspended in 1777. 



AN EXCESS OF COMMISSIONS. 35 

results of the examination proving very unsatisfactory, the 
Master-General refused to appoint more than six of the 
candidates to the vacant commissions, and these only con- 
ditionally to their passing a further test! 

In 1793 came the French War, and officers were so badly 
needed for the artillery that the Master-General dispensed 
with a public examination in the following year. He 
ordered that cadets should be examined and nominated 
to the vacancies as quickly as they could qualify them- 
selves for promotion. There was no necessity to wait for 
several others ; as soon as any one cadet felt himself com- 
petent, he was brought before a semi-public board and 
examined. In 1795, however, the demand for officers in- 
creased so much that even this qualification was deemed 
superfluous. The inspector, in the absence of the lieutenant- 
governor, was ordered to " recommend for promotion such 
of the cadets of the upper and second Academies as may 
appear likely to prove useful at this moment as officers." 1 
Thirty-five thus obtained lieutenancies in the artillery. 

The pressure on the Academy still continued in 1796 
— it lasted, in fact, through the remainder of this period — 
and the course of studies became completely disorganised. 
The discipline of the company, too, suffered greatly. The 
cadets, feeling themselves bound to be commissioned no 
matter how they behaved, became idle, insubordinate, and 
finally mutinous. Stern measures were taken, and severe 
examples made of some of the offenders ; but the root of 
the evil, the extraordinary demand for officers, could not 
be struck at. In 1798, as we have before seen, the estab- 
lishment of cadets was raised, and extra cadets added ; 
but this slight gain was more than counterbalanced by 
the East India Company now possessing a claim on the 
Academy for officers for its service. 

In 1802 the Master-General signified his intention of 
resuming public examinations, but, on the strong recom- 
mendation of the inspector, he reconsidered his decision. 

1 " Records of the R. M. A." 



36 



THE PERIOD 1764—1806. 



In his letter the latter pointed out that the drain on the 
Academy caused by the war had so shortened the time 
spent there by the cadets, that they were completely ignorant 
of all but the most elementary parts of the subjects in 'the 
course ; consequently they could not fail to bring great 
discredit on the teaching at the R. M. A. if they were allowed 
to present themselves at a public examination. He recom- 
mended that the number of commissions given should be 
as few as was consistent with the good of the Service ; and 
that the cadets should be selected for these by the lieutenant- 
governor after a private examination, and with regard mainly 
to their good behaviour and application to study. By these 
means the state of discipline would be improved, the length 
of time at the R. M. A. slowly increased, and the organisation 
of the educational course gradually restored to a condition 
in keeping with the dignity of the institution. 

In consequence of the Master-General's approval of the 
inspector's proposals, public examinations were not resumed. 1 

A striking example of the excessive drain on the 
Academy at the commencement of the nineteenth century 
is furnished by the following table. The total establish- 
ment at Woolwich was 100 only, and 77 cadets were 
commissioned in one year. 



1803. 
Number of Cadets Commissioned. 


DATE. | InR. A. InR. E. InE.J.C.S. 


6th May 

31st May 

19th July 

17th August 

8th September 

3rd December 

22nd December 


i , ... 

1 ! ::: 

5 

22 I 1 

iS 1 ::: 


... 
... 

12 
5 


Totals 

Grand Total 


59 ; i 
77 


17 



They were not held again until 1811. 



DEARTH OF VACANCIES IN THE R, E. 



37 



From the foregoing table it will be seen that only one 
cadet was sent to the engineers. In fact, the excessive 
demand for officers during these last ten years was chiefly 
for the artillery service, the vacancies in the sister corps 
being totally inadequate to the number of cadets qualified 
for them. For this reason — "(in) 1798, a limited number 
of cadets, who were ultimately intended for the corps of 
Royal Engineers, (were) sent, with the pay and allowances 
of an officer, as assistant engineers to some station, until 
they could be commissioned in the corps for which they 
were destined." 1 



Report of Colonel Tolland's Commission, 1856. 




THE HUT HUILDERS. 



CHAPTER III. 

THE PERIOD 1806—1854. 
I.— THE COMPANY OF GENTLEMEN CADETS. 

The Pollock Medal— The Strength of the Company — " The 1st Company of 
the R. A." — The Officers — Admission in 1806; Increase in the Qualifica- 
tions, 1814 ; Alterations in 1835 ; Insufficiency of the Entrance Exami- 
nations, 1806-1854; Ineligible Candidates — Age and Residence; 
Effect of Variation in Residence on Seniority — Quarters ; Use of the 
Term "Academy"; Grounds of the R. M. A., 1806; the Lower Barracks 
in the Arsenal ; Changes in Quarters ; Buildings for Recreation — Food — 
Pay — Conduct and Discipline ; Idleness Causes Bullying ; Eleven Cadets 
Dismissed ; other Causes of Bullying ; Punishment Nullified by Influ- 
ence; Forms of Bullying; the "Angle of 45° "; "Looking Out for 
Squalls " ; Miscellaneous Offences — The Horn Fair Riot — The Sword — 
Improvement in Conduct— Uniform — The Cost of the Company to the 
Nation. 

THE POLLOCK MEDAL. 

" TO COMMEMORATE EMINENT SERVICES, CABUL, 1842. BRITISH HONOUR 

VINDICATED. DISASTERS RETRIEVED. BRITISH CAPTIVES LIBERATED. TREACHERY 

AVENGED. JELLALABAD RELIEVED. VICT0RIE8 OF MAMOO KHAIL, 

JUGDULLVCK, TEZEEN, ISTALIF. KHYBER PASS FORCED." 

SUCH was the inscription on the original medal, the 
prize " presented by the British inhabitants of Calcutta, 
and awarded by the Court of Directors of the East India 
Company to the most distinguished cadet of the season " 
at the Military College, Addiscombe. What was the nature 
of these services, how did the Pollock medal come by 
its name, and by what means did it eventually become a 
reward for the most distinguished cadet at the Royal 
Military Academy, Woolwich ? 

Towards the end of 1841 a British force of 16,500 
men lay in cantonments by the city of Cabul, under the 
command of General Elphinstone. Its presence was 



THE STORY OF THE POLLOCK MEDAL. 39 

rendered necessary by the hostility of Dost Mahomed and 
Akbar Khan to Shah Sooja, who had recently been placed 
on the throne of Afghanistan — and was being supported 
in that perilous position — by the British. The rebel chief- 
tains were very strongly supported, an outbreak in the 
city occurred on the 2nd of November, Sir Alexander 
Barnes and many British officers were assassinated, and 
the army was surrounded in its cantonments. The siege 
lasted for over two months, and, as no relief was expected, 
a treaty was arranged by which Afghanistan was to be 
entirely evacuated by our troops. During the negotiations 
preceding this treaty, Sir William McNaghten, the British 
envoy, was foully murdered only a few hundred yards 
outside the camp on the 23rd of December. 

On the 6th of January, 1842, General Elphinstone left 
Cabul, and two days later entered the Koord Cabul Pass. 
Here, amidst heavy snow and the most inclement weather, 
his devoted army was attacked by hordes of Ghilzais, and 
lost over 3,000 men. The position seemed hopeless, and 
the General entered into negotiations with Akbar Khan, 
who promised that the army should in future be un- 
molested on its march if the women and children were 
handed over as hostages. This General Elphinstone con- 
sented to — more on account of the great dangers they were 
exposed to with his force than for any other reason — and 
he resumed his march. 

On the 10th, however, he was again attacked — this time 
in a narrow pass — and the next day only 4,000 British 
remained. The survivors pushed on, fighting day and 
night, and enduring terrible privations. On the 12th, the 
General himself and two other officers were basely entrapped 
by the Afghan chief when parleying with him under a 
flag of truce. In the evening 125 officers and men remained ; 
and the grey dawn of the 13th of January, 1842, found half 
that number, with but two cartridges apiece, surrounded 
at Gundamuck by thousands upon thousands of fanatical 
tribesmen. 



40 THE PERIOD 1806—1854. 

With faces wan and drawn, and bodies worn out by 
continual marching and suffering, but with the undaunted 
courage of men and Britons, the gallant sixty fought until 
less than ten remained. Ten ! out of 16,500 ! One sur- 
vivor, Dr. Brydon, wounded and but half conscious, reached 
Jellalabad, where General Sale's brigade lay surrounded by 
the enemy. 

Such were the disasters mentioned on the medal. How 
were they retrieved? 

An expeditionary force of two brigades assembled at 
Peshawur at the end of January, for the relief of Jella- 
labad. The command was given to Major- General George 
Pollock. On his arrival, however, he found the morale of 
the army in a wretched state. Shaken by constant defeats, 
the Sepoys refused to face the ordeal of forcing the Khyber 
Pass, and some delay was necessary while Pollock restored 
confidence. A greater number of mounted troops were also 
wanted. When these had arrived, Pollock pushed forward 
on the 31st March, fought his way day by day, and 
relieved Sale on the 16th April. 

The expedition having thus succeeded in its object, the 
Government seemed strongly inclined to withdraw from 
Afghanistan, leaving Lady Sale, Lady McNaghten, and the 
other women and children still prisoners, and British honour 
unavenged. In fact, Pollock, and General Nott at Candahar, 
received explicit orders to retire. But Pollock refused. He 
requested Nott, " On no account retire until you hear 
again from me," and did his utmost to bring the Govern- 
ment to see the situation ' in its true light ; for if the 
Afghans were not instantly punished and the prisoners 
released, a severe blow would be struck at British prestige 
in India. 

The state of affairs was now indeed peculiar : for here was 
a general sent out with an army to invade foreign territory, 
and refusing to obey the orders of his Government. At last, 
however, the latter gave way, and on the 20th August Pollock 
from Peshawur, and Nott, from Candahar, started on their 



THE STORY OF THE POLLOCK MEDAL. 41 

march to Cabul. Both fought battle after battle, and again 
swept the Afghans before them. Driven from post to post, 
the latter finally took up a strong position at Tezeen ; but 
here, with all the natural advantages of ground, etc., in the 
enemy's favour, General Pollock gained a brilliant and decisive 
victory which practically finished the war. He arrived at 
Cabul on the 15th September, and on the following day was 
joined by General Nott. The prisoners were released, and the 
city sacked and half burnt. 

The army returned to India, and had a magnificent 
reception at Ferozepore. " The Governor-General, with the 
army of reserve, was there to greet them ; and as the leading 
troops defiled across the temporary bridge over the Sutlej, 
and then passed through a street of 250 elephants and lines 
of regiments, who saluted their long absent comrades amidst 
the booming of guns fired in their honour, the heart must 
have been a dull one that did not acknowledge that there is 
a bright side to the picture of war." 1 

At last all had come right. British honour had been 
vindicated, disasters retrieved, captives freed, and treachery 
avenged. The man who did it all — Pollock, the simple, God- 
fearing soldier — received the G.C.B. ! And there was no 
mistake, for one and all knew that he, and he alone, had done 
it. In after years he became baronet, field-marshal, and 
Constable of the Tower. He died on the 6th October, 1872, 
in his eighty-seventh year. 

When Addiscombe broke up in 1861 — to the grief of 
all its old cadets — the Pollock Medal came to Woolwich. 
It had always been necessary to supplement the interest 
from the Prize Fund by a small annual donation from 
public moneys in order to produce a medal worth sixteen 
guineas. This enormous expense, however, was not 
sanctioned in 1861 by the trustee of the fund, Sir Charles 
Wood, Secretary of State for India. He ordered a lighter 
medal, worth ten guineas, to be struck, and part of the 
inscription to be omitted. 

1 From "Addiscombe : Its Heroes and Men of Note," by Colonel Vibart, lt.E. 



42 



THE PERIOD 1806—1854. 



From 1856 until the June before his death, Field- 
Marshal Sir George Pollock of the Khyber Pass, G.C.B., 
K.C.S.I., late Bengal Artillery, seldom failed to present 
the reward in person. His smart, soldierly old figure on 
"Duke's Days" will be well remembered by many old 
cadets. 



" r>UJDED Bl T»I ■ 
I2.tr iSH 13TB Alt TAITT1 
OF ULtGVlTk 

TO cg**i:*:*jutl 

X THE CBlHt^T 3£RTi0U 0? 
% fiAJOa QfiJSftAL 

4', HI yMAJJS POLLOCK 9,tl, 
^ A9B WARDED TO 

L>\t*1 *W* WlTJF^riSffSD/ 

cAutt ftFTHE irjjosy^ 



THE POLLOCK MEDAL. 

In August, 1806, the new buildings on Woolwich 
Common were first occupied by the cadet company. There 
was not, however, sufficient accommodation for all, and the 
lower barracks were still retained in the Arsenal The 
total establishment now consisted of 248, distributed as 
follows : — 

At R. M. A, Upper Barracks, the first four Academies 128 

At R. M. A., Lower Barracks, the fifth and sixth Academies 60 

At R. M. C, Great Marlow 60 

Total 248 




Of these, about fifty were East India Company's cadets; 
and, in addition, there were from fifteen to twenty extra 
cadets studying at private schools at their parents' expense. 

In 1810 the East India Company formed a military 
school at Addiscombe for the preparation of officers for 
its own service, and, in consequence, all the Indian cadets 



THE FIRST COMPANY OF THE E. A. 43 

at the Academy and the College were withdrawn. More 
room being thus rendered available, the ordnance cadets 
at the latter place were gradually absorbed into the establish- 
ment at Woolwich, the last leaving Great Marlow in the 
following year. The company was thereby reduced to its 
correct establishment, viz. 200. The supernumerary, or 
extra, cadets were finally abolished in 1814, as a pre- 
liminary step to decreasing the numbers at the Academy 
on account of the impending peace. In 1816 the 
authorised establishment was reduced to 188, and three 
years later to 150. The actual number at the Academy, 
however, grew less and less until, in 1826, it touched low- 
water mark at fifty-eight! 

In 1828 the fixed establishment was further reduced 
to sixty, although ninety-four cadets were on the rolL Three 
years later it was increased to eighty, and in 1839 to 100. 
The actual strength of the cadet company from 1820 to 
1854 will be found in Appendix XXIL, from which it will 
be seen that, after 1842, the total approximated 100. 

Until 1849 the cadet company held the proud title 
of the " First Company of the Royal Artillery ," but in that 
year the names of cadets ceased to be shown in the muster- 
rolls of the regiment. The separation, however, was more 
in word than in deed. Though the connection was officially 
severed, it could never be actually so considered for many 
years. In fact, in the present day it is difficult to imagine 
the company of gentlemen cadets as being otherwise than of 
the Royal Artillery. 

In consequence of the augmentation in 1806 another 
second-captain was added to the staff*. It did not follow 
that this was the officer's rank in the army, for, as we have 
already seen, the Master-General was the captain of the 
cadet company. The senior second-captain commanded 
the cadets at the upper barracks, and was assisted by three 
subalterns. In addition, he was paymaster to the whole 
company. The junior second-captain and one subaltern 
looked after the lower barracks in the Arsenal. It is 



44 THE PERIOD 1806— 1854, 

interesting to note that for some few years about this time it 
was necessary for an officer appointed to a second-captaincy 
in the cadet company to retire from the regiment on his 
pay, or give up future promotion. 

During the early part of this period there were no great 
alterations made in the system of admission. The candi- 
dates for cadetships received the Master-General's nomination 
at any time after ten years of age. When they reached 
fourteen they were examined in the Arsenal by the masters 
of the lower Academies. The necessary qualifications were : 
" to be well grounded in arithmetic, including vulgar fractions, 
write a very good hand, and be perfectly master of the English 
and Latin grammars " — at fourteen ! " If he has learnt to 
draw, and acquired a knowledge of the French language, his 
future studies may be materially forwarded." 1 

As may be gathered from the foregoing, the standard of 
education, with the exception of the grammatical require- 
ments, of the newly admitted cadets was not high, and their 
ignorance proved very disadvantageous to the work of the 
instructional staff for many years. Colonel Twiss, and after- 
wards Colonel Mudge (governor, 1809-16), pointed this out 
to the Master-General on several occasions. But there were 
strong misgivings in many quarters as to the advisability 
of raising the standard, as it was said that it would probably 
result in there soon being more vacancies than candidates. 
However, in 1813, Colonel Mudge succeeded in inducing 
the Master-General to raise the qualifications for admission, 
and new regulations \v r ere issued in the following year, the 
chief points in which were :* — 

1. No candidate to be admitted under 14 or above 16 years of 
age. 

2. Qualifications : — Vulgar and decimal fractions, duodecimals or 
cross multiplication, involution, extraction of the square root, notation 
and the first four rules of algebra, definitions in plane geometry, English 
grammar and parsing, French grammar. 

If not called upon to be examined at 14, the candidate is expected to 
pursue his studies, so as to obtain the following additional qualifications 

1 " Records of the R. M. A." 



ENTRANCE QUALIFICATIONS RAISED. 45 

by the time he is near 16, without which, or some part of them in pro- 
portion to his age, he cannot be received after he is 14 years old, viz. :— 
The remainder of algebra, except cubic equations, the first two books of 
Euclid's " Elements of Geometry," or instead of " Euclid's Geometry," 
the first 65 Theorems of Dr. Hutton's " Course of Mathematics," con- 
struing and parsing the French language. 

3. All candidates are publicly examined by the proper masters in the 
Royal Military Academy, and if found deficient in any of these prepara- 
tory parts of learning, will be rejected. If qualified, the candidate to be 
received on the principle of probation, and to be kept at the Royal 
Military Academy for 12 months, at the expiration of which, if the said 
candidate should appear from the progress made in his studies to be 
likely to qualify himself for a commission, he will be admitted as an 
established cadet ; if otherwise, he will be rejected and sent back to his 
friends. 

4. The above qualifications are indispensable at the time of examina- 
tion ; but the future studies of each candidate will be very materially 
forwarded if he has learnt to draw before he is received as a cadet. 

The days of examination are Tuesdays and Wednesdays, precisely at 
11 o'clock, and the candidates are to present themselves to the Lieutenant- 
Governor or Inspector at the Royal Military Academy on Woolwich 
Common. 

Each candidate was allowed to make two attempts to 
pass, and a third only on the express recommendation of 
the lieutenant - governor or inspector. This last proviso 
was probably laid down to allow the examiners to refuse 
a third trial in the event of the candidate proving him- 
self perfectly hopeless and unlikely to pass. 

The success of the new regulations was at once 
apparent. It is not known whether the examinations 
were conducted on very strict lines or not ; but one thing 
is certain, very few of the candidates failed to pass. The 
work of the junior Academies was much expedited and its 
standard considerably heightened. 

When the establishment of the cadet company was 
being gradually reduced in 1818, owing to the scarcity of 
vacancies in the Ordnance Corps, the Master-General 
ordered that candidates should be allowed one attempt 
only to pass the entrance examination. This new regula- 
tion was due to the fact that the number of boys who 
had received nominations to cadetships was steadily in- 



46 THE PERIOD 1806-1854. 

creasing in proportion to the vacancies at the R. M. A. Ic 
became evident that, if three attempts were allowed, many 
of those nominated would not have a chance of entering 
the Academy within the prescribed age limits. 

In 1820 fresh regulations were issued, slightly altering 
those in force and more clearly defining the amount of 
knowledge required from boys of the different ages be- 
tween fourteen and sixteen. In both these regulations and 
those of 1814 the " probation" condition should be noted, 
viz. : The removal of the cadet if he failed to make 
satisfactory progress in his first year. 

In 1835 a further change was made and some import- 
ant alterations effected. They were : — 

1. The increase of the age limits from 14-16 to 15-17. 

2. The restoration of classics as a qualification, and the introduction 
of geography, history, and drawing. 

3. A second trial allowed on the Board's recommendation. 

4. An effort to introduce competition by allowing more candidates to 
be examined than were admitted at the R. M. A. (But the nineteenth 
century was too young for that ! — the number of applicants never 
exceeded the number of vacancies.) 

5. The composition of the Examining Board. "The examination 
was to be conducted by such masters of the institution and other persons 
as might be selected by the Master-General, before a Board composed 
of the lieutenant-governor, the inspector, the second captain and two 
professors." l 

6. The entrance examination was to be held half-yearly, on the first 
day of each vacation, and not twice a week as heretofore. 

The regulations of 1835 held good for the remainder 
of this period, with one important exception — the reduc- 
tion of the age limit again to fourteen-sixteen in 1848. 

Although, as we have seen, the regulations of 1814 did 
some good by raising the qualifications to a higher stand- 
ard, yet there can be no doubt that the whole system 
of admission was bad. How, otherwise, can we account for 
the fact that, of the cadets who joined the K. M. A. 
between 1825 and 1849, 25 per cent did not receive com- 
missions? Some, certainly, were removed for misconduct, 

1 Report of Colonel Yolland's Commission, 1856. 



DISADVANTAGES OF NOMINATION. 47 

but by far the majority for inefficiency. Perhaps Colonel 
Portlock, K.E., Inspector of Studies, in his evidence before 
Colonel Yolland's Commission in 1856, put the whole case 
in a nutshell. By the regulations of 1848 the entrance 
examination was directed to be of a searching character, 
but Colonel Portlock stated: "Although he considered 
those regulations nominally quite sufficient to insure a 
good selection, they have been successively frittered down 
to meet the views of influential complainants, and that 
rigid examinations could scarcely be expected to exist 
simultaneously with patronage. What favour would it be 
to a powerful applicant to give a nomination on the one 
hand and to cancal it on the other by a too stiff exam- 
ination ? We ought to wonder that so good a selection 
was made under such a system ! " 

We find, by the " Records of the R M. A.," that Roman 
Catholics were not admitted to the Academy during this 
period. This, apparently, was not for legal reasons, as 
many officers in the Army professed the Roman Catholic 
religion, but merely because a succession of lieutenant- 
governors were strongly of opinion that their admission 
would lead to serious inconvenience. It has been found 
impossible to ascertain the exact date when this rule was 
abolished, as for many years the faith of each cadet was 
not entered in the nominal roll of the company. The first 
mention of a Roman Catholic is found in the Academy 
books of 1865. 

During this period, too, the authorities declined to allow 
the education of any foreigners at the R. M. A., though 
they occasionally gave permission for such to study privately 
under the masters. 

Owing to the large number of vacancies in the ordnance, 
the age of the cadets and their length of residence at the 
Academy were both very low until 1812. Slower promotion 
then commenced, and gradually age and time rose, until it 
was seldom that cadets under twenty-one, and with less 
than five years' service at the R. M. A., were awarded com- 



48 THE PERIOD 1806—1854. 

missions. A climax was reached in 1817, when one cadet 
completed a stay of eight years! 

In 1820, however, the Duke of Wellington, then Master- 
General, ordered that no cadet should remain at the 
Academy after he was twenty years of age, or after he 
had spent five years there, unless he had proved himself 
qualified for a commission. The following table 1 shows 
the average ages of the cadets, on joining and leaving the 
Academy, for different periods between 1820 and 1854. 
In studying it, it must be borne in mind that the age of 
admission was raised in 1835 to fifteen-seven teen instead of 
fourteen-sixteen. 



Period. 


Average Age on 
Joining. Quitting. 


Average 
Lengtli of 
1 Residence. 

""YrsTMs. - 
6 10 
4 1 

2 <) 

3 8J 


Duration of 
Practical Course. 


1820-25 
1826-35 
1836-47 

1848-54 


■ Yrs. Ms. Yrs. 
15 4 22 
14 64 ' 18 

| 15 7 ; 18 

14 9i , 18 


Ms. 
2 

7i 
4 

6 


Months. 
12 

6 from 
1836-46 
12 from 
1847-54 



The above table includes the time spent in the Arsenal 
on the practical course. After the Duke of Wellington's 
decision had had time to get into working order (i.e., about 
1825), the maximum and minimum periods of residence 
at the Academy, exclusive of the practical course, fixed 
themselves at four and two years respectively. 

A great, and unexpected, point to be noticed, however, 
is the great variation that existed in the lengths of resi- 
dence of the cadets forming any one commission batch. 
Taking a period of ten years, from 1845 to 1854, we find 
that the average difference in the length of the residence 
of cadets belonging to the same batch amounted to one 
year and eight months! 2 This again was due to the in- 

1 Compiled from a Return laid before Colonel Yolland's Commission. 

2 A few examples selected from many: — In the batch commissioned in 
December, 1845, the "oldest" and most junior cadets had respectively 52 and 
2$ months' service: in August, 1846, 54 and 27 ; in October, 1847, 59 and 20. 
— From a Return laid before Colonel Yolland's Commission. 



AGE AND RESIDENCE. 



49 



sufficiency of the entrance examinations already mentioned, 
the ignorant, who should never have been admitted, 
climbing slowly and laboriously from class to class, while 
the well-prepared candidates went up in the shortest time 
possible. 

The question now arises: How did this great variation 
in length of residence affect seniority in the commission 
batches? Taking the same period, we find by the table 
given below that, in nearly every case, the first six places 
were filled by cadets with the least average service, the most 
marked contrasts occurring in the years 1845, 1852, and 
1853. Not only that, but on almost every occasion the 
cadets with the greatest average service occupied the last 
places in the class. On the whole, then, injustice was not 
done to those who had served the shortest time at the 
R. M. A., although, undoubtedly, there were many instances 
to the contrary. A system, however, which allowed even a 
few cases of injustice could not be but rotten, and we shall 
isee in the next chapter how the evil was remedied. 





Average Number of Months 


SPENT AT 




the R. M. A. by Cadets 


" Passing 


Year. 1 

1845 


Out" in Places 






1 to 0. 

~ 374 


7 to 12. 


13 to 18. 


19 to 24. 

. 504 ~~ 


4li 


39J 


1846 


41 


40 


37 


424 


1847 


31 


35 


32 


31 


1848 


26i 


24§ 


26J 


m 


1849 


32i 


344 


33* 


37 


1850 


39* 


40 


44 


424 


1851 


424 


43§ 


46 


47 


1852 


494 


534 


55i 


58 


1853 


47i 


514 


57i 




1854 
Average... 


394 

38*6 


41* 


464 


48J 
427 


40*6 


417 



A comparison of the plans of the R. M. A. in 1806 and 
1900 will show that the shape of the block of buildings 
north of the Rear Road has altered very slightly. The 

1 Compiled from a Return laid before Colonel Yolland's Commission, 1856. 
E 



50 THE PERIOD 1806—1854. 

same, however, cannot be said of the uses to which the 
various parts were put. 

There were at first only four "Academies," or class- 
rooms, lying over the rooms occupying the site of the 
present libraries. In 1814 additions were made of a model 
room (afterwards used for tactics) and a lecture room, the 
latter an apartment that nowadays recalls to old cadets 
memories of chemistry — and other things. Where now 
stand houses A to G and L to K, were racquet -courts, 
the west open and the east covered in. 

The living quarters were situated in the four front 
houses, where thirty rooms accommodated 128 cadets. As 
will be seen in the illustration in Plate III., these rooms 
were precisely the same as those of the present day. The 
turn - up bedstead, the gratings over the windows, and 
almost the same pattern cupboard, were all there. The 
floors were sprinkled w r ith sand, and the walls roughly 
plastered and whitewashed. 

The most reliable cadets were selected for the positions 
of " heads of rooms," quite independent of their standing at 
the K. M. A., although arrangements were of course made to 
prevent any clashing between their duties and the corporals'. 
The occupants were not all of the same class, or Academy, 1 
but were purposely mixed — a course which led to much 
fagging and bullying. A few of the most senior cadets 
were allowed separate rooms. 

In front of the R M. A., on the north side, was a field, 
enclosed by a wall, sunk in a ditch about ten feet deep 
and twenty wide, known as the "ha-ha." The northern 
boundary of this field ran, roughly, from the clump of 
trees opposite the hospital to the site of the cricket pavilion 
in the present enclosure ; the southern coincided with the 

1 In the first hundred years of the R. M. A.'s existence the term " Academy n 
was variously applied. On some occasions it signified the " Royal Military 
Academy"; on others, a "class-room," or, again, a "class." The context 
must be kept in view in deciding which expression is applicable when the word 
is used. 



THE NEW BARRACKS- ON THE COMMON 51 

north edge of the present front parade ; and the eastern 
and western with the position of the present wire railings. 
From the south-east and south-west corners of the "ha-ha" 
ran two brick walls, nine feet high, where the iron fences 
now stand. These shut in the R M. A. on both sides, and 
ended at the Rear Road, where they were replaced by a 
hedge, enclosing a piece of ground to the south. From a 
big iron gateway in the centre of the northern " ha-ha " ran 
the road forming the chief communication of the Academy 
with the outer world. A smaller entrance — for convenience 
of access to the hospital and, afterwards, to the governor's 
quarters — lay just by the site of the present East Lodge. 
It consisted of a wooden door at the junction of the brick 
wall and the "ha-ha." There was no lodge for forty-one 
years, when one was built at the main gate, just inside the 
field, and on the right-hand side (going out). 

As we have already seen, the whole of the company 
did not come to the barracks on the Common in 1806. 
The younger cadets, sixty in number, still occupied part 
of the old buildings in the Arsenal, which contained two 
class-rooms for the use of the fifth and sixth Academies. 
In 1820 the junior cadets were brought up to the Com- 
mon, additional accommodation being provided by opening 
rooms in the East Tower — the building marked Q R M RS - 
Quarters in plan — for twenty occupants, and by removing 
the senior class to the Arsenal for a practical course. In 
1828, however, the number at the Academy had so dimin- 
ished that the latter place was entirely vacated, and the 
whole of the Cadet Company assembled in the upper 
barracks, practical class and all. 

At the same time the lieutenant-governor gave up his 
quarters in the Arsenal for the more conveniently situated 
Cube House, which, standing on the site of the present 
" Governor's House," had been occupied as the cadet hos- 
pital since 1806. A ward in the Garrison Hospital was, in 
consequence, reserved for the use of the company until 
the present hospital was built in 1830. 



52 



THE PERIOD 1806—1854. 



The Arsenal barracks were occupied again in 1840 by 
the senior class, and there they remained until the end of 
this period. The Academies in the upper barracks were 
heated by hot- water pipes in 1834, and nine years later 
the R. M. A. was first lighted by gas. 

Arrangements for the amusement of the cadets were 

certainly more plen- 
tiful in the new 
barracks than in 
the old Warren, but 
still left much to be 
desired. At the be- 
ginning of this period 
there were only the 
racquet courts,chiefly 
appropriated by the 
older cadets, and the 
library. In 1815 a 
swimming-pond was 
opened at the back 
of the Veterinary 
Hospital across the 
Common. This was 
in use for many years 
—until 1890, in fact 
— and afforded excel- 
lent skating in favourable winters. In 1824 an open-air gym- 
nasium was started in the field south of the east racquet 
court, and, in 1848, a workshop was provided close by the 
same place. In the latter year the stained glass windows 
in the dining hall were put in by private subscription. 
Both these and the workshop were due to the initiative 
of Captain F. W. Eardley-Wilmot, a captain of the com- 
pany, to whom, as will be seen later, all succeeding 
generations at the " Shop " owed a deep debt of gratitude 
for his services in connection with the games, and especially 
the athletic sports, of the cadets. The workshop was much 




THE HOSPITAL. 



FOOD AND PAY. 53 

improved a year or two later by the addition of iron- and 
wood-turning lathes, run by a steam-engine. 

The diet of the cadets remained much the same as 
during the previous period, viz., plain and insufficient. 
The breakfast allowance of " one-eighth of a quartern loaf 
and a pint of milk" was certainly not substantial enough 
to last satisfactorily from 7.30 a.m. to the dinner hour 
at one. At the latter about one pound of meat was 
nominally allowed for each cadet — practically, the cooking 
reduced this considerably. With a modest quantity of 
exceedingly unappetising greens or potatoes, never both at 
the same time, and a pudding only once a week, it can- 
not be said that the fare was particularly satisfying, even 
if good, which at all times it was not. Neither can a 
supper at 7.30 p.m. of " one-sixth of a pound of Gloucester 
cheese and one-tenth of a quartern loaf" be described as 
possessing many charms. Consequently, if cadets wished 
to satisfy their appetites, they were compelled to buy 
privately from the housekeeper. The only decent meal in 
the day, in fact, was the tea, which they thus provided 
out of their pocket-money and held in their barrack 
rooms after supper. 

The pay of the gentlemen cadets remained fixed at the 
daily rate of half-a-crown, and its distribution was practic- 
ally unaltered. 1 While the dearth of commissions lasted — 
from 1814 to 1825 — those who had qualined and were 
waiting at home for vacancies, often for two or three 
years, still received their pay as cadets, but only at the 
rate of two shillings per diem, as the extra sixpence was 
for clothing. When a large number of commissions in the 
line were offered to the company in 1825, those who re- 
fused to take them had their pay stopped." 

We have already seen how r , in 1797, the rank of 
corporal was made indispensable to obtaining a commission, 
but the great pressure on the K. M. A. during the follow- 

1 For this distribution, see page 16. 

- Report of Colonel Yolland's Commission, 1856. 



5-* THE PERIOD 1806-1854 

ing years resulted in that decision being constantly 
waived. The system of selecting the members of the 
first Academy for the post was altered in 1806, and the 
most suitable cadets in all the classes were chosen. The 
juniors, while in the Arsenal, provided their own corporals 
in the same manner as did the seniors on the Common. 
The new system resulted in every cadet of the first 
Academy not being promoted to corporal, and the regula- 
tion as to the rank being necessary for a commission fell 
through. Towards the end of this period it became an 
invariable custom to select all the corporals from the 
second class, a course which, since the junior cadets had 
come to the Common in 1820, had practically been in 
vogue for some years. 

The date on which the rank of under officer was 
created is uncertain, but was probably about 1815. The 
under officers belonged to the first Academy until 1820, 
after which all four were selected from the senior practical 
class. 

We saw in the last chapter how severely both the 
organisation and discipline of the Cadet Company were 
shaken by the great demand made on it for officers. 
Had this not been the case, the removal of the barracks 
from the Arsenal to the Common would probably have 
been attended by a material improvement in the conduct 
ot the cadets. But circumstances were unfavourable : the 
excessive number of commissions prevented studies being 
properly carried out, and the result was that idleness 
became general. This was almost the chief evil to be 
fought against, and it took many years to eradicate. 
Bullying, always present where great differences in boys' 
ages exist, came to the assistance of its twin-sister, and 
any cadets manifesting a desire to work came in for very 
rough treatment. 

So bad did this state of affairs become in 1810 that the 
lieutenant-governor issued the following order * : — 

" Records of the R. M. A." 



IDLENESS CAUSES BULLYING. 55 

"The Lieutenant-Governor has been informed that a combination 
exists among the Gentlemen Cadets in the Senior Department of the 
Royal Military Academy, the object of which is to impede the progress 
of those Cadets in their studies who possess a knowledge of their 
own interests, and the means by which those interests may be for- 
warded, and this information has been supported by evidence sub- 
stantiating in the mind of the Lieutenant-Governor the truth of this 
circumstance. The Lieutenant-Governor turns with disgust from the 
consideration of the particular instances of violence used for the pur- 
pose alluded to, as well as the intent of preventing the Corporals of 
the Junior Department from doing their duty, but he is firmly deter- 
mined to put a stop to all proceedings of this nature, and he calls 
therefore thus publicly on those gentlemen to come forward who 
may in future meet with such arbitrary and oppressive treatment, 
to avow the perpetrators of the deed. 

# # # * * 

The Lieutenant-Governor takes this opportunity of announcing his 
fixed intention to do all that can be done by him to arrest the spirit 
of idleness which has almost everywhere shown itself among the 
Gentlemen Cadets ; he assures them that, vested with the responsibility 
attached to his situation, he will not fail to bring forward by every 
encouragement all such gentlemen as shall be distinguished by diligence 
and by worth of character, to the confusion of those who act as those 
have acted composing the party which has called forth these observa- 
tions ; the Lieutenant-Governor is fully determined that neither age, 
circumstances, nor recommendation shall weigh with him in deciding on 
the step he is to take when he is to compare the diligent with the in- 
different and the idle, and that he will with the strictest impartiality 
transmit to the Master-General his opinion of those Cadets who may 
come under his consideration for promotion." 

This order had some effect for a short time ; but in 1819 
the offence had grown to such formidable proportions that it 
had to be dealt with again, on this occasion with greater 
severity. The Duke of Wellington sentenced eleven cadets 
to dismissal from the R M. A., and ten to reduction from the 
third to the fourth Academy, to the former of which the 
whole of the twenty-one culprits belonged. The following 
circular l was sent to the friends of the cadet dismissed : — 

"Royal Military Academy. 
"One of the cadets having been cruelly beaten by some of his com- 
panions for refusing to sign an agreement to limit the quantity of 
1 " Records of tho R. M. A." 



56 THE PERIOD 1806-1854. 

progress in study, my duty compelled me to report the circumstance to 
the Master- General, and I am very much concerned to inform you that 

His Grace has thought proper to dismiss your Mr. from the 

Company of Gentlemen Cadets, k for having entered into a combination 
tending to subvert good order and discipline, as well as to impede 
the studies of the Institution, and for contumaciously adhering to the 
same when called to an account and warned of the consequences.' 
" 3rd June, 1819. "(Signed) W. Mudge.'' 

The most prolific source of trouble, greater even than 
the spirit of idleness, was the excessive bullying that 
went on at the R. M. A. The two were very much akin, 
for the one led to the other. But not all of the bullying 
could be put down to the desire of doing nothing in study 
hours ; the time spent out of study was equally to blame, for 
there can be no doubt that much of it was due to the lack 
of arrangements for occupying the cadets with some healthy 
form of recreation in their leisure hours. To have done 
away with the evil altogether would have been impossible; 
the ages of the cadets covered too wide a period, and bullying 
would have existed in some form, no matter what amount 
of amusement was provided, though more could have been 
done to lessen it. Cricket and football were hardly attempted, 
racquets being practically the only game, and that too expen- 
sive to be within the reach of everyone. 

The punishment of offenders detected in acts of bullying 
was very severe. Seldom a year passed without a dismissal, 
or at least rustications and reductions. The award of " dis- 
missal " lay entirely in the hands of the Master-General, the 
powers of the lieutenant - governor in this respect being 
limited to the recommendation only. This extreme punish- 
ment should have proved a powerful deterrent to bullying 
and " crime" generally, but unfortunately, as in the last cen- 
tury, the effect was greatly lessened by the sentence being 
constantly revoked. With reference to this, Major-General 
W. D. Jones made the following statement in his evidence 
before Colonel Yolland's Commission, 1856 : — 

"I must, however, admit that many instances have oc- 
curred where the Master-General has afterwards, from the 



BULLYING. 57 

strong and repeated intercessions made by relatives for lenity, 
backed by powerful interest brought to bear upon him, been 
induced to give way, and allow the offender to return to the 
Academy, even when his offence remained as clearly estab- 
lished against him as at first, and no doubt had been thrown 
upon the fact. This must be admitted to have been a 
stumbling-block to those endeavouring to force a sufficiently 
strict system of discipline at the Academy. The most daring 
and insubordinate youths being frequently the most popular 
with their comrades, their return is hailed as a victory over 
the authorities at the Academy ; and no one, whatever he 
may have done, ever seriously thinks his case hopeless as 
long as his friends continue to appeal and importune the 
Master-General. A reference to the books in the Academy 
office will show many such cases." 

There can be no doubt that this constant nullification 
of punishment was a great factor in the existence of the 
pernicious state of affairs that existed throughout this 
period, for, in spite of all that could be done, bullying 
flourished. The fashion of torture was often ingenious, 
and sometimes worthy of the most savage races. An in- 
cident that occurred in the cadet hospital — of all places ! — 
furnishes a striking illustration of the latter type, a par- 
ticularly unpleasing cadet placing a red-hot poker against 
the face of a wretched junior confined to his bed. Canni- 
balism, certainly, was not indulged in, although a very fair 
imitation of the preliminaries existed in a favourite practice 
— i.e., that of holding some unfortunate youngster, clad in 
his night-shirt, before a roasting fire. 

The usual forms of bullying were, however, milder than 
this, although, looked at in the light of these days, still 
sufficiently brutal. In the "Records of the R. M. A." we 
find a description of the three most popular methods 
adopted by the "old" cadets in amusing themselves at the 
expense of the neux, or last-joined (the modern " snooker "). 

" One was called giving an angle of forty-Jive degrees, 
and was carried out as follows : the unfortunate neux who 



58 THE PERIOD 1806-1854. 

had incurred the displeasure of an 'old' cadet was made 
to stand with his head resting against the cupboard of his 
room, and his feet as far from it as possible, so that when 
his body was rigid it formed almost an angle of 45° with 
the ground. When this adjustment had been made the 
' old ' cadet proceeded to kick away the neux 7 feet, thereby, 
of course, giving him a severe fall " — on his back. " This 
would sometimes be repeated four or five times." 

Another form of bullying was to make a neux look out 
for squalls. "To do so with advantage, he was made to 
climb up the open window, putting his arms and legs 
through the iron bars of the grating" — the window-sashes 
slid open to each side — "and to remain there, often in 
winter, and with little or nothing on, until it pleased his 
tormentors to order him down. 

" For a third diversion, which was also used as a pun- 
ishment, two stools, one on top of the other, were placed on 
the table of a barrack-room, the neux was ordered to the 
top, and then the bottom one kicked from under him." 

The practice of drinking, both in and out of barracks, 
was also a fruitful source of trouble. In the former case 
it was necessary to smuggle the liquor into the enclosure, 
an operation frequently attended by detection. A certain 
inn on Shooter's Hill, amongst other hotels and public- 
houses, was a very favourite resort, and many dinners were 
held there by the cadets. They were chiefly given in honour 
of those who had completed their punishment for some 
breach of discipline, and naturally led to further irregu- 
larities. Among the minor offences smoking was the most 



Footnote. — It may be well to give here some particulars as to the figures 
represented in Plate III. 1. The Corporal, or " Old Cadet," in yellow banyan, 
in front of the fire. Probably the " Head of the Room " — and Chief Inquisitor ! 
2. Corporal in Sunday dress. 3. Corporal in undress. 4. Cadet in full dress, 
white cravat, silk stockings, etc., carrying the old round hat, the correct thing 
for balls, etc. 5. Cadet in undress, his shako on the table behind. 6. Cadet 
opening his li "Woolwich Trunk," wearing regimental Kerseymere waistcoat. 
7. A neux, in long greatcoat, " fagging" for water. 



A "DESPERATE" BLACK EYE. 59 

frequent, but the least often detected considering the uni- 
versal prevalence of the habit. 

The following extracts, from the few old defaulter books 
not destroyed in the fire of 1873, give some of the charges 
made against cadets in the early part of the century. As 
none of the offenders eventually obtained commissions 
there can be no harm in thus bringing their deeds to light. 

1. "Employing a junior cadet on a menial errand, and sending him 
from one end of the barracks to the other in his night-shirt." ± " Exact- 
ing menial service from a young cadet, and beating him to enforce it." 
3. " Throwing a knife at a cadet and thereby inflicting serious injury." 
4 "Having a pipe and tobacco in his cupboard." 5. "Introducing 
spirits into the hospital." 6. "Getting on the roof and letting down 
books with a string to a cadet in solitary confinement." 7. "Hiding 
under a desk in the class-room, and whistling like a bird." 8. " Driving 
a fly about the enclosure." (Not the "common or house" genus!) 
9. "Repeatedly firing a pistol in his quarters." 10. "Destroying 
pewter-pots by putting hot coals in them." 11. "Leaving church during 
evening service and deserting." 12. " Removing the iron gratings at the 
last end of the upper passage after the barracks had been locked up, for 
the purpose of getting out and going to Charlton Fair." 13. " Studying 
in his room at 11.30 p.m. with a bottle of wine on the table.'' 
14. " Stuffing the bed to deceive the officer on duty, and sleeping out of 
barracks for the purpose of staying at Charlton Fair." 15. " Being con- 
cerned in a fray by which he lost an eye." 16. " Telling a falsehood 
when questioned on the subject of a desperate black eye." 17. " Throw- 
ing butter in the hall, and thereby striking Lieutenant with a piece 

in the head." 

The author 1 of "Gunner Jingo's Jubilee" tells many 
amusing stories of life at the R. M. A. during this period. 
He says : " It was de rigueur for a cadet to join at 
Woolwich in an evening dress- coat and a tall hat — a ' claw- 
hammer coat and a stove pipe/ as the Yankees call it — 
and woe betide the boy who did not comply with the 
custom. Moh pro lege. 

"Cadet Jingo's first disciplinary lesson was severe, and 
he did not require a second. Going downstairs from the 
halls of study, his descent was accelerated by a kick be- 
tween the swallow tails from an old but diminutive cadet, 
aggressive as little dogs and men mostly are." 

1 Major-Genera T. Bland Strange, K.A. 



60 THE PERIOD 1806-1854. 

It is probable that the expression on the face of the 
recipient of that kick was not one of gratitude, for the 
donor remarked: 

" ' You great hulking snooker, I suppose if you were 
not a neu-jc you would thrash me ? ' 

" ' Undoubtedly/ was the reply. For which answer he 
was summoned to the racquet-court, the usual place of 
punishment, and very severely belted, the buckle end of 
the belt being sometimes used for emphasis, by the four 
senior corporals of his division, each in their turn, com- 
mencing with the junior. The correct thing was to stand 
perfectly still without flinching or remonstrance, and the 
arms folded — which had a dignified aspect, and saved the 
knuckles from the buckle end. 

" At the conclusion of the punishment the senior 
remarked : ' So much for being a mutinous looking beggar.' " 

The author goes on to tell us of some of the pleasant 
little ways the old cadets had of amusing themselves with 
the neux. Two instances are well worth repeating. On 
one occasion "a dark-complexioned, sardonic 'snooker/ a 
professed atheist, who made himself conspicuous for blasphemy 
in a by no means strait-laced community, was appropriately 
nicknamed 'the demon.' To accentuate the resemblance 
(as Henry Irving's limelight was not then in vogue) blue 
blazes were extemporised by pouring eau-de-Cologne on 
his hair and setting fire to it, with the result that not 
only his hair but his face was severely burnt, and his eyes 
only narrowly escaped. 

"Another boy, of adipose tissue and sedentary habits 
that rendered activity distasteful, was styled the ' Bounding 
Banchute/ His fat person was compulsorily arrayed in 
extremely tight and brilliantly coloured bathing- drawers, 
in which he was made to climb to the top of the high 
cupboard that nearly reached the ceiling of the barrack-room, 
and from this coign of vantage to jump through the top of 
the half-tester barrack-bed, splitting the calico, and coming 
down in a cloud of dust amid the applause of his tormentors. " 



THE HORN FAIR RIOT. 61 

In the days when provincial theatres were few and far 
from comfortable, one of the great sources of amusement 
at the different towns and villages was the annual fair. 
That held at Old Charlton was particularly popular with 
all classes of people, and especially — owing to its proximity 
— with the cadets. The most cheerful time to visit it 
was the evening, when the quieter folk had gone home. 
Then the flaring lights, merry-go-rounds, shooting- saloons, 
and drinking booths attracted a crowd of wild "young 
bloods " and other roisterers, and affairs went very joyously 
indeed. So many breaches of discipline arose through this 
fair that, in 1840, the Master-General put the place out of 
bounds. But this was nothing to the cadets ; and, as it 
was the general custom to wear masks if desired, many of 
them, so disguised, went there secretly. 

The year 1845, however, witnessed the greatest out- 
break in this respect. For many days previously the 
word had been passing round, and a well-organised ex- 
pedition planned, in which practically every cadet, nolens 
volens, was included. The only exceptions were the 
corporals whose turn it was to be on duty, as it was felt 
that their punishment, in event of discovery, would be too 
severe to make the game worth the risk. A rendezvous 
was selected outside the enclosure, and 8.30 p.m. fixed 
for the start. 

As the clock struck the half-hour, 122 cadets — armed 
with bludgeons and head-staves — rushed from their rooms, 
leaped the " ha ha," and ran to the appointed spot. When 
the last arrived, they were fallen in, numbered, and 
marched off by the corporals in due military form. On 
their way to Charlton they were joined by many soldiers 
and marines, who fell-in in rear of the column, which soon 
attained formidable proportions. 

Reaching the fair, they marched up the principal street, 
clearing everyone out of the way, overturning stalls and 
putting out lights. The people, however, organised a 
determined resistance, and the invading army was speedily 



62 THE PERIOD 1806—1854. 

surrounded by a huge crowd which — to the battle-cry of 
" Miaou w ! Pussy-cats! Miaouw!" — advanced fiercely to 
the assault. Taking possession of a handy booth, with a 
platform as an outwork, the cadets made a stout resistance, 
but were eventually compelled to retreat before over- 
whelming numbers and a fearful shower of hurtling brick- 
bats, sticks, and stones. Forming a compact body, they 
fought their way out of the fair in excellent order, a 
desperate attempt to carry oft' the "fat woman," and to 
open the tiger's cage, being fortunately frustrated by the 
police ! 

But the perils of the night were not over yet, for 
presently the head of the column ran into the officer on 
duty. The absence of all sound in the barracks had 
aroused his suspicions, and resulted in the discovery of 
the expedition. Hastily collecting the eight corporals who 
had not joined in the venture, his instinct had guided him 
in the direction of Charlton, with the above successful result. 
" Sauve qui pent!" became the order of the day, and, 
scattering in all directions, the cadets bolted for the 
Academy. A hot pursuit was made, and several captured 
— chiefly by the officer. One unfortunate, in endeavouring 
to leap the " ha-ha " in the dark, caught his foot firmly 
between two branches, and was suspended, head down- 
wards, and quite unable to extricate himself. He was 
subsequently captured in this ignominious position. 

The police authorities took a lenient view of the 
escapade, viewing it as mere boyish folly, and were 
satisfied by payment being made for the damages. Most 
of the stallholders put in for small amounts, and received 
due recompense. An item, which was, however, not allowed, 
was the claim for £10 made by the afore-mentioned "fet # 
lady " for " damage to her nerves " ! The Master-General 
also dealt lightly with the offenders: no one was dis- 
missed ; but the under officers and corporals concerned were 
reduced, and all leave was stopped. 

In 1836 a Regulation Sword was first given as a prize 



GENTLEMEN CADETS, 







*& 



* > 




run 



CORPORALS, R M. A, 

i b§ Capt. ff. J. ¥.tc tfonttftt. 0* jMrWaf/oii of tf*\ A. H. SvrUm, Pubfiabir, QtvottfHrt. 



In 

i 

« 

it 

if 



IK 



UNIFORM. 63 

for exemplary conduct. Since that year it has been pre- 
sented to the best-behaved cadet of every commission batch. 
The names of the fortunate recipients will be found in 
Appendix. XXV. 

There is a time when every tide turns, and such a 
time came to the R. M. A. — at any rate, as far as conduct 
was concerned — when the Annual Athletic Sports were 
instituted in 1850. They proved a great success, and, from 
that time on, the popularity of athletic pursuits was far 
more marked. As good, healthy, outdoor exercise grew in 
favour, so did the conduct of the cadets begin to get better, 
and the whole moral tone of the " Shop " to gradually rise. 
Only very slowly, though, did the improvement grow 
manifest. Many years elapsed before the discipline became 
really good, as will be seen by a study of Appendix XXL, 
where a Return is given of the number of gentlemen cadets 
dealt with for specified offences during the years 1835 to 
1868. 

The uniform of the Cadet Company was materially 
altered in 1807. 1 A high cap, with a feather, replaced the 
old round hat, which after that was only worn to evening 
entertainments. A single - breasted blue coatee, with red 
collar and cuffs, white knee-breeches and long black spatt- 
gaiters for Sundays, and dark blue pantaloons and short 
black spatts for week-days, completed the kit. There were 
slight variations in this dress when attending balls, dinners, 
etc. ; Plate III. shows some of them. 

In 1816 the collar of the greatcoat was altered from 
red to blue, and in 1822 white leather gloves replaced the 
cotton ones worn until then. In the same year a blue 
forage-cap, with a peak, was given out for use in the 
enclosure only, a gold-lace band being added to this 
head-gear in 1837. 

In 1824 another important alteration was made, white 
duck and blue-grey trousers replacing the white knee- 
breeches and blue pantaloons respectively for Sunday and 

1 For uniform worn previous to this, see page 22. 



tH 64 THE PERIOD 1806—1854. 



week-day wear. In the following year the frog shoulder- 
belts, previously used by the whole company, were reserved 
for the corporals only, with the additional distinction of 
gold rings round the sleeves, just above the cuffs. The 
one gold-fringed epaulette on the right shoulder disap- 
peared about this time, the dress of a corporal in 1825 
being shown in Plate IV., 3. 

In 1830 the single-breasted coatee was replaced by a 
double-breasted one with red linings. The corporals' gold 
rings disappeared, and they received two straps on the 
shoulders, with gold epaulettes for full-dress occasions. In 
1834 gold lace was put on the collars of the prize-winners 
(Plate V., 1.), and two years later the tightly-buttoned -in 
greatcoat gave way to a loose military cloak. 

In 1838 red stripes were put on the blue-grey trousers, 
which were cut very loose, and in 1840 good-conduct 
badges were ordered to be worn on the sleeve. The first 
was awarded after one year's service, and the others after 
every six months, to cadets with no entries in the company 
defaulter book during those periods. Dark-blue trousers 
replaced the light-grey in 1845. 

In 1810 a charge of twenty guineas, in addition to 
thirty shillings for his warrant, was made against the 
* ' relatives of every cadet admitted to the company. This 

covered the expenses of his original outfit in uniform, 
books, etc. ; otherwise the cost of the Academy, as here- 
tofore, was borne entirely by the public. The annual vote 
-, reached its maximum at £7,789 for 1820, and then gradu- 

ally fell to £3,402 for 1830. 

In 1831 the system of "annual contributions by the 
friends of the cadet " was established. The scale was 
regulated as follows 1 : — 

I. For cadets not sons of officers in the Army or Navy, £80 per 
annum. 

II. Sons of admirals or generals, £60 per annum. 
1 Report of Colonel Yolland's Commission, 1856. 



EDUCATION AT THE "SHOP" IN 1806. 65 

ILL Sons of captains and commanders in the Navy and colonels 
and regimental field-officers in the Army, £50 per annum. 

IV. Sons of all officers in the Army and Navy under the above 
ranks, £40 per annum. 

V. Sons of officers of the Army and Navy who had died in the 
service, and whose families were proved to be left in pecuniary distress, 
£20 per annum. 

By this means the Academy became almost entirely 
self-supporting. In fact, for the first ten years the surplus 
of receipts over expenditure averaged over £2,000 annually, 
but after that a small vote became necessary. 



II. — THE EDUCATIONAL COURSE. 

The Staff and its Pay — Study Organisation, 1806— Formation of Practical 
and Theoretical Classes, 1820— Changes in Study Organisation from 1823 
to 1836 — Surveying— Classes vice Academies, 1840— Carshalton, 1847 — 
Changes in 1848 — Time Table, 1848 — Prizes and Medals — General 
Review of the Course, 1806 to 1854. 

The great increase in the establishment in 1806 neces- 
sitated the appointment of an assistant-inspector for superin- 
tending the education of the junior cadets in the Arsenal. 
He accompanied them to the Common in 1820, and hence- 
forth helped the inspector in his duties, viz., the super- 
vision of the professors and masters, and the responsibility 
of seeing that the cadets were taught in accordance with 
the syllabus. The inspector, or his assistant, also controlled 
the instruction of the practical class. The augmentation 
likewise caused the addition of three mathematical masters, 
and that particular staff now mustered nine members, a 
fact which emphasises the importance attached to the 
subject. 

In 1815 M. Landmann finished his long career as 
professor of fortification at the R. M. A., and retired 
on a pension of £500 per annum. The opportunity was 
taken of trying to find an Englishman to fill the vacant 
post, but without success. None sufficiently qualified were 



06 THE PERIOD 1803-1854. 

available, and not until ten years later was the fortification 
staff filled with ordnance officers. 

From 1821 the practical part of artillery was taught by 
an officer specially attached to the senior class ; otherwise 
science and fortification were still conducted under one 
staff. In 1846, however, a professor of artillery was ap- 
pointed, the first to hold the title being Captain W. M. 
Dixon, RA. The billet of gymnastic instructor had a brief 
existence between 1824 and 1826, and -in 1829 the posts of 
the fencing and dancing masters were abolished. At this time 
Professor Faraday, of world-wide renown, began his twenty- 
nine years' service at the R. M. A. as lecturer in chemistry. 

It will be remembered that from 1802 the pay of the 
staff, from the inspector to the lowest modeller, increased 
triennially until a maximum was reached, after thirty years' 
service. In 1814, however, the Master-General approved of 
these periodical increases being doubled, and the maximum 
being attained after fifteen years' service. No better proof 
of improvement in the conduct and efficiency of the pro- 
fessors and masters can be desired. When it became 
customary to appoint officers as instructors in military 
subjects, the system of paying them differed from that for 
the civilian staff. Besides their regimental pay, professors 
received £250 per annum, and instructors 5s. per diem. 

In 1809 the masters were ordered to teach no more 
private pupils. The rule seems to have fallen into abey- 
ance shortly afterwards, for we find that exactly fifty years 
later they were again given the same order. The private 
pupils referred to were generally candidates for admission, 
and not cadets, who, as we have before seen, were not 
allowed to receive private tuition from the Academy 
masters. This restriction was even further extended in 
1831, when extra lessons outside study hours, from any- 
master whatever, were forbidden. 

In 1806 the R. M. A. was divided into six Academies 
for purposes of study. The first and second were each 
kept at a strength of twenty-nine cadets, and were taught 



THE PRACTICAL CLASS FORMED. 67 

the more advanced parts of mathematics, military subjects, 
and drawing. The third and fourth learnt mathematics, 
French and drawing. The fifth and sixth, composed of 
the junior cadets, occupied the position of the old "lower 
school," and, besides their drill, were taught no differently 
from the ordinary school-boy of the time. The study of 
the elements of fortification was added to the third and 
fourth Academies' courses in 1810. 

Academy promotion continued on the same lines as 
heretofore until 1826, when periodical examinations were 
instituted. " They were held half-yearly by the masters, 
and fixed the rank to be taken by cadets in their passage 
from one Academy to another. At the conclusion of the 
first year's residence of each cadet, the masters stated their 
opinion as to the probability of his making sufficient pro- 
gress to qualify within the fixed period for a commission." 1 
Each Academy continued to be divided up into a certain 
number of classes, generally four, and promotion from one 
to another depended on the master of each class. 

For reasons that are set forth in Part III. of this 
chapter, the R. M. A. was divided up into practical and theo- 
retical classes in 1820, and the fifth and sixth Academies 
abolished. The organisation was then as follows : — The 
senior cadets who had qualified for commissions formed 
the practical class in the Arsenal, and the juniors were 
split up into four Academies on the Common. Four years 
was the maximum period for remaining in the theoretical, 
and one year in the practical class. As a matter of fact, 
the times thus spent varied considerably. At the end of 
the theoretical course a public examination was held, 
which, however, did not affect the position of the cadets 
in the class ; the periodical examination fixed their seniority, 
and the successful candidates were promoted to the 
practical class. 

As the establishment of the cadet company grew less 
and less, the strength of the Academies likewise diminished, 

1 Report of Colonel Yolland's Commission. 



68 THE PERIOD 1806—1854. 

and in 1823 it was found necessary to reduce their 
number to three. In the following year gymnastics was 
introduced as part of the course at the upper barracks, 
and in 1829 the system of making cadets study in their 
rooms for an hour every evening was tried, the officer on 
duty going round occasionally to see that all were work- 
ing. It was not a success, and did not last for many 
years. Riding first became a part of the cadets' daily 
routine in 1830, but in the practical class only, and in 
1836 German was added to the list of studies. 

In 1832, 1833, and 1834, the gentlemen cadets of the 
practical class who were nominated to the R. E. went through 
a course of surveying at Chatham. Quarters were allotted 
to them in No. 14 House in Brompton Barracks, one room 
being used as a mess-room and another as a study. The 
course lasted for six months, during which period they 
received 4s. a day, their relatives paying contributions to 
the agent of the Royal Engineers at the same rate as to 
the R. M. A. This procedure ended in 1835, when sur- 
veying was added to the curriculum of the Academy. 

A radical change in organisation was made in 1840, as 
far as the theoretical course was concerned. In February 
the lieutenant-governor issued the following order, which 
came into effect at the commencement of the term : — 

"The Master-General has approved of a new distribution of the 
cadets for the purpose of carrying on the studies. The division into 
Academies is to cease, and the cadets are to be formed into classes as 
follows, viz. : five classes of mathematics, four classes in fortification, 
and four classes formed for the study of languages, history, and geo- 
graphy ; surveying will be taught, as heretofore, to a class formed from 
the others. The present arrangements are not to be considered as. 
permanent, but will be liable to such changes as may appear necessary 
in the gradual working of the plan. Thus the system of individual 
instruction and division of the cadets into Academies for study, with ad- 
vancement from Academy to Academy, chiefly according to mathematical 
talent, provided a certain number of plates in fortification were drawn y 
which has been followed for very many years, is changed to class instruc- 
tion ; that is, each branch of study is to be carried on independently of 
every other, and the cadets divided into classes according to their efficient 
advancement in each study, each class being subdivided into sections 



CARSHALTOX STARTED. 69 

for instructions according to progress, each section to be called up once 
in each attendance, so that each cadet will be regularly carried through 
every branch of study, and be advanced from class to class without 
reference to advancement in any other ; none to be considered eligible 
for final examination in the theoretical course till he has reached the 
1st class of mathematics and of fortification, and be either in the 1st class 
of French, or qualified to be so ; and in order to obtain a commission he 
must also receive certificates of diligence and fair ]>rogress in the other 
branches of study. l 

In 1847 the Board of Ordnance made an experiment. 
It established a school at Carshalton House, near Croydon, 
with the object of preparing boys for cadetships, and thus 
facilitating the course of education at the R. M. A. The 
establishment consisted of one head master, two assistant 
masters, and 100 scholars. A nomination from the Master- 
General was necessary before entering the institution ; and, 
after duly qualifying on reaching the required age, the boys 
were admitted to the R. M. A. The manner of conducting 
the work was much the same as in other schools until 
1853, when Captain Peter MacLean, R.A., being appointed 
head master, the training was reorganised on a military 
basis, and the boys dressed in uniform. There is nothing 
to show that the boys from Carshalton ever developed into 
more or less efficient cadets than those from other schools. 

The regulations of 1848 introduced several very im- 
portant alterations. The R. M. A. was divided into one 
practical and four theoretical classes. In the latter a cadet 
now belonged to one class for the study of every subject ; 
he could no longer be, say, in the first for mathematics, the 
second for fortification, the third for drawing, etc. The 
organisation, in fact, was made similar to the present one, 
except that the professors in their respective subjects divided 
up each class into sections according to individual talent. 

The regulations for the first time definitely laid down 
that, should any cadet " fail to qualify himself in the theo- 
retical course within four years," his name should be " sub- 
mitted to the Master-General for removal from the Institution." 

From the " Records of the R. M. A." The italics to draw attention to 
the chief points in the new organisation. 



70 THE PERIOD 1806-1854. 

But the chief alteration effected was the award of 
marks for proficiency attained in the practical class, a 
step which, as it relates to "final examinations," is dealt 
with later. 1 Details of the whole course in 1848 will be 
found in Appendix XXIV. (a), in reading which it should be 
noted that the regulations gave the lieutenant-governor a 
free hand in abridging or extending, according to the rapid 
or slow state of promotion existing at the time. From 
1847 to 1853, the cadets engaged in the practical course 
were divided into two classes, the junior of which was 
known as the "competitive class." Its work was the 
same as the other's, with the exception that riding was 
omitted. 



TIME TABLE, 1848. 


Summer. 
6.30 


Theoretical Class. ; 


Winter. 


Extra Drill 


7.15 


7.15 


Breakfast 


8 


8-11 


Study 


9-12 


11.15-12.45 


Drills, etc. 


12.15-12.45 


1 


Dinner 


1 


2-4.30 


Study 


2-4 


4.45-5.45 


Squad Drill 


4.45-5.45 


6-8 


Study 


5-7 


8 30 


Supper 
Roll Call 


7.30 


10 


9 


10.30 


"Out Lights" 
No work Saturdays j 


9.30 


After 12.15 


After 12 


Practical Class. 


7.15 


Breakfast 


8 


8-11 


Study 


9-12 


11.15-1 { 


Riding Drill (twice a ) 
week) and general Drills i i 


12.15-1.15 


1.30-4 


Study i 


1.30-3.30 


4.45 


Dinner 


3.45 


5.45-7.45 


Study ! 


4.45-6.45 


10 


Roll Call I 


9 


11 
8-11 


u Out Lights " 1 


10 


Study on Saturdays ; 


9-12 


11.15-1.15 


after that, no work. 


12.15-2.15 



1 Vide page 80. 



THE CADETS WEAR MEDALS. 71 

Rewards for proficiency in the various subjects had 
always been given at the R. M. A., but only at the end of 
the cadet's career there. For several years after 1833, 
however, three prizes were presented to each Academy at 
the periodical examinations, but those cadets who were 
promoted into the practical class were not allowed to take 
them. The winners wore a strip of gold lace on their 
collars as a mark of distinction. In 1849 medals were 
given at the end of the theoretical course to those who 
had most distinguished themselves in mathematics, forti- 
fication, geography, history, French, and German. They 
were worn in uniform while the recipients were in the 
practical class. 

As we noticed in the last chapter, the organisation of 
the R. M. A. was in a very bad state at the commence- 
ment of this period, owing to the excessive demand in 
the ordnance for officers. In spite of all that could be 
done — and the circumstances of the case naturally pre- 
cluded any very efficacious steps being taken — the course 
of studies was greatly disarranged for many years. In 
fact, not until the demand ceased about 1811 did it at all 
recover its equilibrium. Then came the inevitable conse- 
quence — a sudden dearth of vacancies which almost entirely 
stopped class promotion. The steps taken in dealing with 
this will be seen in Part III. of this chapter. It was 
not until 1826 that the system of education really re- 
ceived a fair trial, but from that time on it worked satis- 
factorily. 

The regulation ordering cadets to be examined at the 
end of their first year resulted in many being removed 
" as not being likely to qualify for commissions in the 
time allowed." It consequently produced harder work 
among the juniors than would have otherwise been the 
case. The general behaviour of the classes in study hours 
showed great improvement on the previous period (1704- 
180(i), but was still far from perfect. The corporals took 
turns in keeping order in each room, and the system 



72 THE PERIOD 1806—1854. 

worked well, but had the palpable disadvantage of inter- 
rupting the continuity of their studies. 

The punishment inflicted by these corporals was not 
always, perhaps, in accordance with the regulations. In 
" Gunner Jingo's Jubilee " we find that there was once " a 
laughter-loving youngster, whose irrepressible exuberance of 
spirits during study was a source of annoyance to the corporal 
on duty, who ordered him an extra dose of frivolity on 
the principle similia similibas curantur. The festive youth 
was compelled to execute a pas seul up the hall of study 
to the platform of the Octagon Tower, whence the spectacles 
of the grim German professor glared at the apparently insane 
performer as he pirouetted and kissed his hand, singing 
his own accompaniment in an assumed, and by no means 
unmelodious, falsetto. 

" The refrain ran — 

' My name's Torriano, 
And I'm a damned I — taliano ! ' 

" The performer was a remarkably broad-shouldered, 
handsome lad, with merry brown eyes. (His name, by the 
way, was an Italian one.) It was too much for the professor's 
gravity. 

" After using his wonted formula, ' Shoken ! shoken ! 
kaporal, put dat shentlemans onder arrests ! ' he burst out 
laughing. The consequences were not, as well as I remember, 
very serious to the merry-making one, at any rate not 
sufficiently so to make him serious for any length of time." 

Between 1841 and 1854 ninety-eight cadets were re- 
moved from the R. M. A. for failing to progress satisfactorily 
in their studies. This number does not include those dis- 
missed for misconduct, and therefore gives a high average 
of removals per annum. Many of the ninety-eight were 
unsuccessful in more than one subject. Altogether, there 
were fifty-five failures in mathematics, thirty-eight in 
" general efficient progress," twenty-eight in fortification, 
and seven in other subjects. 1 

1 Report of Colonel Yolland's Commission, 1856. 






&3 W ^flr- 



C.M.WMTSSV. 



! W^Milill 




DISQUALIFIED I 

(From a drawing at " 77«? Shop.") 

(The sort of thing the G. C. of the Fifties used to put in his note-book to propitiate his 

instructors !] 



74 THE PERIOD 1806— 1£5*. 



III.— FINAL EXAMINATIONS AND COMMISSIONS. 

System of Commissioning, 1806 to 1810— Public Examinations resumed in 1811 
— Stagnation in Promotion Commences, 1814; a Grave Situation in 1816 ; 
and State of Promotion in 1820 — Important Decision by the Duke of 
Wellington— Scarcity of Commissions alters the R. M. A.'s Organisation — 
Commissions, 1820-25— Foreign Tours, 1822 — End of the Scarcity of 
Promotion, 182o— Final Examinations, 1826 to 1847, and 1848 to 1854— 
Humorous "Description of a Public Examination" by an Addiscombe Cadet. 

T3 Y increasing the strength of the company at Woolwich, 
in 1806, from 100 to 188, a larger supply of cadets became 
available for meeting the great annual number of 
vacancies in the ordnance. The good effects of this step, 
however, were not felt at once owing to the youth of the newly- 
joined cadets forming this addition to the establishment. 
There was no decrease in the demand for officers, and 
for several years it was found impossible to put all who 
were commissioned through the full course of instruction. 

The resumption of public examinations was, in con- 
sequence, still deferred, and cadets were promoted to the 
vacancies after a very brief private examination, chiefly on 
the lieutenant-governor's recommendation " that they were 
likely to prove useful officers." Twenty-one were thus 
commissioned in the artillery in 1807, forty-nine in 1808, 
forty-one in 1809, and thirty in 1810. Not more than one 
or two promotions annually were made to the engineers 
during these years. The custom still held good of allowing 
cadets desirous of entering the sappers to refuse lieu- 
tenancies in the artillery, and to remain several months 
longer at the R. M. A. Six who had adopted this course 
were commissioned in the R. E. in 1810, which year also 
saw the last cadet from Woolwich appointed to the East 
India Company's service. 

In 1811, public examinations were resumed after a lapse 
of nearly seventeen years. By the " Records of the R. M. A." 
we find that the following procedure was adopted: "The 



i 



THE "SHOP" IX DIFFICULTIES. 75 

whole of the upper Academy, consisting of twenty-nine 
cadets, were examined. In order to maintain the principle 
of competition, not more than twenty-four of the best 
qualified were promoted, these twenty-four to be divided 
equally between the artillery and engineers. That they 
should be allowed to choose their service according to the 
seniority established by their examination, until half the 
number shall have chosen one corps ; after which the re- 
mainder to be decidedly allotted to the other, as neither 
the circumstances of the service, nor the present state of 
the institution, admit of any cadets remaining at the 
Academy for the purpose of halving another choice on a 
future occasion." Thus we see that, for the first time, 
cadets were obliged to choose their corps, and were not 
allowed to remain at the R. M. A. with a view to sub- 
sequently obtaining appointments in the engineers. This 
system of commissioning twenty-four out of the twenty- 
nine cadets in the first Academy lasted for the next two 
years. In 1811, thirty-six altogether were promoted, 
twenty-four in 1812, and twenty-four in 1818, half to each 
arm of the ordnance. 

The R. M. A. was now — 1814 — brought face to face with 
a very difficult situation. The peace with France, ensuing on 
the capitulation of Paris and Napoleon's retirement to the 
Isle of Elba, produced the usual result in the British Army. 
The strength of the commissioned ranks was reduced by 
placing a large number of officers on half-pay, and as they 
were afterwards restored to the full-pay list on casualties 
occurring by deaths or retirements, it followed that there were 
no vacancies left for cadets. The half-pay list was a long one, 
and, as in 1783, absolute stagnation in promotion for many 
years to come threatened the R. M. A. The lieutenant- 
governor foresaw this, and pointed out urgently the evils that 
would arise unless a certain number of cadets periodically 
received commissions. As a result of his appeal, the Master- 
General allowed nine vacancies to be filled from the R. M. A. 
in 1814 as a special case, although he had previously ordained 




76 THE PERIOD 1806—1854. 

that none were to be given. In the following year no cadets 
were promoted. Xo bad effects, however, were immediately 
evident, as it gave the Academy an opportunity of recovering 
from its dose of " over-commissioning." 

But the state of affairs was growing desperate in 1816. 
The first Academy was filled with cadets thoroughly efficient 
in their studies, advancing in years, and with apparently no 
hope of promotion. The lower classes were overcrowded 
with juniors, all well qualified for advancement to a higher 
Academy. Colonel Mudge, the lieutenant-governor, wrote 
again to the Master - General, and received the following 
reply l : — 

" Unless the utmost caution is used, I am persuaded the 
progress of the Academy will be entirely stopped. The system 
of a season of customary promotion is very appropriate to a 
war, but cannot be adhered to in peace. The vacancies in 
the engineers being now reduced to four only, no further 
appointments can take place in that corps, except any indi- 
viduals should manifest extraordinary talent. The artillery, 
if not cautiously managed, will also come to a stagnation of 
promotion, and the Academy will grow to a college of men. 
Under this discouraging prospect I wish Colonel Mudge to 
suggest his ideas for my consideration." 

In response, Colonel Mudge asked urgently for at least 
twenty commissions to be given, but otherwise made no 
suggestions of any value. He practically deferred the ques- 
tion until the next public examination became due. The 
Master-General approved of the twenty commissions asked 
for being given in December, 1816, and further laid down 
that one -half of the vacancies occurring in the ordnance 
should be filled from the R. M. A., the other half from the 
half-pay list. Nominally eight cadets would thus annually 
receive commissions; but, as a matter of fact, not more than 
four actually did in each year from 1817 to 1819. 

The Duke of Wellington was appointed Master-General 
in 1819, and took up the question with his usual strong 

1 " Records of the R. M. A.," Earl Mulgravt's letter of £th November, 1816. 




HOW THE DIFFICULTIES WERE OVERCOME. 77 

hand. Its solution was unfortunately delayed by the death 
of General Mudge in 1820, after very valuable services in 
connection with the R. M. A. ; but Colonel Ford, R.E., the 
new lieutenant-governor, applied himself energetically to 
preparing a clear statement of the case for the Duke's con- 
sideration. On the 18th June he forwarded the result of 
his labours, the chief points of his letter being as follows : — 

1. By a comparison of the casualties occurring (a) during time of 
war, viz., 1810 to 1815, and (b) during time of peace, viz., 1816 to 1820, 
he deduced that the average annual number of vacancies that would 
occur in the Ordnance Corps— in proportion to its existing strength 
— in the next few years would be seventeen. 

2. If eight of the vacancies were given to the cadets (a3 heretofore) 
and eight to the half-pay officers it would lead to the gradual extinction 
of the half-pay list ; and the vacancies to be filled from the R M. A. 
would successively progress from eight to seventeen per annum. 

3. This, however, even if eight cadets were removed annually for 
other causes, would necessitate a cadet remaining 9J years at the 
Academy if the present establishment were kept up. 

4. liecomme?ided : A reduction of the cadets until the extinction 
of the half -pay list. 

On the receipt of the lieutenant-governor's letter the 
Duke of Wellington ordered that one gentleman cadet was 
to be commissioned as a second lieutenant on half-pay for 
every two second lieutenants on half-pay that were promoted 
to the full-pay list ; and when the half-pay second lieutenants 
were exhausted, a cadet was to be appointed to every full-pay 
vacancy as it occurred. The practical result of this order 
would be that, until 1822, one cadet would be appointed 
as a second lieutenant (on half-pay only) for every four 
casualties among the officers of the Ordnance Corps. This 
would give an average of about four commissions per annum, 
so, in order to meet the consequent slowness of promotion, 
the Duke ordered that the following changes 1 should take 
place at the R. M. A. : — 

1 These properly belong to other parts of this chapter, but are given here 
so as to present in one place all the steps taken to remedy the great evils 
caused by the dearth of promotion. 



78 THE PERIOD 1806-1854. 

"I. The mmber of cadets to ba gradually decreased from 150 to 100, 
by naming one candidate for every two vacancies that occur at 
the K. M. A. 

"II. No cadet to remain at the Academy after he shall be twenty 
years of age, or after he shall have been at the Academy five years, unless 
he shall have proved himself tit to hold a commission in the Artillery 
or Engineers upon a public examination, and shall have been reported 
accordingly. 

" III. Cadets attaining the age of twenty years, or who shall have 
bsen in a course of education for five years, and shall not be reported fit 
to become officers in one of the corps, shall be dismissed from the 
Academy as incapable and unfit. 

" IV. Cadets when reported capable and fit to have commissions in 
the Artillery or Engineers, shall, till vacancies occur in these corps 
respectively, be removed from the upper Academy to the buildings in 
the Arsenal ; they are there to attend and learn the repository exercises, 
also the laboratory duties of making all ammunition and stores, to be 
instructed in the mode of casting and proving guns, and also of proving 
gunpowder at Purfleet, to make drawings of different species of ordnance 
and gun-carriage, to attend gun-practice as often as circumstances will 
permit, to be present at all experiments, likewise such artillery parades 
as their employment will allow, and to attend and acquire a knowledge 
of the practice of courts-martial. 

" V. These cadets are to be examined at the end of the year in these 
practical branches of artillery, and those reported to be sufficiently 
instructed shall be sent home to their friends, receiving their pay as 
cadets till there shall be vacant commissions for them. 

"VI. This arrangement is to be carried into execution from the 
period of the next examination. In the meantime all the cadets upon 
the establishment are to be lodged in the building called the upper 
Academy." l 

In consequence of these orders by the Master-General, 
the cadets fulfilling the required conditions of age and 
service were examined by a public Board for commissions 
in December, 1820. The forty-six who qualified were 
removed to the Arsenal, and underwent a practical course 
of artillery. They were then brought before a committee 
of artillery and engineer officers; this further examination 
not in any way, however, affecting the seniority gained in 
the public examination at the end of what was now the 
theoretical course. 

1 From the Duke's Minute, in the " Records of the R. M. A." 



A LAR&R NUMBER OF " UNEMPLOYED." «9 

The system thus instituted lasted for the next few years, 
and effectually cleared out the veterans at the R. M. A. The 
number actually commissioned annually (between 1820 and 
1900) will be found in Appendix XXII., from which it will 
be seen that, with one exception, it remained very small until 
1827, consequently a very large proportion of those who had 
finished their practical course had to remain at their homes 
for often two or three years while waiting for vacancies. To 
employ these, and to improve their military knowledge, large 
batches were taken every year between 1822 and 1825 to 
visit the fortresses in the Netherlands. 1 As " permission 
to go " only was given, it is to be inferred that Government 
did not pay the expenses of these trips. The numbers 
that actually went form a guide in estimating the "unem- 
ployed" cadets during these years. They were: in 1822, 37; 
in 1823, 47; in 1824, 55 ; and in 1825, 56. But it must be 
remembered that by no means all took part in the tours, 
so that the total number of " unemployed " must have been 
far greater than the foregoing figures would indicate. 

The number waiting for commissions increased year by 
year, until it reached over 100 in 1825. A great reduction 
was then made by promoting twenty-eight to the artillery, 
twenty- six to the engineers, and over fifty to the line. 
This step practically ended the great difficulty that had 
confronted the R. M. A. for over ten years, and henceforth 
an adequate number of vacancies generally existed. 

In 1826 the nature of the final examinations changed, 
for in that year, as we have already seen, periodical 
examinations were instituted. Having successfully nego- 
tiated this test, the First Academy appeared at a public 
examination and made a display of their knowledge. There 
was very little practical use in this ordeal, for the seniority 
of the cadets had been fixed for good and all by the final 
periodical examination. At the end of the practical course 
they appeared again before a Board (of artillery and engineer 
officers) for the purpose of showing what progress they had 

1 Report of Colonel Yolland's Commission, 1856. 



80 THE PERIOD 1806—1854. 

made since leaving the theoretical class : but, as before, no 
extra marks were given. After thus having undergone what 
may be said to have been three final examinations, they 
were commissioned. 

The disadvantage of the system lay, of course, in the 
fact that the last six months' work did not affect the 
seniority of the cadets in the class. Hence the only 
incentive to diligence was the desire to satisfy the final 
Board. However, this important and necessary alteration 
was made in 1848 by a regulation allotting a value to the 
subjects in the practical course. 1 After this date the cadets 
in the practical class were examined viva voce by " the 
instructors and lecturers in their respective branches of 
study, in the presence of the inspector." A certain 
number of marks were detailed to each question that was 
put ; and the total gained in this, and in the last periodical 
examination, were added together, giving each cadet his 
final place. The class then gave an exhibition before the 
inevitable public Board — held now, and not at the end of 
the theoretical course, as heretofore — and was commissioned. 
The system thus instituted obtained for -the remainder of 
this period. 

Apropos of these public examinations, the author 2 of " In. 
the Company's Service " gives a capital account of one held 
at Addiscombe. As the procedure adopted at Woolwich 
was practically the same, the following extract is given: — 

"The half-yearly public examination of the cadets was 
a performance carefully prepared and rehearsed beforehand. 
Its object was to make a favourable impression on a care- 
fully selected audience. Every actor in the drama, from 
the distinguished public examiner down to the least 
proficient cadet, had notice beforehand of the part he 
was to play. Hence the prompt answers, ready speech and 
freedom from nervousness which the spectators admired 
in these young soldiers. The only difficulty and source 

1 Vide Appendix XXIIT. (a). 

2 An old Addiscombe cidet. 



A PUBLIC EXAMINATION. 81 

of occasional miscarriage arose from the fact that the 
cadets themselves, being of an age and profession little 
given to seeming, were less careful to conceal the real 
character of the periodical exhibition than their more 
diplomatic seniors. According to the established order of 
the day's proceedings, the forenoon is to be devoted to 
exhibiting the acquirements of the senior term in book- 
learning within doors. . . . The long hall ... is provided 
with a platform at one end for the visitors and public 
examiner ; while in front of this, blackboards and easels are 
placed ready for the use of the young mathematicians who 
are presently to display their knowledge. 

" The half-yearly formality of questioning now about to 
commence was as little subject to variation as the manual 
and platoon exercise that was to follow it ; but it was a 
gratifying display, nevertheless. Still, it may be supposed 
that, with the exception of a small proportion of the guests, 
including the ladies, the good Archbishop from Addington, 
and perhaps one or two of the directors, no one seriously 
believed that what took place was absolutely unpremedi- 
tated. Punctually at eleven o'clock, or as soon after as 
the visitors are seated, and the cadets marched by com- 
panies to the benches ranged on either side of the long 
room, the Chairman gives the signal, and the examination 
begins. 

" ' Mr. Gentleman Cadet Withers/ the public examiner 
slowly begins, producing thereupon that little flutter 
which commonly attends the first sound of the human 
voice breaking upon the expectant silence of a newly as- 
sembled multitude, ' will you kindly demonstrate the relation 
of the power to the weight in that system of pulleys, where 
every pulley hangs by a separate string?' 

"Hardly has the public examiner begun to speak, than 
Mr. Gentleman Cadet Withers arises with alacrity, and, with 
a face of confidence, makes straight for one of the black- 
boards. It is clear, in the language of schools, that the 
question ' suits him.' The words are barely finished when 

G 



82 THE PERIOD 1806—1854. 

Withers advances with the required system of pulleys elabor- 
ately drawn in chalk, places the diagram on an easel convenient 
to the gaze of the Chairman and ladies, and without waiting 
for further hint or sign, proceeds to explain with much ease 
of manner the precise advantage to be obtained from the 
mechanical contrivance in question. 

"But Withers is only an artillery cadet. With dramatic 
art the chief performer, the first engineer of the batch, is 
kept till the last. The questions put to him relate, of course, 
to astronomy and Newton's ' Principia/ With less openness 
than Withers, and some eye to effect, this performer delays 
the production of his board for a while, so as to give the 
impression that his mind is battling with questions con- 
cerning the movements of the heavenly bodies. But once 
embarked, it exceeds the young man's skill to make it 
appear that his thoughts are occupied in the solution of 
an original problem, when they are, in fact, engaged in 
endeavouring to recall the terms of a well-conned lesson. 
The impression made by the astronomer, except for the 
greater maze of words and the dazing effect of listening 
for ten minutes at a stretch to a series of wholly incom- 
prehensible propositions conveyed in one's mother tongue 
is not very different from that produced by his junior. 

"These severe exercises accomplished, there rises from 
behind the Chairman a stout, self-important individual, . . . 
to read the lieutenant-governor's report, to which that officer, 
sitting on the right of the Chairman, . . . listens with 
an expression of countenance peculiar to those who are 
hearing their own composition read in face of a multitude. 
The report is lengthy, and on the whole favourable. It 
speaks darkly of certain lapses from virtue — now as it hopes, 
repented of — expresses a hope that the sense of responsibility 
may in future serve to keep in check the follies of youth, 
and, at this point getting into a more cheerful view, mentions 
several who are leaving the seminary with characters un- 
sullied by a single depreciatory mark. It winds up with an 
invocation so similar in style to a sermon that it wakes up 







8F 

St 






84 THE PERIOD 1806— 1S54. 

the Archbishop with a start, under the momentary belief that 
he is at a confirmation." 

It was during this period of the " Shop's " story that a 
cadet who in after years attained great fame, and whose name 
became an integral part of British history, was educated at 
the R. M. A. Born at No. 1, Kempt Terrace, Woolwich 
Common, on the 28th January, 1833, Charles George Gordon 
entered the Academy at the age of fifteen. His early life 
gave but little indication of those wonderful qualities which 
marked his subsequent career. One who was at the " Shop " 
with him says 1 that, "though a severe disciplinarian as an old 
cadet, and eccentric in his mode of punishment as in all else," 
yet he never joined in the ordinary frivolities of the other 
cadets. 

One of Gordon's peculiarities was that he " would at times, 
without apparent reason, withdraw himself from his friends, 
not speaking for days." Another was his addiction to making 
sotto voce comments on affairs in general and on orders in 
particular, disturbing to the equanimity of his front rank file, 
behind whom the speaker was unseen. 

" On one occasion an order was read out that, on the 
recommendation of the doctor, Gentlemen Cadets were for- 
bidden to bathe later than the month of October. 

" ' Damned nonthence, coddling young soldiers ! ' lisped 
Gordon. ' Let us bathe all winter, and prove that it's whole- 
some and the doctor's a fool.' 

"The front rank file grinned and got an extra-drill for 
unsteadiness. Gordon stepped to the front, took the blame 
upon himself, and also got a drill for his pains. Next 
morning, after 'oxters' (as the defaulters' drill was called), 
they doubled over to the cadets' pond and bathed, continuing 
to do so all winter, though they had sometimes to break the ice." 

The cadets were in the habit of rushing out of the hall 
after meals, and on one occasion the officer on duty ordered 
a corporal to stand at the head of the steps leading out of 
the door and check the mob. " This was too much for 

1 Major-General Bland Strange, R.A., in " Gunner Jingo's Jubilee." 



CHINESE GORDON. 85 

Charlie Gordon (as he was always called by his numerous 
friends), who, putting down his head, butted with it, and 
catching the corporal in the pit of his stomach, not only 
sent him down the stairs, but through the glass door beyond. 
The corporal jumped up, and Charlie Gordon was placed in 
confinement and nearly dismissed. He was, however, allowed 
to remain, though deprived of all his honours, and the cap- 
tain of the cadet company (Eardley-Wilmot) predicted that 
he would never make an officer." l 

As a cadet Gordon was a poor mathematician, and though 
very hard-working and very good at surveying and fortifica- 
tion, yet he would probably have failed to " get sappers " in 
his own batch. A jnisfortune which befell him, however, 
proved a blessing in disguise, as he was keenly desirous of 
becoming an Engineer. In one of the numerous " bullying " 
troubles of the time, some of the " snookers " were being 
questioned as to the origin of their various bruises, and one 
of them accused Gordon of having struck him with a clothes- 
brush, but that the blow was a very slight one. The author- 
ities, however, regarded the matter seriously, and Gordon was 
put back six months. 

It is narrated that when his commanding officer informed 
him of his decision, Gordon tore off his " swabs " (corporal's 
shoulder-straps) and threw them on the floor, saying : 

"If I am not fit to become an officer this term, I am 
not fit to wear these ! " 

He was eventually commissioned in the R. E., on the 23rd 
June, 1852, after serving four years in the Cadet Company. 

There was another Gordon at the " Shop " in those days — . 
Adam Lindsay Gordon, the Australian poet and stockrider. 
" Gunner Jingo " says : " He was the exact opposite of Charles 
Gordon — a dreamy lad, with a far-off look in his eyes, indic- 
ative, perhaps, of the touching and semi-philosophical ballads, 
so dear to every Australian heart (redolent as they are of 
fatalism and wattle-blossoms), though scarcely indicative of 
the man who beat ' the Favourite/ " 

1 " Events in the Life of Charles George Gordon/' by H. AV. Gordon. 



«c 



THE PERIOD 1806—1854. 



He was a keen sportsman, however, even in those early- 
days ; so keen, indeed, that it led to his leaving the R. M. A. 
Passionately fond of animals and devoted to racing, he bought 
a horse, agreeing with the dealer to pay for it by instalments. 
As a local meeting was coming off, he entered for one of the 
races, and spent his spare time in training his horse. Un- 
fortunately, funds ran out, several instalments became over- 
due, and the dealer refused to let him take the animal out 
of the stable. 

Here was a predicament ! Gordon stood to lose heavily 
if his horse did not start, so, with his bosom friend among 
the cadets, he stole the steed from the stable the morning 
of the race, rode him gallantly to victory, and paid the 
inevitable consequences of being summoned for "horse- 
stealing." The matter was, however, squared b) T his father, 
and young Adam Lindsay started for Australia. There he 
wrote his beautiful, stirring, pathetic poems — who has not 
read them has missed much — and from there he returned 
home, but only to meet sudden and violent death on a 
Scotch shooting-moor. 





r 'wr~Y2r* -C^Xl ■ ■ : >^ mm 





1 THE STEEPLECHASE. 







DC 
O 



3 
G 

a 

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u 



CHAPTER IV. 

A PERIOD OF TRANSITION. 1855—1864. 

Changes in Admission — Addiscombe and Carshalton Break-up— A Medley of 
Cadets— Competitive Examinations— The Lower Barracks Vacated — Uni- 
form — " Life at the Shop in 1857," by an Old Cadet. He describes the 
Work, Meals, and Habits of the G. C, and also the " Toshes," " Snookers," 
and " Persons" — The Cours) Practical Classes Abolishel, Independent 
Examiners Appointed, etc. — The Company Organised into " A," " B," and 
"C" Divisions — Conduct; Espionage, Treatment of Cadets by their 
Officers, etc. — The Mutiny of '61 : its Causes, Events, and Results, by an 
Old Cadet. 

rpHE period 1855-1864 was transitional in every respect. 

The manner of admission, the examinations, conduct, 

and general treatment of the cadets all underwent great 

changes ; and the basis of organisation was laid down on 

much the same lines as that of the present day. 

In 1855 the old Ordnance Corps became defunct, and the 
artillery and engineers came under separate management, the 
headquarters of the latter being removed to Chatham. The 
Commander-in-Chief now became the Governor of the R. M. A. 
The year also saw a great change made in regulations for 
admission to the Academy, for nomination was abolished, 
and competitive examinations open to the whole country 
substituted. The demand for officers caused by the war with 
Russia, however, hardly gave the new system a fair chance 
of getting into working order for some time. In addition to 
this, there were a very large number of boys under the age 
of sixteen who had received nominations during the last four 
years, and who had to be admitted. Most of these had been 
cleared off by April, 1856, but there still remained the 
Carshalton stuJents, who, it will be remembered, were all in 
possession of the old " Master-General's nomination." These 
were not all dealt with until April, 1859, and in the meantime 



88 A TElilOD OF TRANSITION, 1855-1864. 

another complication had arisen, for in the previous year a 
certain number of cadets had been allowed to enter Sandhurst 
with the option of afterwards changing to Woolwich. Most 
of them claimed the privilege thus accorded, and were trans- 
ferred to the R M. A. in August, 1858. 

Hardly had all the old "nominations" from Carshalton 
been admitted — the raison d'etre of its existence thus ceasing, 
the school broke up in 1859 — when the order came down 
that the East India Company's forces were to be amalgamated 
with the Queen's Army. Addiscombe was in consequence 
abolished, and in January, 1861, the last batch of cadets from 
there joined the R. M. A. 

Thus we see that, with regard to the means of admission, 
the "Shop" was in a transition stage from 1855 to 1861. 
Not until 1863 were all the cadets who were under instruc- 
tion admitted by open competition, and even then, as will be 
seen by the subjoined list, 1 another year and a half elapsed 
before all alike had begun their military training at the 
R. M. A. 

TABLE 

Showing the Medley of Cadets at the R. M. A. 
from 1855 to 1864. 



tit At a Timk under 

s E MoDE OF Admission. Instruction. 



1855 30 Direct nomination, ivithout examination 5 months, 
(exceptional), to the Practical Class. ■ 

93 Old nomination^ from country at large ' Different periods, 
and from Carshalton, to clear off the 
" old nomination list." j 

31 Open competition, to the Practical Class. 7 months. 

185G 10 Old nomination, one (the last) from the Different periods, 
country, remainder from Carshalton. i 
30 Open competition; joined at the Lower 13 to^ 15 months. 
Barracks, went through a separate I 
theoretical course for two terms, ex- I 
amined with the 1st Theoretical Class, j 
June, '57, went through a practical , 
course for 3, 4, or 5 months. 



1 From the Report of the Royal Commission, 1869. 



A MIXTURE OF CADETS. 

Table showing the Medley of Cadets (continued). 

-- - : - — 



89 



Year. 



«. i£ 



H\ 



VoDE of Admission. 



Time under 
Instruction. 



1856 13 Open competition, to Practical Class 



74 months. 



1857 39 



Op>en competition (July) ; joined at Upper 
Barracks, competed at end of first term 
for promotion with the two classes 
above them, so shortening their stay 
at R. M. A. 

Old nomination from Carshalton . . . 

Volunteer from Sandhurst, after an exam- 
ination. 



16 for 1G months, 
23 for 2 years 
4 months. 



Different periods. 
1 year 8 months. 



1858 31 



34 

19 
16 



15 to 21 months. 

Different periods. 
About 2 years. 



Open competition (January) ; rapid pro- 13 to 22 months 
motion at end of first term to higher 
classes. 

Open- competition (July); quick promo- 
tion by extra demand for officers. 

Old. nomination from Carshalton . . . 

Volunteers from Sandhurst (August), 
being portion of a batch of twenty- 
four admitted there on the under- 
standing that they might eventually 
compete for R. M. A. Afterwards 
allowed to transfer to Woolwich with- 
out examination. 



1859 35 Open competition (January) ; exception- 16 to 21 months. 

ally rapid promotion 
41 Open competition (July); rapid promo- 16 to 28 months. 

tion tn rough examination with a 

higher class 
21 Old nomination (April) ; the last from Different periods. 

Carshalton. 

1860 107 Open competition; rapid promotion 17 months to 3 

through demand for officers. years 2 months. 



1861 28 



81 



65 



From A ddiscombe (January); the senior 10 J months, 
class who joined there in August, 
1860; transferred without examina- 
tion to Woolwich ; underwent theo- 
retical instruction by themselves from 
February to June, 1861, and practical 
instruction from August to December. 

Open competition (February) ; all sent to 15 months to 3£ 
Addiscombe for want of room at years. 

It. M. A. until August, 1861. 

Open competition, which held from this 2 years to 3 years, 
date henceforward. 



90 A PERIOD OF TRANSITION, 1855—1864. 

By the foregoing list we see that, although open competi- 
tive examinations were held in 1855, yet the first that really 
gave admission to the Academy itself (and not to the practical 
class only) took place in July, 1857. The age was then fixed 
at seven teen-twenty, but in 1862 was reduced to sixteen- 
nineteen. The examinations were conducted by a " body of 
examiners specially appointed for the purpose " by the Council 
of Military Education, under whose control the whole course 
of instruction both at Woolwich and Sandhurst now came. 
There was as yet no limit placed on the number of times a 
candidate could present himself for examination. 

At the commencement of this period the two senior 
classes undergoing the practical course removed from the 
Arsenal Barracks to those just vacated by the Royal Engineers. l 
Ever since 1806, however, the division of the company into 
two parts had been productive of great inconvenience. Con- 
stant recommendations had been made that all the cadets 
should be collected under one roof, and at last, in 1859, 
preparations were begun for making great additions to the 
upper barracks. The old racquet courts and adjoining 
houses were pulled down, and on their sites were erected 
the east and west wings as far as the rear road, and also 
the corner buildings containing the present artillery and 
fortification class-rooms. The school-of-arms, two racquet 
courts, and new workshops were also started. The old 
boundary walls were removed, and the present heavy iron 
railing put up as far as the southern edge of the " ha-ha." 

The school-of-arms was the first to be finished, and was 
opened at the end of 1861. The new wings were completed 
about a year later ; the first and second classes came up from 
the old Sapper Barracks in January, 1863, and thus the whole 
of the cadet company were quartered on the Common. It had 
originally been intended that the new extension should 
provide sufficient accommodation to allow of each cadet in 
the senior classes having a separate room; but the abolition 

1 These now form part of the Grand Depot Barracks opposite the Board 
School on the way to the Arsenal station. 



REMINISCENCES OF '57. 91 

of Addiscombe and consequent increase of the company 
prevented this scheme being carried out. There were 
generally four in a room in the front buildings, two in man}' 
of the wings, and from ten to twelve in the east tower — the 
present (1900) tailor's shop, etc. 

In 1856 the old double-breasted coatee was replaced by a 
tunic, and the round hat and feather gave way to a busby 
with a red bag and horsehair plume on the left side. The 
peak of the forage cap was also altered to a similar pattern 
to an officer's, viz., sticking straight out to the front and not 
sloping downwards. In 1860 the cap was again changed, 
this time to the style of the present day, except that the 
gold band was narrower. 

The following account of life at the "Shop" is from the 
pen of an old cadet who joined the R. M. A. in 1857 from 
Carshalton : — 

" We were medically examined at the ' Shop ' hospital, and 
the examination itself was held in one of the class-rooms at 
the R. M. A. We joined in the succeeding January (1857), 
and were quartered in the east tower, with Micklem and 
Blunt for corporals to look after us and preserve us from 
the attacks of the ' old ' cadets, who were specially forbidden 
to enter the hall yard 1 at all. 

" Those were the days of bullying, and the ' snookers ' — 
as the two junior batches were termed — had a very hard 
time of it. In due course we got our uniforms, and were the 
first to wear the tunic and busby. We had hardly got 
through our squad drill when the Queen came to review the 
Crimean veterans, and the cadet company marched past 
her Majesty, at the same time as they did, in front of the 
R. A. Barracks. 

" General Lewis, RE., a Waterloo man, was Governor of 
the ' Shop ' then, but was soon succeeded by General Wilford, 
R.A., whose ideas of discipline were different from his 
predecessor's. He decided that all luxuries should be 
removed from the rooms ; so every rug, carpet, tablecloth, 

1 Tho Inner Court. 



92 A PERIOD OF TRANSITION, 1855—1864. 

armchair, etc., was banished. The old system of having 
tea in the rooms was put an end to, and we marched to 
the hall for meals. They were not very luxurious in those 
days. For breakfast we had coffee (ugh!) and brown bread 
and butter, commonly known as ' oil-stone.' Dinner, in the 
middle of the day, consisted of joint, potatoes, and beer, with 
an apple-pie on Tuesdays and a plum-duff on Sundays. As 
breakfast was at 7.15 and dinner at 1, a repast of bread 
and cheese and beer was laid in the hall, from which we could 
snatch a hasty mouthful in the quarter of an hour between 
study at 11 and drill parades. After evening study we had 
a tea, or supper, at about 8, of tea and bread and butter. 
In the course of 1856," however, the menu was somewhat 
improved by the addition of sausages, bacon, etc., for breakfast 
and tea. And we needed it, for we were very hard-worked 
then, the regime being about as follows : Study, 8 to 11 ; 
drill, 11.15 to 1; study, 2 to 4.30; drill for an hour, and 
study 6 to 8. 

" General Wilford did not approve of light to go to bed by, 
so we stood to attention at roll-call (10 p.m.), when the lights 
were put out, and we turned in as best we could in the dark. 

"There were four cadets in each room, the corporal, or 
1 head of the room/ being in charge ; the poor snookers had 
often a terrible time of it, and were severely fagged and 
unmercifully thrashed with belts and tennis-bats. As 'last 
joined/ my batch commenced study in the lowest, or 'fourth 
Academy/ where there was a large residuum of ' old ' cadets 
who had been unsuccessful in rising to the next class. At the 
end of our first term the ' old ' cadets decided that, in order 
to give themselves a better chance, every ' snooker ' should be 
put on his honour not to answer more than one-half of any 
paper at the approaching examination. One of us who 
' struck/ however, communicated this matter to the authori- 
ties, and also gave an account of the system of thrashing we 
had to undergo; and there was, as may be believed, a very 
searching inquiry. As no one would give any names, the 
whole of the 'snookers' were marched to the hospital and 



THE G. CS LIFE IN '57. 93 

examined by the medical officers. Anyone who had any 
bruises, etc., was called on to account for them on pain of 
dismissal. It is amusing to remember that Lord Cromer and 
Sir Charles Warren were among the examinees. Eventually 
several 'old' cadets were dismissed, others rusticated, etc., 
after which the ' snookers ' had a somewhat easier life. 

" The ' practical class ' in those days lived in the Sapper 
Barracks in Woolwich, and only came up to the R M. A. on 
special occasions. They practised in the Woolwich marshes, 
attended the Arsenal, went to lectures, and to the riding 
school at the R A. Barracks. I remember some of my batch 
were so foolish as to endanger their commissions by breaking 
out of barracks on the very last night of our course and 
going up to London. 

" In those days there was a dark cell and several light cells 
in which delinquents were occasionally confined. The ordin- 
ary punishments were arrest and confinement to barracks, 
carrying with them extra drill at any and all unoccupied 
hours during the day. Smoking was strictly forbidden on 
pain of severe punishment, but, nevertheless, it was the usual 
practice, and I learned to smoke there myself ! 

"The baths were in the yards, supplied with cold-water 
taps only; in the winter these froze, and we 'snookers' had 
to fill the baths in the mornings with ' tosh-cans ' from the 
pumps — a dreadfully cold business when it was freezing or 
snowing, and one had only a pair of trousers and dressing- 
gown and slippers on ! In summer we also bathed at the 
cadets' pond near the Repository, and were taught to swim 
more or less by repeated duckings. We also went to the 
Repository for heavy gun drill and mortar practice ; and used 
actually to fire at a mark placed on the upper part of the 
Common, notwithstanding that a cadet had some years before 
been killed by one of the bursting shells. 

" Usually a batch remained ' snookers ' for only a year, and 
then became ' old ' cadets ; but, owing to the change of age 
and system, my batch (being the last of the old regime) had 
to remain eighteen months as ' snookers/ This state of 



94 A PERIOD OF TRANSITION, 1855—1864. 

bondage entailed implicit obedience to any and every com- 
mand of an ' old ' cadet, and strict attention to a number of 
unwritten laws. ' Snookers ' might not use the library or 
racquet courts, had to wear their chin-straps down, to keep 
their coats buttoned, boots on, and stocks round their necks,, 
and to attend to a variety of similarly more or less irksome 
restrictions, any infraction of which was considered cool, and 
involved serious consequences ! 

" During and after the Crimean War the Government of 
the day decided to fill up some of the numerous vacancies by 
giving commissions to outsiders who had not passed through 
the R. M. A. ; but unfortunately, in advertising their intentions, 
they addressed the notice to ' Persons desirous of obtaining 
commissions, etc., etc.,' instead of to * Gentlemen.* For years, 
afterwards those who were admitted under these regulations 
were known as ' persons/ and the name was applied somewhat 
unfairly to all those who were admitted subsequently to 
commissions, after having undergone shortened courses at 
the R. M. A. It is only fair to say that the ' persons ' thus, 
admitted have almost without exception turned out most 
able officers, many of them having highly distinguished 
themselves." 1 

In 1859 the practical and theoretical courses were 
amalgamated, and the classes numbered from one (the 
highest) to six. At the end of the year, however, two of 
these were commissioned, and henceforth only five classes 
existed, each about forty strong. Two and a half years — six 
months in each class — was then laid down as the length of 
the instructional course ; and shortly afterwards a maximum 
period of three years' residence was fixed, thus allowing a 
cadet only one failure in the periodical examinations before 
being removed from the Academy. 

The final examinations came under the control of 
the Council of Military Education in 1855, and the old 
" public examination " made its last bow on the abolition of 

1 The term has stuck, for at the present day " direct commissioners " are 
often chaffed as being " persons " ! 



THE "A" DIVISION FOE MED. 95 

practical classes. The marks gained on each occasion now 
went to swell the total that gave the cadets their final places 
in the commission class. The periodical examinations were 
still conducted by the inspector and professors, but in 1864 a 
very desirable innovation was made by appointing a " Board 
of Independent Examiners " for the purpose. 

History and geography were cut out of the syllabus in 
1856, and, although classics counted high in the entrance 
examination, they were not yet included in the course. All 
the subjects of study were compulsory, a slight deviation from 
the rule being made when Hindustani was introduced in 1861 
by allowing a choice to be made between it and German. The 
instructional course was practically the same as that shown 
for 1868 in Appendix XXIV. 

In 1861 gymnastics became obligatory for the last-joined 
class, and three sergeant-instructors were added to the estab- 
lishment ; no marks, however, were given for proficiency. 
Riding was learnt by the first and second classes, the former 
doing from four to five hours a week, and the latter from two 
to three. Field works was transferred in 1861 from the 
surveying to the fortification staff, the digging ground being 
in the same field as at present used in Nightingale Vale. 
Artillery exercises took place at the back of the " Shop " in 
the " Battery," which was built about 1855 ; and mortar 
practice was carried out from a position near the west end of 
the R. A. Barracks until 1864, from which year the first class 
always went to Shoeburyness for a week. Sword, field-gun, 
and small-arm drill formed part of the course as heretofore, 
the last-named being carried out with shortened rifles. 

In 1862 the Cadet Company was divided, for purposes of 
discipline, into three divisions, the " A," " B," and " C," organ- 
ised as follows : — " B " and " C " were formed of an equal 
proportion of the four junior classes, and were each split up 
into three subdivisions. For each of these two divisions one 
responsible under officer, three subdivisional under officers, 
and about twelve corporals were selected from the second class. 

The " A " Division consisted of the first class only. When 



96 A PEKIOD OF TBANSITION, 1855-1864. 

the second class were in due course advanced to that position, 
the senior of the two R. U. O.'s became R. U. 0. of the 
" A " Division, and consequently " senior responsible " of the 
" Shop." The other R. U. 0. and the two senior S. U. O.'s 
became the subdivisional under officers of the " A " Division. 
As the remainder of the first class were corporals, duty was 
therefore very light in this division. As a matter of fact, 
almost the whole of the discipline work of the company was 
carried out by the second class U. O.'s and corporals. 

All three divisions were commanded by captains, assisted 
by lieutenants, and a fourth captain was appointed to the 
company with the title of adjutant and paymaster. A fourth 
subaltern was also borne on the strength for convenience of 
"orderly officer's" duties. 

The pay of the cadets was raised in 1855 to 2s. lOd. per 
diem for the practical class, and 2s. 8d. for the others. Two 
years later this was again raised to the present rate of 3s. 
a day for all for messing and clothing. 

We saw in the last chapter how the general conduct of 
the company began to show signs of improvement, but the 
millennium was by no means reached as yet. As the new 
system of admission gradually settled down into good working 
order, and the ages of the cadets grew more uniform, the 
excessive bullying slowly decreased. It did not, of course, 
die out altogether, but the cases grew more isolated and their 
fashion far less barbarous. Drinking and smoking were the 
chief sources of trouble during this period, and there can be 
no doubt that much of the blame must be attributed to the 
system of espionage which prevailed. When cunning was 
used to find out offences, cunning was set to meet it, and 
there were many cases in which cadets, with no particular 
desire to indulge in wine or the weed, would do so simply 
for the joy of trying to outwit a prying non-commissioned 
officer. In his evidence before Colonel Yolland's Commission 
in 1856 the inspector very. clearly described the general state 
of affairs. He said : 

"The difficulties of the Academy are really due to the 



THE SPYING SYSTEM. 97 

ages of the cadets,, and the unfitness of a purely military 
system for managing them. Boys of fourteen, fifteen, and 
sixteen require much personal supervision in order to form 
their characters, which young officers, very often appointed 
without any sufficient knowledge of their tempers and habits, 
cannot be expected to bestow. Such officers may, indeed, be 
able to superintend drill, but not moral training. Rarely 
do they draw the cadets towards them and become their 
advisers ; more frequently repel them by a harsh, dictatorial 
manner, the cadet being in their eyes a soldier. There has 
been also, during all the time I have known the Academy, 
great inconsistency in treating the cadets : honour is con- 
stantly talked of, and yet doubts as to their truthfulness are 
not unfrequently expressed. / have heard even the lie given 
in vert/ rough and emphatic terms. 

"Confidence is professedly placed } and yet offences are 
found out in a ivay that shows no real confidence had 
existed; hence a contest arises between the officer and the 
cadet, and the latter becomes tricky and disingenuous. In 
nothing is this more visible than in the attempts to stop 
smoking; and in respect to this habit, which the cadets see 
or know that their parents, as well as some of their friends, 
indulge in, I cannot but suggest that the officer would do 
well to set an example of self-denial, and he would then be 
able to say to the cadets, ' I know that smoking would be 
insufferable in your rooms, and although I have myself 
smoked, I have determined to abandon it so long as I con- 
tinue your officer, as an encouragement to you to do the same/ " 

The spying system met its well-deserved fate in the early 
'sixties, hastened thereto by an event in " Shop " history to 
be told of presently, and henceforward an attempt was made 
to bring the company officers into more personal relations 
with the cadets. This was greatly aided by increased facilities 
beitig made for playing games, the officers taking part in 
them, and thus gaining an opportunity of knowing the G. C. 
as an individual, and not as a mere mechanical figure on the 
drill parade. 

H 



98 A PERIOD OF TRAXSITIOX. ISoo— 1804. 

The Mutiny of '61. 

The causes of the " mutiny " — really an " illegal combina- 
tion " — which took place in October, 1861, were manifold and 
various. The extraordinary mixture of cadets which, as we 
have seen, had been admitted from divers sources in the last 
few years was undoubtedly the chief reason, for, strange to say, 
the regulations for discipline were not altered so as to suit 
the gradual increase in age that resulted. The last of the 
" old nominations " had joined in 1859, the youngest of whom 
was fourteen, and many of them had by 1861 been promoted 
to corporals. A large number of the latter were consequently 
much younger than the last-joined cadets. These, again, 
were often shot over the heads of those who had been longer 
at the Academy. " The older men, who had enjoyed before 
entrance a good deal of liberty, found the restrictions in 
vogue very irksome, especially that with regard to smoking, 
although the surreptitious morning pipe was generally 
managed in the backyards. The gymnasium on the modern 
system was in process of construction, and the racquet courts 
pulled down to make way for the new wings then building. 
There was no properly organised cricket and football, although 
an occasional scratch match of either was played. There were 
really only the workshops ; and I am certain that the want 
of occupation, coupled with the restrictions before mentioned, 
produced the ' mutiny.' " 1 

There were other reasons too: the system of espionage 
already noticed and the lack of intercourse between officers 
and cadets; -the severity of punishments and the absence 
of both sufficient and good food. In fact, everyone had a 
grievance, and general discontent prevailed. 

The following account of the mutin}' has been pieced 
together from the recollections of several old cadets : — 

" I remember well the day of the ' mutiny ' — October 23rd. 
At breakfast that morning we had a particularly disgusting 
sample of egg given us — egg morning, by the by, generally 
resulted in our going hungry away ! — and presently W , 

1 Extract from an old cadet's letter. 



THE MUTINY OF '61. 99 

one of the under officers, stood up at his seat and deliberately 
flung several on the floor. In a few minutes the scene was 
most amusing. Talk about transmission of thought, a shouted 
order could not have produced better results ! There was an 
unusual silence, broken only by the * squashy ' sound of eggs 
bursting on the boards, and I can almost recall the sickly 
stench which filled the hall. The officer on duty saw that 
something was up, but could not quite make out what, I 
suppose, for he said nothing. When the order to ' turn out ' 
was given, a perfect Babel arose. We threw our chairs and 
forms down, seized our caps, and trooped out of the hall, 
whooping and yelling like demons. 

" During study hours a great spirit of unrest was visible ; 
the instructors in vain claimed our attention, and the corporals 
found it impossible to keep order. We went on parade for 
battalion drill at 11.15 ; it was a cold day, and I remember 
how clumsy and unwieldy our rifles felt in the bitter north 
wind. Whether by accident or design, I do not know, one 
of the fellows in No. 1 Company let his weapon fall to the 

ground. Z , the officer drilling us, rushed up, put him in 

arrest, and upbraided him in no measured terms. He was 
plainly heard by all, and evidently put an idea into the heads 
of the other men, for presently another rifle fell down, and 
hardly had the consequent explosion on the part of the irri- 
tated officer subsided when — clang! went another. Z 

grew greatly excited ; men were put under arrest right, left, 
and centre, and we were bustled about from manoeuvre to 
manoeuvre. But it was no good ; every minute or two some- 
one dropped his rifle, or a busby went rolling on to the parada 

The usual time for closing the parade came and passed ; Z 

swore he would go on drilling until the foolery stopped and 
we behaved ourselves. As one o'clock (the dinner-hour) 
struck, our desire for something to eat probably steadied us 
for a short time, and eventually we were marched straight 
into the hall at half-past. 

" As we dispersed to our tables the corporals told everyone 
they passed not to turn out for study at two, and the order 



100 A PERIOD OF TRANSITION, 1855— 1864. 

was kept moving round A lot of fellows, however, were 
unwilling to adopt this extreme step; many were won over 
by the persuasions or threats of the ringleaders, but a very 
few stoutly refused to join in. We went to our rooms after 
dinner; some openly lit their pipes in defiance of orders, 
and all silently steeled themselves for the battle against 
authority. As the ' five-minute ' call sounded, the windows 
of all the houses were crammed with eager faces — the fun 
was beginning ! 

" Presently the officer on duty strolled on to the parade 
ground, the trumpeter gave his best rendering of the ' fall-in/ 
and — no one appeared! A chorus of yells burst from the 
windows a moment later, however, as a straggling few, bear- 
ing signs of having fought their way through a den of wild 
beasts, rushed on to parade. How we loathed them, and 
jeered and howled, then ; later years have brought a good 
deal of admiration for their pluck. The other company 
officers shortly arrived and, after a brief consultation, they 
all went round their rooms, ordering everyone personally 
into study. We all went, but there was not much work 
done. The officer on duty came round the class-rooms, 
placed all the under officers and corporals under arrest, 
and confined the cadets to barracks pending a Court of 
Inquiry. 

" The Governor made us a speech the next day, pointing 
out the unwisdom of the way we had taken in making our 
grievances known; and the majority of us, feeling that we 
had thus satisfactorily brought them to light and that they 
were now bound to receive attention, settled down to a quiet 
life again. But there was a distinctly rowdy set, headed by 
A— — , which made things pretty lively for a week or so. Their 
first feat was after supper one night, when they ran one of the 
field-guns down to the front parade, loaded it with a charge 
smuggled up from the Arsenal under a cloak, rammed a loaf 
of bread down the bore, and fired it off in the direction of the 
Governor's house. Needless to say, the projectile fell short of 
its mark. On the next evening their attention was turned to 



THE SPYING SYSTEM DEFEATED. 101 

a new flag-staff— intended for the centre building — which was 
lying in the avenue running up the middle of the enclosure. 
This was lifted by willing hands, the ' ha-ha ' safely negotiated, 
and the flag-staff found next morning serenely floating in the 
bathing pond across the common ! 

'• A few of this party broke out of barracks every evening 
to get wine from the ' pubs/ or to play billiards in the town. 
The sergeants were set to watch the railings, and one or two 
made captures by concealing themselves in the ' ha-ha ' ditch 
during supper. On this method of warfare being discovered, 

A hatched a wily scheme. He obtained permission to 

leave the hall about ten minutes before the end of the meal, 
stole carefully down to the ' ha-ha ' in the dark, and lay there 

until he saw Sergeant Y , a very fat man, sneaking past. 

Following very cautiously, he ascertained the exact spot in 
which the gallant sergeant concealed himself. He returned 
to his room, and, when the others came out from supper, 
speedily informed them of his success. Removing their boots 
and collecting as many ' hoxter ' swords and old tins as they 
could lay hands on, the party noiselessly stole across the 
parade. Favoured by the darkness, they approached their 
victim without discovery, and presently made out his huge 
form crouching under a bush in the ditch, in what must have 
boon a most uncomfortable position, apparently unconscious 

of their proximity. With a ' Ready ! Fire ! ' from A , the 

party hurled their missiles with deadly accuracy, burst into an 
unearthly yell, and fled in all directions, leaving the startled 
sergeant covered with ' hoxter ' swords and biscuit tins. The 
' spy-in-the-ditch ' game was not so popular after that ! 

" Again, the two Waterloo guns, placed in those days 
where the two lodges now stand, were thrown into the ditch. 
Rut these were all mere boyish escapades — to be deprecated, 
of course, but still doing no permanent harm. Rut there were 
more serious cases of trouble, for one set took to holding 
drinking meetings in their rooms, and it is to be feared that 
several promising careers eventually came to a disastrous end 
through this early indulgence. 



102 A PERIOD OF TRANSITION, 1855—1864. 

" That is all I can remember about the ' mutiny ' — if 
mutiny it can be called ; we were mere boys and, as I said, 
we had grievances to which the organisation of the time pre- 
vented us from drawing the serious attention of the authorities. 
A Court of Inquir}' assembled about a month afterwards, 
condemned several corporals to rustication, and gave us a 
dressing-down generally. Some months later a more liberal 
treatment of the cadets was introduced, and the regulations 
altered to suit their advanced age. Smoking, however, was 
not permitted in my time " — to the end of 1863 — " though it 
was shortly afterwards. The officers took more interest in the 
cadets' doings and, besides improving the cricket and football, 
helped us to start a boat club. We had several boats on the 
Thames, but the surroundings were not very pleasing, and I 
do not think the club lasted very long. 

" For two or three years following the ' mutiny ' there was 
generally a small disturbance on the night of its anniversary. 
I fancy this was because some of the cadets imagined that a 
great victory had been achieved over the authorities by the 
' mutiny,' the impression doubtless being due to the fact of the 
Governor and some of the company officers being changed 
in 1862." 

In 1857 the amount of the annual contributions of the 
parents and friends of cadets was raised, as shown in the 
following list 1 : — 

I. Not sons of officers in the Army or Navy £125 2 

II. Sons of Admirals or Generals 80 

Generals without Regiments 70 

III. Sons of Captains and Commanders in the [Navy, and 

Colonels and Regimental Field Officers in the Army 60 

IV. Sons of officers under above ranks (no change) 40 

V. Sons of officers who have died in distress (no change) ... 20 

The sum of £22 10s. was also charged on admission to 
cover the expenses of uniform, books, etc. 

1 From Report of Col. Tolland's Commission. 

2 Raised later to £150. 




CHAPTER V. 

THE STORY OF A BATCH, 1863 TO 1865. 
TOLD BY ONE OF THEM. 

IT seems a very short time since I went up for Woolwich 
in July, 1863. At that time the examination was always 
held at the Royal Hospital, Chelsea, where the dining-hall 
was fitted up for the reception of the candidates. Of these, 
13«S attended to compete for thirty-four cadetships. One 
was rejected as medically unfit, and one was dismissed for 
writing rude remarks on the papers ! The medical inspection 
was held first ; this was a good arrangement, as anyone 
found unfit was saved the trouble of going through the 
examination. The latter lasted from the 3rd to the 18th 
July, either one or two papers being given each day, and it 
was rather a relief when it came to an end. 

' : We joined at Woolwich on the 12th August, thirty-six 
strong, a few days later than the older cadets. 

" At this time the course of study lasted two and a half 



104 TIIR HTOUY OF A BATCH, 1863 TO I860. 

y<nirn, or five term& The year was divided up as follows : The 
winter vacation tenninated about the last days of January. 
The firat (or spring) term then commenced, and, with the 
exception of a break of a few days at Easter, continued until 
the U'gimiing of June, when the term examinations were 
held. The ' Shop ' broke up at the end of June, and then 
there wan a vacation of six weeks until the beginning of 
August, when the second (or autumn) term commenced. 
Thin hutted until early in December, when study stopped 
for the examinations, the winter vacation being about the 
22nd, The two terms and two vacations were therefore of 
equal length, and the division of each could be made very 
easily. 

" The Cadet Company was divided into the ' A,' ' B/ and 
' C Divisions, the first consisting exclusively of the first 
class, who were to bo commissioned at the next examination. 
The 'A ' Division worked completely apart from the rest of 
us, and had a separate dining-room — generally called the 
'eating-house' to distinguish it from the dining-hall. 

11 When we joined, the work of the day was divided as 
follows: Defaulters' parade at 0.15 a.m., which all cadets 
in arrest or undergoing punishment-drill had to attend, 
lireakfast at 7. For this meal, and for dinner and tea, 
each subdivision paraded separately : and, after being 
inspected by tho subdivisional under officer, were marched 
up and paraded as a division. One of the subaltern officers 
then marched it to the dining-hall. 

" When breakfast was over, Mr. F , the chaplain, came 

into the hall and read prayers. He was not a good reader, 
and always pronounced 'Amen' as if written 'Ow-wow!' 
Hence he was usually known as * Ow-wow/ and prayers 
as * Ow.wow-stuftV It was rather a relief when he was 
absent and the lieutenant on duty read prayers, 

" Tho tirst parade for study was at 8 tuiu when the 
cadets fell in by classes, not by divisions, and were maivhetl 
to the class-rooms by the corporals on duty. The iusptvtwu 
of clothing was less minute than on drill and meal |vwraJtas; 



"PETER-STUFF." 105 

but a serious matter — such as a button being off a tunic — ■ 
was, of course, punished with an extra drill. Academy 
lasted until 11, when a quarter of an hour was given 
to get ready for drill parade. Drill usually went on from 
11.15 to 1.45, its nature varying with the different classes. 

" At 1 p.m. the cadets paraded for dinner with the same 
formalities as for breakfast. The second parade for study 
was at 2 p.m., and we remained in Academy until 4. 
We were then free until 6 ; and hungry cadets could have 
lunch of bread and cheese and beer in the dining-hall from 
4.30 to 5.30 p.m. 

"Third-study parade was at 6, and work went on for 
two hours. Then came tea parade at 8. After that we 
could do as we liked until 10.30 p.m., when all lights 
were put out. 

" The food was plain, but good and plentiful, and as we 
had to work pretty hard, the meals were very acceptable. 

" When I joined I was placed in a room in the front 
barracks with three other cadets. All the front barracks 
were similarly occupied, and it was rare that a cadet had 
a room to himself until his fourth term. Pocket-money was 
issued weekly to each cadet at the rate of 5s. for a respon- 
sible under officer, 3s. 6d. for an under officer, 2s. 6d. for a 
corporal, and 2s. for a cadet. This was supposed to come 
out of our pay ; but, as the pay-sheets were usually in 
debt, it was really paid by the parents and guardians. 

" The course of study in the fifth class included mathe- 
matics, practical geometry, topography, drawing, French 
and German., gymnastics and infantry drill. Mathematics 
was always spoken of as ' swot/ practical geometry as ' peter- 
stuff," because it was taught by Professor Thomas Bradley, 
generally known as ' Peter.' He was an excellent teacher 
who managed to get a good deal into the heads of the cadets. 
Topography was naturally called ' gore-stuff,' as the professor 
was Major Gore. 

" Battalion drill was known as * of-stuff/ a word of which 
the following was the derivation : The sergeant-major of 



106 THE STORY OF A BATCH, 1863 TO 1865. 

artillery who instructed us, and who did so very efficiently, 
had a loud voice, and, when a cadet made a mistake, always 
shouted, 'What are you a- doing of?' Naturally he was 
known as ' Of,' and his special subject as ' of- stuff.' I do 
not know whether the word is maintained as an Academy 
tradition. If so, probably the origin is lost. 

"When winter came on the hours were slightly altered. 
Breakfast was at 8.0 and the first Academy parade at 
9.0 o'clock; otherwise the course of the day's work was 
the same. Fires were allowed in the bedrooms, but there 
was no hot water in the baths. Sometimes, if the first- 
comer, one had to break the ice. Shirking bath, however 
cold the weather, was regarded by the cadets as a serious 
offence, I remember on one occasion a cadet, who was 
suspected of doing so, being taken after parade and immersed 
in his tunic and busby! 

" Our first examination was held on December 9th, 1863, 
and ' Duke's Day ' on the 20th, after which we went home 
until February 2nd, 1864. 

" In the fourth class the course of study was the same 
as in the fifth, except that we had fortification in addition 
to the subjects already mentioned. We looked down with 
dignity on the ' last-joined ' — the wretched ' snooker ' — and 
felt we were really very old cadets ! The term passed quietly, 
and I can remember no particular incident. Our class re- 
mained of the same number as before, as, though two had 
dropped out of it, two others had dropped into it from the 
class above. The examinations began on June 8th and 
the vacation on the 22nd. 

" When we rejoined on August 3rd, I had the satisfaction 
of being given a room to myself in the east wing. Our 
class had increased by four cadets joining it from the one 
above. We began surveying and higher mathematics, the 
latter under Professor Sylvester, a splendid mathematician, 
but totally incapable of teaching cadets. As a natural 
result, order was usually badly kept in his Academy, and 
sundry measures of annoying him were indulged in with 



PROFESSOR SYLVESTER. 107 

success by the cadets. One plan which was occasionally 
tried, was for a large number of them to drop down behind 
their desks. Sylvester would suddenly awake from the solu- 
tion of some abstruse problem and see the class-room half 
empty. This made him rush up and down, a movement 
which was prepared for by sprinkling the floor round his 
table with wax matches, which went off in succession as he 
stamped round, driving him quite wild. Another trick 
was to fill his ink-bottle with chalk, which clogged his pens 
and made him mad ! But with all his little ways, he could 
teach well if he was allowed his own method, and personally 
I owe a good deal to him. 

" October, 1864, was rather an eventful month. It opened 
by a tremendous explosion on the 1st at the Erith Powder 
Magazine, when about eighty tons of gunpowder (at least, 
we believed that was the amount) blew up. 1 We were just 
getting ready for parade when we heard the explosion, which 
shook the Academy like an earthquake, and then saw a great 
column of black smoke rising slowly and spreading out into 
a cloud in the sky. 

" The following day, curiously enough, an uneasy feeling 
began to be manifest in the K. M. A. The first symptom 
was a disturbance in the class-room where Professor 
Sylvester presided. The corporal on duty failed to quell 
it, and the assistant inspector of studies had to be called 
in. Then followed a row of which I have forgotten the 
particulars, which ended in the rustication of two cadets. 

" A little later in the month came Charlton Fair, against 
attending which there were very strict orders. Two cadets 
were seen by an officer at the fair, and placed in arrest 
on their return to barracks. After due investigation of 
the case, they were added to the rusticated, and when the 
order was read out on parade, it was received with a loud 
murmur. This, of course, was a very serious military 
offence, and, in consequence, one class was placed in arrest, 

1 There were two magazines. The exact quantity of powder was never 
usee ltaim-d, but it was roughly calculated to be over Jtjfj tonx. 



108 THE STORY OF A BATCH, J863 TO 1865. 

and all the other cadets were confined to barracks. This 
was regarded as an unfair proceeding, as it punished the 
innocent as well as the guilty. 

" That night the disturbance culminated. One of the 
field-guns on the parade was fired towards the Governor's 
house, and all the swords which the cadets carried during 
punishment drill were thrown into the reservoir. One of 
the two cadets who had been rusticated, but had not yet 
been sent away, left his barrack-i*oom and, jumping over 
the ditdh, made his escape. He was pursued by two of 
the drill sergeants, who jumped into the ditch after him, 
and then grappled together, each thinking the other was 
the delinquent cadet. The latter, in the meantime, got 
away ! 

'f Matters were then regarded as very serious by the 
authorities, and on the following day a Board of Inquiry 
was sent down from London to investigate. The first 
step taken by them was a very sensible one, to remove the 
ban of confinement to barracks. The Board sat for some 
days and examined a number of cadets to try and find 
out the reasons for the row. I really do not think there 
were any valid ones, and oan only suppose that it was 
due to a bacillus of unrest which developed itself about 
once in two years, generally in October. 1 The final result 
was that one cadet was sent away for good, others were 
rusticated, and some corporals reduced to the ranks. 

"The row ended rather unsatisfactorily for me, for, 
although not due for promotion until the following term, I 
was made a corporal in place of one of those who had 
been broken, and was sent to the front barracks to take 
charge of a four room. I thus lost my single room in 
the wing for the rest of the term, and having to take my 
tour of duty, had less spare time than before. One or 

1 Probably in commemoration of the mutiny of 1861. The tradition that 
a great victory over the authorities had then been gained had been handed 
down — probably strengthened by the subsequent change of governors and com- 
pany officers. 




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"TEA SQUADS 97 INSTITUTED. 109 

two small ebullitions of feeling succeeded, but the unquiet 
spirit had worked itself out by the middle of November, 
when all settled down to work for the December examina- 
tions. In these, the examinations in mathematics., practical 
geometry and drawing were final, and the marks for them 
were carried on to the end of the whole course. As a 
natural result the third-class examination went a long way 
in deciding which cadets were to get sappers and which 
were to become gunners. The competition, therefore, was 
very keen in the upper half of the class. 

" On the 22nd of December the Duke of Cambridge came 
down as usual, but the proceedings were of rather a different 
character from the customary course. The cadets were all 
paraded in undress uniform and marched into the gymnasium, 
where the Duke addressed them as to the iniquities of the past 
term. This well over, the usual full-dress parade, inspection, 
and prize-giving was held, and the Academy broke up for the 
winter vacation. 

" We re-joined on the 31st January, 1865, and as my batch 
had now attained the dignity of the second class, we had to 
take charge of the discipline of the K. M. A. I was made 
responsible under officer of ' B ' Division, a position that 
might have been troublesome in the previous term, but a 
peaceable spirit had come over the establishment now. 

" Of course, our studies became more practical, and we 
took up artillery, surveying, chemistry, and — what a good 
many liked best of all — riding. It was a great improvement 
having so much work in the open air, and the half-year passed 
quickly. The June examinations were succeeded by the usual 
vacations, and we met again for the last term on the 2nd 
August. My class became the senior, or ' A ' Division, and 
our interests separated from the rest of the Academy, as we 
always paraded and had our meals by ourselves. 

" This term a change, which was regarded as a great inno- 
vation, was introduced into the ' B ' and ' C ' Divisions, who 
were allowed to have tea in their rooms instead of being 
inarched to the dining-hall. But in the 'A* Division we 



110 THE STORY OF A BATCH, 1863 TO 1865. 

decided by a large majority against the alteration, as we could 
not see the advantage of messing about with food in our 
bedrooms, and preferred being saved the trouble of preparing 
the meal. There was another change, however, which I, as 
senior responsible under officer, pressed upon the authorities, 
but without success. That was, to allow smoking in modera- 
tion and not to treat it as a military offence. It was well 
known that many cadets indulged in smoking, but it was a 
crime to be found out When the restriction was removed 
some years later, I have heard that the practice considerably 
diminished. 

" In September we went to Shoeburyness for a week to go 
through a course of artillery practice, and had a pleasant time 
there. We lived in the soldiers' barracks, and the only matter 
of complaint was that there was only one bath for about forty 
cadets, so that the juniors had to begin at a pretty early hour ! 

" October and November were devoted to hard work for the 
final examination, and fortunately passed very quietly, though 
there was a sort of uneasy feeling that the troubles of the 
previous year might be repeated. 

"At the final examination I was first, and received the 
Pollock Medal, but the Sword was given to the second man 
although I was 'senior responsible.' This was commented 
upon in rather a strong manner by some of the newspaper 
reporters, upon which the Governor wrote to my father 
explaining that I was entitled to it, but that it had been 
decided that the same cadet should not get both if the second 
had done well also. 

"At the final examination our class was thirty-eight in 
number, of which ten received commissions in the Royal 
Engineers and twenty-eight in the Royal Artillery. Of the 
twenty-eight, twenty belonged to the batch which had passed 
into the Academy in July, 1863, and eight had dropped in 
from senior classes. It may be interesting to note the future 
history of the batch. 

" Of the ten sappers, eight reached the rank of colonel, 
and six are still serving on full-pay (1900). 



ITS SUBSEQUENT HISTORY. 



Ill 



" Of the twenty gunners, live reached the rank of colonel, 
and two are still serving, one in the Royal Artillery and one 
in the Indian Staff Corps. 

" If our batch, therefore, can be taken as a fair example, it 
would appear that the chance of long service is much greater 
in the Royal Engineers than in the Royal Artillery, and that 
cadets who mean to make the Army a profession for life 
should do their best to get into the former. But perhaps I am 
a little prejudiced, as, after thirty-four years' service, I am 
quite convinced that the corps of Royal Engineers is the best 
of all professions ! " 









JfX'tk 



!fl*^&?ln jiy.i 





*T»* *ni*«t ef c ^••*l Ik** J . 



"to perpetuate old butler's gallantry." 

(A Sketrh in "The Shop" Cricket Book, by Lt.-Col. L. </. Fawkes, Ji.A.) 



CHAPTER VI. 

THE "SHOP" FROM 1865 TO 1870. 

The Trials of the " Snooker " — Games and Recreations Increased— The G. C. 
Smokes and Plays Billiards —Time Table, 1867-r- Table Squads— 
Uniform^Changes in Study Organisation — G. C. Prince Arthur — The 
Royal Commission on the " Shop " — Its Results— G. C. Coffey Fights 
for France. 

AS year by year the great "Mutiny" slipped away into 
the more and more remote past, so did life at the 
" Shop " gradually become pleasanter for the gentle- 
man cadet. Not by any means, however, was the comparative 
perfection of the present day attained even in the late 'sixties. 
The trials of the " snooker " were still varied and great, 
though naturally largely diminished by the disappearance of 
the grosser forms of bullying. 

Major-General Sandham, RE., who was appointed Lieu- 
tenant-Governor in 1865, reinstated the old custom of 
holding tea-squads in the rooms, and also did away with 
the restrictions placed on the cadets with regard to the 
furnishing of their quarters. Those living in the wings 
were allowed carpets and easy chairs once more, but " snooker " 
etiquette forbade any decorations or comforts in the front 
barracks. 

Any wretched " last-joined " venturing to embellish their 
room immediately became the prey of the " old " cadets. As 
a rule, nothing was said to them until they had got their 
carpets and other little etceteras nicely arranged ; then they 
received visits. First came the corporal of the house. " Would 
they mind lending him a chair — somebody coming to see him, 
you know — and a tea-pot ? Thanks awfully ! Let you have 
'em back to-night." But he did not — that was the last they 
saw of those things. And anyone venturing to inquire after 



THE "SNOOKER'S" TRIALS. 



113 



them appeared often, in some unaccountable way, on the 
" hoxter " parades. 

Afterwards in walked a jubilant squad of second-class 
cadets, who had been watching the room for the last week 

in gleeful anticipation. A fancied the rug, B tried 

an easy chair and found it fitted him " to a T," C said 

" it was a beastly shame ! " and walked off with a taste- 
fully-draped mantel-board. Pretty soon nothing was left 




THE FAST GATE. 



but the official " articles of store." The inmates were then 
" toshed " in the iron baths at the back of the house " for 
being cheeky and luxurious dogs " ! But they had their 
turn a few months later, and so things were made square. 

Under General Sandham's regime the cadets' games 
received great encouragement. The first cricket match 
against Sandhurst was played — and won — at Lord's on the 
Queen's birthday, 1865, and thereafter became an annual 
and much appreciated event. Three years later an additional 
attraction, which greatly increased the number of spectators, 
was provided at this encounter by the presence of the Royal 
i 



114 THE "SHOP" FROM 1865 TO. 1870. 

Artillery Band being sanctioned. From this time on, also, its 
attendance was authorised at the cadets' battalion drill parades. 

Several other forms of recreation were also provided in 
1865. The boat club previously mentioned in " Old 
Cadet's " letter gave way to a rifle club. The range was in 
Plumstead Marshes, and the club was very popular at first, 
but eventually proved as short-lived as its aquatic predecessor. 
The formation of a voluntary class for bird-stuffing and skin- 
curing furnished a little mild and instructive amusement, 
R 123 in the west wing being the room used for lectures and 
practice by the " taxidermy squad." Photography was also 
started at the "Shop," Nos. 1, 2, and 11 rooms in the East 
Tower 1 being set aside for studios, dark-rooms, etc. So 
popular, however, did the subject become, that in 1870 these 
quarters had to be vacated for want of space, and a new build- 
ing (part of the present studio) was occupied for the purpose. 

About this period billiards was regarded by many as a 
wicked and pernicious game, and it was only after struggling 
for permission for several years that the " Shop " was at last 
allowed a table. The present second-class room was thereupon 
promptly built, the first game within the sacred precincts of 
the Royal Military Academy being played at the beginning of 
1868. This, indeed, was a red-letter year in the annals of the 
Academy, for not only was billiards started, but the old preju- 
dice against smoking finally gave way, and at last the gentle- 
man cadet was allowed his pipe ; but not in his room — that 
was a luxury yet to come ; only in the lower storey of the 
school-at-arms and in the billiard-room. 

Some of the higher authorities at the War Office still had 
great misgivings as to the advisability of these innovations, 
but good reasons were given for them by the assistant-inspec- 
tor in his evidence before the subsequent Royal Commission. 
On being asked if he approved of the system of supplying 
cadets with the means of indulging in smoking and billiards, 
he replied — 

1 The East Tower was the building which in the present day holds the 
master- tailors quarters, the coffee-room or " canteen," etc. In 1864, besides 
accommodating from ten to twelve cadets, it also contained a " common room " 
(No. 3) for the professors and masters, and a hairdresser's room (No. 10). 



SMOKING AND BILLIARDS. 115 

" I approve of it because I believe that, with cadets, if you 
do not give them a billiard-table, they will play billiards 
somewhere, and will go to low places and get into bad habits. 
I am afraid that a cadet would very often contrive to find 
a billiard- table within reach, and you certainly take away all 
excuse if you give him the opportunity of playing the game 
within the establishment. There you can keep it under 
proper regulation. 

" As regards smoking. It prevails in this country much 
more than it did some time ago ; it is a constant habit of the 
youth of the country, and it is better, I think, to let them 
smoke in certain places than to have the thing done surrep- 
titiously." 

Until 1867 the gentleman cadet was practically allowed no 
fixed hours for recreation, but a material improvement in this 
respect was effected in that year by the re-arrangement of the 
daily " time-table." The meals were also improved and pro- 
vided at more suitable intervals, as will be seen in the follow- 
ing table : — 



TIME-TABLE, 



12 30 



6.30 a.m. Reveille^ 
O.4.") to 7.15 ' Extra Drill. 
C Prayers 

) Breakfast $ '^ ea ' co ^ ee > or cocoa > bread and butter, 
^ ' (. fish, or meat. 

8 to 11 1st Study. 

11.15 to 12.15 Drills. 

t u^„ i Soup or cold meat or sandwiches, bread 
l^uncneon j and cheege BeeFj ^ extra 

1 to 3 2nd Study. 

| At 2 p.m. on Saturdays ; no work after- 
3.15 Dinner -j wards. Hot meat, vegetables, pud- 

( dings or tarts, bread. Beer, etc., extra. 
(; to H 3rd Study. 

i Prayers 

8 . j t"? /Tea or coffee, with bread and butter. 

^ ea " \ Cold nit at, eggs, etc., extra. 
K) Roll-call. 

10.30 , Lights out. ("A" Division, 11 p.m.) 



116 THE "SHOP" FROM 1865 TO 1870. 

On Sundays the hours were allotted as follows : — 
Reveille 7.30, prayers and breakfast 8.30, hospital 9, church 
10.45 (or 9.45 if in hall), dinner 1.30, check parade 5.45, 
prayers 7.45, roll-call 10.30, and lights out at 11. 

After prayers had been read at 8, none except the A 
Division were allowed to go out of the enclosure without 
written permission. When in hall, extras could be 
obtained on the following system: — On the day of the. 
week when pocket-money was paid out, each cadet gave 
a shilling to the " head of the table," one of the second 
class. The latter deposited the amount, together with an 
allowance of 4s. per head per month from the mess funds, 
with the mess steward; and from time to time wrote 
orders for jams, potted meats, biscuits, etc., until the 
account was exhausted. The black despair of the table when 
the servant to whom the order had been handed returned 

with a grinning " Mr. H says you can't 'ave any ; 

there ain't any more money of yours," may be imagined. 
But surprise was not always the result, for many tried 
the little game with the hope of catching the worthy 
custodian of the stores asleep. It was characteristic of 
the " hope which springs eternal," especially in the youth- 
ful breast, that, in spite of the invariable non-success of 
the plot, the attempt was continually being made. 

A cadet could also obtain tobacco, aerated waters, a 
glass of beer, cake, etc., by a written order, but his 
account was not allowed to exceed ten shillings a 
month. 

The dress of the G. C. was slightly altered in 1870 by 
the substitution of the ordinary tunic collar for the old 
leather stock, buckling at the back of the neck. The 
blue patrol jacket (shown in Plate VI.) was issued for 
minor parades and studies. The under officers and corporals 
wore a thin strip of gold lace round the edge of the red false 
collar, and also sleeve-knots of the same pattern as on 
the tunic, but made of black braid. The leather on the 
riding overalls (as shown in the same plate) was added, 



"ACCELERATION* INTRODUCED. 117 

and the grey flannel banyan 1 was replaced by a blue jacket 
with spherical artillery buttons and red braid round the 
edge. This was worn with a collar and tie, or merely a 
sack round the neck, with ordinary " regimentals " on all 
occasions off studies, parades, etc, It was a smart, or 
disgracefully slack kit, according to the personality of the 
wearer. 

Several alterations were made in the organisation of 
the educational course during the period 1865-70. In 
1867 the study of mineralogy and geology was abolished 
in favour of military history, "R 123" becoming the 
professor's office. He gave one lecture a week to each of 
the first and second classes in the east lecture-room. About 
one-third of the time was given to tactics, the subject of 
transport and supply being very briefly dealt with. 

In 1867, also, the present system of " volunteering up," 
or " accelerating," was first introduced. In order to meet 
a special demand for forty officers for the RE. in October, 
and to still be able to provide the usual number for the 
RA., some of the cadets in the four junior classes were 
allowed to volunteer up into the next above, after passing 
a qualifying examination, however, so in that way the 
system differed from the present one. This proceeding was 
also adopted in the following year, and naturally led to 
insufficient instruction, and to a certain amount of dis- 
organisation in the course of studies. 

The pay of the educational staff was placed this year on 
the present (consolidated) footing, and prizes for gymnastics 
and fencing instituted. 

In 1868 the corporals of the second class — who, as before 
remarked, did most of the discipline " duty " work of the 
" Shop " — were relieved of the task of preserving order during 
study attendances, and a new system was tried. The cadets 
of a higher class were placed on duty for this purpose; for 
example, the third class kept order during the studies of the 

1 The dite when this girment superseded the yellow banyan is uncertain — 
probably about 1850. 



118 THE "SHOP" FROM 1865 TO 1870. 

fourth, etc. This, however, did not do away with the original 
disadvantage, viz., the interruption of the cadet-in-charge's 
work, though it greatly assisted the company officers in 
selecting future under officers and corporals, as they thus 
had an opportunity of judging of the titness of the cadets 
for responsible positions. 

The system of commissioning continued to work smoothly 
during these years. Very few cadets in each class were 
appointed to the R.E. as a rule, notably in 1866, when only 
five " sappers " were given in a batch of forty. 

It was during this period of the " Shop's " story that 
H.R.H. the Duke of Connaught served his apprenticeship to 
the British Army. The following account of his career as a 
cadet at Woolwich is transcribed from the " Records of 
theR. M. A.":— 

" H.R.H. Prince Arthur William Patrick Albert, third son 
of her Majesty Queen Victoria, joined the Royal Military 
Academy on the 11th February, 1867 aged sixteen years and 
two months. He carried out his drills and exercises with the 
fourth and fifth classes for his first term, but in August joined 
the second class, with which ' Batch ' he went on as first class 
until the 19th June, 1868, when he passed for a commission 
in the Royal Engineers. 

" His course of studies was separate and special. No. 9 
room in the centre building was appropriated as a private 
study for him, and a portion of it screened off' for the use of 
his orderly officer, Lieutenant A. F. Pickard, V.C., R.H.A. 
Each professor attended here on the Prince at certain hours ; 
but he also studied with the cadets of his class, and, with her 
Majesty's approval, took his regular turn of duty as 'cadet 
in charge of a class-room ' during study. He also went to 
Shoeburyness in April, 1868, for gun practice with his class. 
His examination was conducted by means of special papers, 
which were printed, as her Majesty wished to retain copies, 
and afterwards bound. 

" Prince Arthur resided at the Ranger's house, Greenwich 
Park, and drove over to his studies at Woolwich in the morn- 



GENTLEMAN-CADET PRINCE ARTHUR. 119 

ing, returning in the afternoon, and only occasionally attending 
a lecture in the evening. The west end of the gun-shed was 
converted into a stable and coach-house for his use. He was, 
by her Majesty's express command, mustered at the head of 
the roll and placed in hall at a table next the officer on duty 
with a specially selected squad. At drill he fell in according 
to size. Lieutenant Pickard attended upon him always while 
at the Academy, except during the time that he was in study 
with a class, on which occasions the Prince's desk was placed 
next the professor and senior cadet. His duties for the day 
ended when the Prince drove back to the Ranger's house. 
He reported to the Lieutenant-Governor weekly on the 
Prince's progress in drill and military duties, and to the 
comptroller of his household, Sir Howard Elphinstone, on 
other matters. No special dietary was desired for the Prince, 
but a separate luncheon was provided at an hour which 
enabled him to have the use of one of the racquet courts 
while the cadets were in study." 

An " old cadet " says that the Prince's strong personality 
and unaffected manners gained him great popularity at the 
" Shop." He was always smartly turned out, his uniform was 
invariably spotless, and the keenness with which he carried 
out any military duties greatly impressed the authorities. 
'• Coming events cast their shadows before." 

The Prince of Wales came over to the " Shop " in June, 
1867, to see his brother at his examinations, and an extra 
week's vacation was ordered in honour of his visit. In the 
following May he again paid his brother a visit, and was 
present at the sports, afterwards congratulating the cadets on 
their admirable training and their proficiency at athletics. 

On Juno 23rd, 1868, a Royal Commission was appointed 
by her Majesty's command to "inquire into the present 
state of Military Education and into the Training of Candi- 
dates for Commissions in the Army." It was composed of Earl 
de (Jrey and Ripon, as president (succeeded after six months 
by Lord Dufferin) ; Lords Eustace Cecil, de Ros, and 
North brook ; Sir Charles Russell, Lieut.-General Sir D. A. 



120 THE "SHOP" FROM 1865 TO 1870. 

Cameron, K.C.B., H. M. Butler, D.D., W. C. Lake, M.A., 
Colonel E. Haythorne, Lieut.-Colonel C* C. Chesney, C. S. 
Parker, Esq., and Brigadier-General J. H. Lefroy (succeeded 
after six months by Major-General F* M. Eardley-Wilmot). 

The Commission sat for over a year, during part of 
which time it made a most exhaustive inquiry into the 
organisation and working of the R M. A. The results of 
its recommendations were so far-reaching that the chief 
points dealt with in its proceedings are given herewith. 

I. The amalgamation of Woolwich and Sandhurst 

This had been constantly proposed during the last half- 
century, but the Commission were entirely against it. They 
were of opinion that although the surroundings of Sand- 
hurst were morally and physically far superior to those of 
Woolwich, and though amalgamation would mean economy, 
yet the absence of the Arsenal would constitute a great 
disadvantage in the training of officers for the scientific 
corps. H.RH. the Duke of Cambridge, in his evidence, 
said : " I think it would be most unfortunate. I think it 
would be the worst thing which could be done, because 
the requirements of Woolwich and of the ordnance corps 
are so essentially scientific that an attempt to combine 
the two colleges would be an unfortunate thing for the 
Army." 

II. Conduct and discipline. 

The Commission thought that the discipline of the 
company was on the whole good, but that there was 
evidence of unsteadiness on parade. Most of the witnesses 
examined put this down to the excessive number of small 
parades that took place, one remarking that a cadet had to 
attend over 4,000 during his stay at the Academy ! Evidence 
also went to show that the majority of the under officers 
and corporals were greatly wanting in authority. It was 
recommended that the parades for study should be dropped, 1 
and that the under officers and corporals should be made 
to value their rank higher by being given more privileges. 

1 See page 124. 



CURIOUS PUNISHMENTS. 121 

The Commission thought that the moral tone of the 
cadet company had greatly improved in the last few years ; 
but that, although the methods of punishment had like- 
wise improved, there was still a lack of uniformity. Such 
was unavoidable when so many as three captains and two 
inspectors 1 dealt with offences. The Commission con- 
sequently recommended a reduction of the staff, 2 and a 
centralisation (in the person of the Lieutenant-Governor) 
of all punitive power. This official should be the actual 
Governor, with absolute power to rusticate or remove 
offenders from the Academy.' 5 

Two curious instances of the inconsistency of punish- 
ment under the old regime were given by one witness in 
the following evidence : — 

"It was about six years ago, when I was a cadet officer. 
The ' Book of General Regulations ' says that for falsehood, 
however qualified, dismissal or discharge shall be imposed. 
I remember the case of a cadet forging an invitation ; he 
did it upon his own paper, with his own crest, and put it 
into a Royal Military Academy envelope. He went before 
his captain and the second -commandant' (the inspector?), 
"and before the Lieutenant-Governor, and he denied it; 
he was convicted of it, and was reported to the Commander- 
in - Chief. He got seven days' arrest and twenty - one 
days' confinement to barracks for telling a falsehood re- 
peatedly ! 

" I had occasion, at one time, to believe that arrest was 
systematically evaded, and I gave notice to the cadets that 
by visiting the rooms of those in arrest I should endeavour 
to put a stop to that state of things. I went one evening 
four times to the rooms of two cadets, who were absent on 
each occasion. 

" They were present at roll-call. One cadet admitted 
that he was in the back-yard smoking, and the other said 

1 The inspectors dealt with study offences. 
- See page 124. 
3 See page 124. 



122 THE. "SHOP" FROM 1865 TO 1870. 

that he had been to the hospital to have a wounded hand 
dressed. The doctor took up the case, and it was found 
that that cadet had never been near the hospital, but it 
appeared that he had been out of the Academy. He was 
released, and no further notice was taken of it ; and when 
I myself spoke to him upon the subject, speaking, perhaps, 
more as a friend than anything else, he said : 

" ' Sir, I knew that if I was found out in that falsehood, 
no further punishment would overtake me than if I con- 
fessed that I was absent from my room, and the tempta- 
tion was too great.' The other cadet, who confessed, was 
rusticated ! " 

III. Studies. 

The Commission considered that the amount of 
obligatory work should be slightly reduced, and that 
voluntary subjects should be introduced. 1 Also, that the 
system of corporals or cadets keeping order in the class- 
rooms should be abolished, and that the professors and 
instructors should have certain powers of punishment. 2 

It further recommended alterations in the programme 
of attendances, so that the time and marks devoted to 
each subject should be better regulated. The following 
figures show how this principle had been neglected: — 



Subject. 



Marks. I Attendances. 



Fortification . j 6,300 221 

Artillery .... 6,200 170 

Survey and Topographical \ Q0() 221 

Drawing. J ' 



IV. Admission. 

The limits of age were considered too broad and should 
be reduced to 16-18. 3 

1 Sco page 124. 

2 See page 124. 

3 See page 123. 



GREAT CHANGES IN 1870. 123 

V. Boards of Visitors. 

The Commission recommended that a Board of Visitors 
should make an independent inspection annually, and 
that its report should be made direct to the Secretary of 
State for War, who should present it to Parliament 1 
Also, that the Governor should meet and confer with the 
professors and instructors from time to time. 2 

Towards the end of the period during which this 
Royal Commission was sitting, a very sad event took place. 
The Lieutenant-Governor, Major-General Ormsby, R.A., 
died very suddenly on the 18th of March, 1869. His loss 
was very deeply felt by the cadets, who were universally 
attached to him. He had held his appointment for barely 
two years, but the nature of his rule at the " Shop " was 
such that it called forth the following eulogy by one who 
had served under him as a cadet : " I attribute the great 
change in moral tone principally to the late General 
Ormsby. I think he did more for the good of the 
Academy than anybody else; he trusted to the fellows' 
honour, and relied upon them to keep up the discipline/' 

As the result of the Royal Commission, many changes 
took place at the R. M. A. in 1870. To begin with, the 
conduct of the entrance examinations was taken over by 
the Civil Service Commissioners, and the age of admission 
fixed at 1G-18. The "preliminary examination" was 
instituted, each candidate having to qualify in mathe- 
matics, a modern language, English composition and dicta- 
tion, the elements of geometry, and geography. No marks 
gained in the " preliminary," except 2,000 for mathematics, 
500 for English, and 300 for geometrical drawing, counted 
in the "final," which was held immediately afterwards. 
There was no limit to the number of attempts that could 
be made to pass the former, but only three trials were 
allowed for the latter. 

Major-General (afterwards Field-Marshal) Sir Lintorn 

1 Done, from 1872 inclusive. 

2 Done henceforth. 



124 



THE "SHOP" FROM 1865 TO 1870. 



Simmons, K.C.B., R.E., who had succeeded Major-General 
Ormsby, became the first resident Governor of the R. M. A. 
He was given unlimited powers of rustication and expul- 
sion, and was made responsible for the cadets' education. 
He was also personally to inflict all sentences of punish- 
ment. 

The office of inspector was abolished, and that of 
secretary and treasurer substituted. 
The adjutant became also quarter- 
master, and the company officers 
were reduced to one captain and 
three lieutenants. 

Voluntary studies (including 
classics) were introduced and the 
time-table rearranged so as to 
give a more satisfactory propor- 
tion of attendances to each sub- 
ject. Accurate survey ceased, and 
the title was changed to " military 
drawing" (the present, 1900, mili- 
tary topography). 

This year the system of each 
class having a separate room, in 
which the cadets kept their books 
and instruments locked up in 
desks, was replaced by the present 
rule of each subject having its own class-rooms. Parades 
for study were abolished, and a much-needed reform 
effected in the withdrawal of the corporals on duty during 
study attendances. The company subalterns also ceased to 
attend chemistry lectures — a change, however, eventually 
productive of much complaint from the professor. 

Although the Royal Commission had recommended that 
the instructors should be allowed certain powers in dealing 
with offences committed in study hours, yet, after due 
consideration, it was felt that this would be an undesir- 
able innovation. The subject had often arisen before, and 



* ^fll 


1 




ami l 

rm 


jgj 


.TAvJ^ 


^$3 


w 



MAJOR-GEN. SIR J. LIN TORN SIMMONS, 
K.C.B., R.E., GOVERNOR, 1860-75. 

(Photo: Th. Prumen, Berlin.) 



G.-C. 'COFFEY'S ADVENTURE. 



125 



has occasionally been reverted to since; but there can be 
no doubt that the system of leaving the disposal of offences 
with one man has an advantage for which no other can 
supply an equivalent, viz., uniformity in punishment. 

It has possibly never struck the casual observer that the 
Franco-German War affected the Cadet Company, yet suck 




THE IRON-WORK SHOP. 



was the case ; and out of it arose what is now an old legend 
of the R. M. A. 

Gentleman-cadet Coffey packed his bag with a few 
necessaries in November, 1870, and shook the dust of the 
" Shop " off his feet, without reference to General Simmons 
or even his company officer. His desire was to fight for 
France against Germany, and he obtained it. 

On his journey to Paris he fell in with a couple of French 
artillery officers. By means of much conversation, and the 
loan of an artillery "Manual," he managed to secure a great 
deal of information about the nature and working of their 



126 THE "SHOP" FROM 1865 TO 1870. 

field-guns. Arriving at his destination, he succeeded, with 
great difficulty, in procuring an interview with the Chief of 
the Staff. 

" Well/' said that official, " who are you ? What do you 
want ? " 

Coffey informed him that he was an Englishman desirous 
of serving as an officer in the French artillery. 

The Chief laughed. " But your qualifications," he asked, 
" what are they ? " 

" I have experience," replied Coffey. " I have been an 
artillery cadet for many years." 

" Bien ! " said the Frenchman. " But our artillery, it is 
different to yours." 

" Oh, I know all about your guns," retorted the modest 
G. C. " Just ask me a few questions, and see ! " 

The Chief of the Staff was amused by this self-possessed 
English boy, and was presently much taken by his ready 
answers to a few simple inquiries about artillery drill. Coffey 
left the room a full-blown sous-lieutenant. He joined the 
21st Army Corps, fought in one or two skirmishes, was 
appointed A.D.C. to the General commanding the artillery of 
the corps, fought in more battles, and was promoted 
lieutenant. He was honourably mentioned in despatches and 
recommended for further advancement. 

On the conclusion of the war he returned home ; and in 
view of the special circumstances of the case, and the 
distinction he had gained, he was permitted to return to the 
Academy. His reception by his comrades was magnificent, 
and the memory of his extraordinary feat will never die in the 
annals of the " Shop." 

Monsieur E. Valentin, who had been instructor in French 
at the R. M. A. since 1860, resigned his appointment this year, 
and also crossed the Channel to fight for his country. He 
served with great distinction, his conspicuous gallantry gaining 
him high promotion, the Cross of the Legion of Honour, and, 
in after years, the Senatorship of " Lyons and the Provinces 
of the Rhone." 



CHAPTER VII. 

THE "SHOP" IN THE 'SEVENTIES. 

Reminiscences, by an " Old Cadet" — The Prince Imperial — Time Table, 1872 — 
Alterations in Admission — Three Terms to a Year — The Under Officers 
Reduced in Number — The Waterloo Sword — Sir Lintorn Simmons — The 
Amalgamation of "Woolwich and Sandhurst — The Powers of the Captain 
of the Cadet Company— The First Board of Visitors— The Cricket Ground 
Enlarged— The West Wing Extended— Alterations in Buildings— The 
Fire of 1873— The Story of the "Tombs"— An "Old Cadet" on the 
Food and a Cricket Match — Two G. C.'s and a Mortar. 

REMINISCENCES OF THE R. M. A. IN THE EARLY 'SEVENTIES. 
By an " Old Cadet J 1 

" A S the discovery of prehistoric remains always excites 
-£^- a pleasurable . interest, it is possible that these recol- 
lections of thirty years ago may prove attractive to 
the cadet of to-day. Things were different then, but not 
very: some features never change, as, for instance, the 
long-waisted costume of the 'Shop' servants. 

"On arriving at the 'Shop,' the last-joined were sub- 
mitted to a searching social discipline. On the first night 
it was a point of honour that their sleep should be un- 
broken, but on the second they were all 'turned up/ 
The iron barrack-bedsteads were all jointed near the head 
to admit of their being turned up against the wall during 
the day-time to give space in the room. When the 
' snooker ' had retired to his couch for the night, a party 
of senior cadets appeared, seized the bottom legs of the 
bed, and rapidly inverted the wretched occupant on to 
his head, firmly pinning his legs against the walL It 
seemed as if his neck must needs be broken, but except 
loss of dignity, I never heard of any mishap incurred. If 



128 THE "SHOP" IN THE 'SEVENTIES. 

the victim evinced distaste for the situation, the regula- 
tion portmanteau was piled up on the top, and occasion- 
ally water was freely applied from the adjacent * tosh ' 
can; but this was a measure only meant to deal with 
aggravated cases. The punishment of ' turning up ' was 
inflicted throughout one's first term at intervals, the length 
of which varied inversely with the favour which one's 
demeanour found in the eyes of the seniors. 

"The next ceremonial was the concert, which took 
place after rounds on the third night. Clad in sleeping 
attire, each stranger was constrained to sing, with the 
alternative of emptying a mug full of a horrible mixture 
prepared for the occasion ! 

" Then there was a mock kit-inspection, conducted by a 
senior cadet disguised by false whiskers and moustache, 
and dressed as much like an officer as possible. Often 
was the hapless recruit paralysed with terror by the dis- 
covery of contraband articles, such as a bottle of whisky, 
in his portmanteau, where it had been hidden beforehand 
by the inspecting officer, and which furnished an oppor- 
tunity for a moral homily, not unaccompanied by direful 
threats. 

•' But the hair-cutting was the most imposing of all 
the tribulations. All egress having been cut oft' by 
picquets of senior cadets at all the gates, the whole of 
the last-joined class, clad in black coats and high hats 
(which were de rigueuv and in which all drills were done 
for the first three weeks), were solemnly paraded, and 
marched to a barrack-room well removed from the eye of 
the authorities. One by one the unfortunates were intro- 
duced into the hair-cutting saloon, where a disguised 
senior in & professional apron wielded the scissors. 

«If well-behaved and of a pleasing exterior, one was 
only slightly clipped ; but a recalcitrant subject was often 
so treated that he could not with decency go on leave 
for a week or two, till nature had repaired the ravages 
made on his locks. Broad-arrows of varying size were the 




'TURNED UP! 



130 THE "SHOP" IX THE 'SEVENTIES. 

favourite marks of distinction. One cadet, now a very 
distinguished officer, was much disfigured because his 
appearance was rustic and his necktie contained more 
yellow than was deemed becoming. 

"All this discipline hurt the feelings slightly, but, 
being useful in abasing the good opinion of themselves 
with which many boys joined the ' Shop/ doubtless 
formed the groundwork of the modest demeanour which 
now so generally marks the senior field-officer. 

" Discipline at the hands of officers, under officers, and 
corporals was very strict, and extra drills abounded. On 
one occasion I was fallen out by a subaltern, who said, 

' Mr. , turn out to drill to-morrow morning for being 

unsteady in the ranks/ Having been taught that fortitude 
in adversity was the highest military virtue, I replied 
cheerfully, 'Very good, sir/ whereupon he continued, 
'Turn out also this afternoon for speaking to me!' 

" It was an invigorating sight, as it is now, to see a 
class swing along down the common en route to the riding 
school, and it must be conceded that no one can march 
like the Woolwich cadet- -when he likes. 

"We used to wear the tunic all day and every day. 
In the evening a double - breasted patrol, really a pea- 
jacket, was permitted, accompanied by white collar and 
black tie, the latter being generally a 'made-up' sailor's 
knot of gigantic size. The forage-cap was then as it is now, 
but, except on parade, always battered in. A really smart 
cap was something of this sort: First of all, it was built 
very low, and showing as little blue cloth as would pass 
muster. Then the cane-stiffening was carefully removed, 
and the squareness of edge taken oft* by sedulous pressing. 
The G. C, with the most disreputable apology for a cap, 
was the most envied man in his term. When off parade 
every self-respecting member of the ' A ' Division wore his 
chin-strap, on the back of his neck, but such procedure on 
the part of a junior would have been sternly repressed. 
" Our studies were pretty much as at present, though 



POPULARITY OF VARIOUS STUDIES. 131 

very few fellows worked in their rooms. The various 
subjects inspired about the same sentiments as they do now. 
Mathematics were regarded with awe and some distaste, 
as necessitating thought. Fortification, which usually 
consisted in colouring portions of incomprehensible litho- 
graphs, was good-naturedly tolerated. But little work was 
done in the ' potter's field/ much permanent fortification 
being taught. Artillery was fairly popular, topography 
more so, and chemistry most of all, successful experiments 
often producing approbation of a very noisy order. The 
study of languages was pursued under varying conditions, 
now under a professor irascible of disposition and lavish of 
arrests, at other times under a teacher whoso weakness and 
faulty knowledge of English made him an easy victim to 
the wiles of the G. C. 

" On breakfast-parade on Saturday the weekly pocket- 
money was doled out, a florin being pressed into each expectant 
hand by the officer on duty. When the cadets were seated 
in the dining-hall, a simpler game (termed ' odd man out ') 
transferred all the money at the table to the possession of 
one individual, who. however, benefited little, seeing that 
he was expected to provide jam during the ensuing week 
for the entire party. 1 

" At the midday dinner we had plum-pudding twice 
a week, but there were no condiments, so we poured beer 
over it, and devoured the mixture with relish. It wasn't 
half bad ! I know one distinguished gunner who possessed 
an almost unlimited capacity for ' plum-duff.' Though we 
used to feed him with portions subscribed from all parts of 
the hall, and watched him with close interest, his spare 
figure never seemed to expand, nor has it done so to this 
day. 

" Seats at table were as follows : At the head, the under 
officer or corporal, who carved, assisted in moments of 
lassitude by two seniors who sat next him. Others followed 

1 A variation in the method of conducting "the table-squad," elsewhere 
Ai 'scribed. 



132 THE "SHOP" IN THE 'SEVENTIES. 

in order of rank till the foot of the table was reached. 
Here sat the 'snookers/ who performed the menial offices 
of cutting bread and pouring out beer — with proper head on 
it — for all. Not for them, however, was the undercut of 
the beef; that was the perquisite of the notables up above. 
If the unfortunates at the foot of the table were suspected 
of not thoroughly realising their abased rank, they were 
treated to more or less solid portions of the ' scrag/ or 
lower, end of the joint. In fact, I know of one corporal who 
used invariably on Thursdays to present his last-joined with 
the doughy ends of the jam-roll, but this was generally 
regarded as an act of moral turpitude akin to striking a 
blind man ! 

"The carving was, of course, execrable and wasteful, 
while the aim and object of everyone was to ' send for a 
new joint/ When the top portion of the sirloin had been 
hollowed out, and distasteful parts distributed and hidden 
away amongst potato skins, a rueful and starveling mien 
was assumed by all at table, and the officer on duty sent 
for. 'Please, sir, we have finished the joint/ On the rare 
occasions on which the gallant subaltern was befooled the 
steward was sent for, and a fresh joint brought in. Then 
the great difficulty was to conceal from the officer one's 
derisive demeanour towards the steward, who was un- 
popular, and one's triumphant attitude towards the occu- 
pants of neighbouring tables. This was fraught with great 
danger, a suddenly enlightened subaltern distributing drills 
and arrests in profusion in his mortification at having been 
taken in. 

"Directly after dinner we used to march at a rapid 
pace to the riding school, there to jog round, often on a 
rough horse and without stirrups, but I never heard of 
anyone's digestion suffering from this heroic treatment. 

" In the afternoon a ' coffee lunch ' was provided in the 
dining-hall for those who cared to partake of it, and in 
the evening was the institution known as the 'tea-squad/ 
This was an enjoyable, if modest, meal, as it was partaken 



TEA SQUADS. 133 

of in squads of four, all of the same batch. Unbounded 
good fellowship prevailed over tea, bread and butter, and 
jam, potted meat, or sardines. An allowance of 4s. per head 
per month was credited to each squad, which amount could 
be privately supplemented, for the purchase of luxuries. In 
addition, an official ration was allowed each cadet per diem, 
consisting of 1 oz. tea, Jth quart of milk, 1 oz. cocoa, £ lb. 
bread, and 1 oz. butter. 

" The ' A ' Division did not have tea-squads, but supped 
in their own hall at eight. Their messing was rather better 
than that of the remainder of the 'Shop/ as they paid an 
extra 2d. per diem. 

" Much care and forethought were expended over the 
formation of these coteries, and the few unpopular young 
gentlemen were of necessity herded together. I heard of 
one so very objectionable that every squad refused to receive 
him, so he was detailed by the authorities to supplement a 
hapless trio, who, however, refused him a place at table, 
but deposited his food nightly for him on the mat outside 
the door! This drastic treatment, which appears at first 
sight cruel, seems to have been to a certain extent justified 
by the unpopular cadet's subsequent career. 

" The ' tea-squad ' meal was often held in a room belonging 
to a senior cadet, and on his return to his domicile the 
party was expected to break up abruptly. I remember one 
cadet especially, of four terms' seniority, who, on his return, 
used always most courteously to ask us to stay while he 
' borrowed a pipe of tobacco.' Now this pipe-bowl had the 
content of an average flower-pot, and in the suspicious 
reflection of middle-age it appears to me more than probable 
that that pipe was emptied into the tobacco-jar so as to 
provide a sufficient number of smokes for the ensuing 
twenty-four hours. 

" All cricket mutches were played on the barrack field 
(the It. A. officers' ground), where football also took place, 
but lower down the common and nearer the barracks. The 
' Shop ' occupied a much higher position in the Rugby foot- 



134 THE "SHOP" IN THE 'SEVENTIES. 

ball world than it does now, and several internationals were 
always to be found in the team. On the other hand, the 
appearance of a Woolwich cadet in a county cricket team 
was a phenomenon which only appeared late in the 'nineties. 

" ' Soccer ' and lawn tennis were unknown, and fencing 
had long been discontinued. It is worthy of note that 
amongst the very best riders, and infinitely the most skilful 
swordsmen of my day, were two French boys, the late Prince 
Imperial and his companion, young Conneau, who joined 
with him. 

" Amongst old landmarks now removed may be mentioned 
the ' Blackguard/ who exchanged, through the railings of 
the enclosure, flowers for superfluous articles of uniform. 
Also the ' Shop ' commissionaire, who purveyed all sorts of 
necessaries from the outer world — including sporting intelli- 
gence. He took, to a certain extent, the place of the present 
canteen, bringing in cakes, fruit, and non-intoxicating* 
beverages. Tobacco, however, was a monopoly held by the 
old gentleman who attended every afternoon to cut hair. 

" Several of my contemporaries had strange careers. One, 
very talented and in many ways attractive, but hopelessly 
impervious to discipline, left somewhat hastily, only to 
reappear in a steady infantry regiment. Here, having in 
a few months destroyed the character for respectability of 
all the other subalterns, he was found one day shot dead, 
no one ever knew how. 

"Another, after a short career in the Royal Artillery, 
donned the petticoat of the Highlander. He was next a 
dragoon, and afterwards a lancer, and his name is well known 
now as a leader of irregular cavalry in South Africa. Some 
few are now ornaments of the Church. 

" Coffey's exploit took place before my time, but twenty 
years afterwards, in a French hotel, I made the acquaintance 
of a stalwart portier, who often regaled me with his personal 
reminiscences of the war. The honest fellow, who had been 
a field battery gunner, used to detail with much pride how 
he tivice had been made prisoner and released on parole, only 



THE PRINCE IMPERIAL. 



135 



to light again with renewed vigour ! But he used to grow 
enthusiastic over the memory of the young English captain 
of his battery who had joined during the campaign and 
had shown such splendid courage and resource. Great was 
his joy at discovering that he had been an acquaintance 
of mine." 

THE PRINCE IMPERIAL. 

After the Franco-German War, Napoleon III. took up 
his residence at Camden Place, Chislehurst, and his son 
Louis Napoleon Emanuel Jean 
Joseph, Prince Imperial of France, 
joined the R. M. A. on November 
10th, 1872. He ranked as a mili- 
tary student, or " supernumerary 
cadet/' and was accompanied to 
Woolwich by Dr. Conneau and his 
son, Monsieur L. N. Conneau. 

The Government furnished No. 
51, The Common, as a residence for 
the Prince and his companions, and 
also three rooms on the first floor 
of the West Tower (now occupied 
by the adjutant's, company subal- 
terns', and sergeant-major's offices). 
A very close friendship existed 

between the Prince and young Conneau, and the latter 
also joined as a military student at the same time. 

The Prince commenced his studies with the fifth class 
at the age of l(j years and 8 months, but was called away 
by the serious illness and subsequent death of his father 
on January 9th, 1873. Afterwards rejoining, he again 
started with the fifth class, went through all studies and 
drills as an ordinary cadet would, and passed very well in 
the examinations at the end of the term. Although handi- 
capped by having only one modern language to take up, 
viz., German — the other cadets having both that and French 
— and by the fact that all lectures were in English, the 




GENTLEMAN CADET THE 
PRINCE IMPERIAL. 

Photo: Cobb £ ChoUis, Woolwich. 



136 



THE "SHOP" IN THE 'SEVENTIES. 



Prince succeeded in obtaining the eleventh place in the 
first class. Eventually he passed out seventh in Cameron's 
batch, February, 1875. On being given his choice, he 
selected Royal Artillery. 

There was, as might have been expected of it, much 
scurrilous comment in the Republican press of France on 
the Prince Imperial's career at the R. M. A. It was in- 
capable, naturally, of understanding how a Royal Prince 
could have been treated otherwise than with favour- 




THE PRINCE IMPERIAL S SIGNATURE ON THE WALL OF HI8 QUARTERS. 



itism. Any assertion or even proof to the contrary was 
received with unveiled scepticism. Of letters written to 
the Governor on the subject, the number was legion ; some, 
written by Royalists, asking for contradiction of the scandal- 
ous statements that were continually being published ; others 
— anonymous, of course — vilifying and abusing the Prince, 
the late Emperor, and the Empress. Whatever was written 
or said, however, could not alter facts : the Prince Imperial 
had gained his place by his own talents and brainwork, 
and "without partiality, favour, or affection." 

Four years after leaving the R. M. A., the Prince 
Imperial embarked for the Cape, and joined the British 
Array in Zululand as a volunteer. When out on recon- 



FUNERAL OF THE FRINGE IMPERIAL. 



137 



noitring duty on May 21st, 1879, his little party was sur- 
prised and surrounded by the enemy. The Prince was 
killed while trying to mount his horse, which, terrified 
by the yelling, rushing horde of Zulus, was practically un- 
manageable. 

On July 11th the young Prince's body was landed at 
Woolwich Arsenal and 
escorted to Chislehurst 
by a large force of 
mounted troops. The 
procession was of very 
great length, and was 
chiefly composed of 
mourning carriages 
containing members ot 
the old families of 
France. The Governor, 
Major-General Sir John 
Adye, and the whole 
staff of the Academy 
attended, and the Cadet 
Company marched over 
to form the firing party, 
when the actual inter- 
ment took place a few 
days later. The Prince 
Imperials body was 

placed with his father's in the churchyard of St. Mary's, 
Chislehurst Common, but both were subsequently removed 
to Farnborough. 

The " Records of the R. M. A. " relates that " one of 
the Academy servants, Mr. Withers, had been present in 
St. Helena when a boy at the funeral of Napoleon I.; he 
was also present at that of Napoleon III. at Chislehurst. 
At the Prince's funeral he was taken over by the Governor 
and joined in the procession. The Empress, on her last 
visit to the Academy in 1883, sent for Mr. Withers and 




THE PRINCE IMPEKIAL « STATUE. 



138 



THE "SHOP" IN THE SEVENTIES. 



gave him an interview. On January 13th, 1883, H.R.H. 
the Prince of Wales unveiled a statue erected at the foot 
of the enclosure in memory of the Prince Imperial. The 
cost was defrayed by subscriptions from all branches of 
her Majesty's Army, and the statue was placed in the 
care of the Governor of the R. M. A. Few who were 
present on that day will ever forget the bitter cold and 
the driving sleet which lashed royalty and cadets, escort 
and spectators, throughout the solemn ceremony." 

The time-table at the " Shop " seems to have under- 
gone constant alterations between 1860 and 1872, the 
following coming into operation about this time. 





TIME-TABLE, 


6.15 a.m. 


1872. 


Extra Drill. 


7 a.m. 


Breakfast. The fare much improved. 




(9 a.m. Sunday 8.) 


8—9 


Drill. First and second class riding. 


9.30—11.30 


Study. 


11.30 


Luncheon. f Bread ? biscuits and butter 
(None on Sundays.) \ ad lib. ; beer, 1 pint each. 




12—2 


Study. 


2.15 


Dinner. (Beer, 1 pint per head.) 

(Voluntary : extra charge of 




5 p.m. 


Afternoon Lunch -<3d. per head. Tea, coffee, 




( bread, butter, milk. 


6—8 


Study. 


8 p.m. 


Supper in own rooms. (In hall on Saturdays 




and Sundays.) 


10 


Rounds. 


10.30 


Lights out. 



The monthly allowance of four shillings per head was 
now withdrawn from the " Table Squads " (the funds of 
which were in future entirely supported by private con- 
tributions, generally on pocket-money day), and given to 
the "Tea Squads." 

At the beginning of the 'seventies it was feared that 
competition for admission to the R. M. A. would decrease 
to a serious extent owing to the abolition of " purchase '" 



THE VACATIONS. 139 

in the cavalry and infantry; consequently the age-limits 
for the entrance examinations were enlarged from 16-18 
to 16-19, a regulation which held good in 71 and 72, and 
was then cancelled. 

Twice during this period had the study organisation of 
the Academy to be altered to meet the requirements of 
the scientific corps. On the first occasion, owing to the 
augmentation of the Royal Engineers in 1871, an extra 
demand for officers was made on the "Shop." The two 
following years were, in consequence, each divided into 
three terms, batches being commissioned in January, May, 
and September. The same procedure was necessitated in 
77 and 78 by the unusual number of retirements in the 
Royal Artillery and Royal Engineers due to the Royal 
Warrant of the former year. 

Except on these two occasions no material alterations 
were made in the educational course. A re-arrangement 
of the terms and vacations was made, however, in 1874 as 
follows : — 

Summer Term, from about March 19th to about July 
28th. 

Winter Term, from about September 24th to about 
February 18th, with about a fortnight's recess at Christmas. 
Examinations for admission were also fixed for every July 
and 1 )ecember, to suit the holidays of the public schools. 

There were two important alterations made in the R. M. A. 
regulations in 1875. One was the reduction of the number 
of under officers from nine to five. They now consisted of 
one responsible under officer and two divisional under officers 
selected from the '• A " Division, and two divisional under 
officers from the second class. The second alteration was the 
giving of marks for riding, gymnastics, company and sword 
drill, as at present (1900). 

( Jeneral Lord Napier of Magdala, R.E., after visiting the 
•' Shop " in May, 76, presented a sword as a reward for the 
best essay by a cadet on the Waterloo campaign. Respon- 
sible under-officer A. P. Codd of the second class succeeded 



140 



THE "SHOP" IX THE 'SEVENTIES. 



in gaining the prize, while senior responsible under-officer 
W. H. Turton, " A " Division, was honourably mentioned 
Both subsequently gained the Pollock Medal. 

Sir Lintorn Simmons, RE., was succeeded in July, 1875, 
by Sir John Adye, R.A. Apropos of the former's service 
as the first resident Governor of the R. M. A., the following 
remarks are quoted * : — " We are convinced that in this im- 
portant national institute there 
exists among those in authority 
a wise, genial, and hearty desire 
to co-operate in producing in 
the Cadet Company a thoroughly 
good tone of moral and intel- 
lectual feeling. The influence 
of the Governor makes itself 
felt in every branch of the es- 
tablishment, and is, in fact, the 
corner-stone of success. 

" We wish to record our 
opinion that the present Gover- 
nor will leave the Royal Military 
Academy in a higher state of 
discipline, and pervaded with 
a higher moral tone, than has 
existed there for many years." 




MAJOR-GENERAL SIR JOHN ADYE, 
K.C.B., R.A., GOVERNOR, 1875-80. 

Photo : Fradelle & Young, Regent St., W. 



The " Shop " had a narrow 
escape in this and the following year of losing its existence. 
Early in 1875 the House of Commons passed a vote that all 
army candidates should be trained at Sandhurst, and that 
Woolwich should become merely a practical school. For- 
tunately, however, they gave permission for two more en- 
trance examinations to be held before their edict was carried 
out. In the interim the most powerful arguments were ad- 
duced as to the inadvisability of the step — every Commission 
that had ever sat on the R. M. A. had been dead against 

1 " Procee lings of the Boards of Visitors" for 1872 and 1875. 



POWERS OF THE GOVERNOR. 



141 



amalgamation — and eventually, in July, 1876, the dread 
decision was revoked. But candidates had already been 
admitted to Sandhurst with a view to entering the R.A. 
and R.E., and so as many of them as desired to change 
were allowed to join the R. M. A. The " Shop " ventured to 
breathe again. 

Since 1870 the Governor had been the only person 




THE GOVERNORS HOUSE. 



allowed by the regulations to punish the cadets, and it 
had been felt for some time that the restriction was too 
,U r reat. The influence of his high authority was found to 
suffer by constant personal contact with the cadets in dealing 
with trivial offences. An alteration was therefore effected 
in 1870 by investing the captain of the Cadet Company 
with the power of dealing with all minor breaches of 
discipline. Henceforth the expression "to be brought up 



142 THE "SHOP" TX THE 'SEVENTIES. 

to the Governor*' carried with it far more significance, and 
impressed a greater sense of coming evil on the culprit ! 

In pursuance of the recommendation of the Royal Com- 
mission, the first Board of Visitors assembled at the R. M. A. 
in 1872, which year also saw the abolition of the " Council 
of Military Education " in favour of the office of " Director- 
General of Military Education." There were two questions 
which formed a standing dish for this and many succeeding 
Boards. These were — the absence of covered communication 
between the front houses and their bath-rooms, and the 
want of sufficient space for playing games in. As the 
company officers were of opinion that a run across the 
snow and a plunge into ice water did no harm to the 
cadets, the former question was not pressed— on the principle, 
doubtless, of the "survival of the fittest." 

But the lack of a sufficiently large cricket- ground was 
severely commented on, and an improvement strongly re- 
commended. The enclosure, it will be remembered, was 
divided by the centre avenue into two parts, each about 
100 yards long by 80 broad. As an " old cadet " remarked, 
" Fellows used to have fine times batting. A little lofting 
shot easily cleared the 'ha-ha'!" But when a match was 
in progress, people entering the "Shop" were exposed to 
considerable risk. Another "old cadet" narrates that he 
remembers the Empress Eugenie having a very narrow 
escape. She was driving up the avenue to visit her son 
when a lustily hit ball whizzed just over her head. 

From 72 to 7(5 the Board of Visitors stuck gamely 
to their point. At last their constant recommendations 
had effect, and the cricket-ground was enlarged in 1877. 
The old "ha-ha" was removed, the centre road covered 
over, and the present wire fence run round the enclosure, 
which was nearly doubled in length from south to north. 
The east and west entrance gates were put up and the 
lodges built. 

For many years the dream of the authorities had been 
that each cadet should have a room to himself, and with 




THE FIHK 143 

this intention the building of houses S to Z was started 
in 1877. The extension was completed in the follow- 
ing year and occupied after the summer vacation. The 
authorised establishment of the company at the time 
would have permitted of single occupation, but the actual 
number of cadets still necessitated two being quartered in 
each room of the front barracks. So the dream did not 
come true ; and it never has, for the strength of the com- 
pany has, with few exceptions, always been higher than 
in 1878. Indeed, in most years there have not only been 
three or four in the front rooms, but also two in many 
of those in the wings. 

Other alterations that were made in the Academy 
buildings during this period were the erection of the 
present " Governor's House " (on the site of the old Cube 
House) in 1876, and the reconstruction of the " A " 
Division dining-hall in 1879. While this latter operation 
was in progress, the first class dined in the ante-room of 
the bowling alley, under the school of arms. The billiard- 
room was also added to in 1871, and a table provided 
for the use of the second class. A valuable addition to 
the library in the same year was made by her Majesty, 
who presented to the Cadet Company a bust of the Duke 
of Connaught, the handiwork of the Princess Louise. 

THE FIRE OF 1873. 1 
{Compiled from the account* of several Old Cadet*.) 

"It was in my 'snooker' term, and I was in a room 
in J House, next to the library, with two other fellows. 
We were sleeping the sleep of the over-worked and under- 
fed cadet when someone suddenly burst in at the door, 
and yelled to us to get up. We did not bustle much, 
as we thought it was probably some infernal *rosher'; 
but presently we became aware of a great commotion out- 
side, cries of ' Fire ! ' the rolling of wheels, and the tramp- 
ing of many feet. 

1 On the 1st February. 



Ui 



THE "SHOP" IS THE 'SKVEXTIK*. 



"Seizing any clothes handy, we doubled out to the 
parade-ground, and saw flames shooting out of the library 
and class-room windows. The old clock-face was fairly 
illuminated, and the hands pointed to somewhere about 
half- past four. The 'Shop' fire-engine had just been 
run out, and they were screwing up the hose. 

"Some fellows rescued several things from the library, 
including the Duke of Connaught's bust, and Colonel 




TUB EAST LIHKAKY. 



Mihnan managed to get a few papers out of his office. 
Wo wore most of us rather concerned until it struck 
somoono that tho defaulter sheets would be burnt. Then 
the general buzz of congratulation was almost heard above 
tho roaring of tho Haines! 'Ally Sloper/ one of the 
company subalterns, rescued some of them, however, at 
the imminent peril of his life, much to the disgust of 
the gentlemen cadets. 

11 It was a freezing! v cold night, and 1 remember the 
wind was from the north-east, for a lot of us were ordered 



Utf THE 'SHOP" IX THE 'SEVENTIES. 

up to the roofs of J and K Houses, and of Colont-l 
Milman's quarters in between, with wet blankets to put 
out sparks. Fire-engines came galloping up from all parts 
of the country, and pretty soon there were about ten of 
them ; but they could not all work owing to scarcity of 
water. The garrison turned out and lined the ha-ha,* 
while crowds of people gathered outside. They had a fine 
view. I shall never forget the intense cold, and the terrific 
waves of heat that occasionally blew on us from the burning 
buildings. When day broke the ground about the foot 
of the walls was literally covered with great blocks of ice, 
and long, frozen drips of water hung from the ladders. 
And this in spite of the roaring furnace a few feet away! 
One poor beggar, a fireman, fell off a ladder and was badly 
hurt. We got the fire under about breakfast-time, but there 
was not much left except the walls. The clock went for a long 
time after the fire broke out, until about 7 o'clock, I think." 

The exact origin of the tire was never discovered. The 
rooms of the centre building were warmed by hot-water 
pipes, and it was supposed that one of the flues had become 
foul through insufficient sweeping. The blame, however, 
could never be attached to any particular person. 

Steps were at once taken to provide temporary class- 
rooms by the erection of the buildings now used as drill 
and model sheds south of the Rear Road. The centre 
block was rapidly rebuilt on the same plan as before, 
except that staircases were put at each end instead of the 
spiral one that existed in the middle of the old building. 

The firo brought prominently to light the danger to 
which cadets would be exposed should a conflagration take 
place in their quarters. The doors were closed every 
night with a stout iron bar and padlock on the outside,, 
and, all the windows having iron gratings, there could be 
no egress in a hurry. Consequently a front-door key to- 
every house was placed in a glass-sided box, and screwed 
to the room-door of the corporal in charge. 



THE STORY OF "THE TOMBS." 147 

The damage caused by the tire was close on £100,000, 
but the loss of old books, MSS. and pictures was irremedi- 
able. The Treasury granted a sum of £1,500 for replacing 
the volumes destroyed as far as possible. The Royal 
Engineers Library in 1874, Captain Atchinson, Royal 
Artillery, in 1877, the United Service Club in 1879, and 
Messrs. Mittler and Sons of Berlin in 1880 sent many 
welcome presents of books. The Prince Imperial at the 
end of the year gave the library two shelves of very 
valuable military works, handsomely bound, with the royal 
arms of France on the covers. 

An amusing incident is narrated in connection with the 
tire. About six o'clock the Governor sent a cadet to Lady 
Simmons with a message that he would bring some people 
in to breakfast at eight. Unfortunately his envoy bungled, 
for when asked how many were coming he replied, " All the 
cadets " ! Here was a task for Lady Simmons ! Over one 
hundred breakfasts to be got ready, and only two hours to do 
it in ! Nothing daunted, she set to work. Servants flew 
here, there, and everywhere. Plates, cups, knives were 
borrowed from every neighbour; stacks of provisions procured 
from hastily awakened grocers, and presently every tire in the 
house was crackling with frying bacon, sending forth most 
appetising odours for hungry nostrils. Judge of the General's 
astonishment on his return to tind every available table in 
every available room spread with snowy cloths, and this 
gigantic repast ready ! History relates not what happened to 
the unconscious author of the mischief. Probably nothing, 
for in after years Sir Lintom used often to tell the story with 
much evident amusement. 

THE STORY OK " THE TOMBS." 

In .July, 1874, died Major- General Sir Henry Tombs, 
V.C., K.C.B., Bengal Artillery, an officer who served with 
the greatest distinction in India for over thirty years. So 
well beloved was he that, on a fund being raised for his 
memorial, a surplus of £1,(504 19s. li remained after all 
necessary expenses had been met in connection therewith. 



148 THE "SHOP" IN THE 'SEVENTIES. 

It was determined that this should be devoted to founding 
a scholarship at the Royal Military Academy to preserve 
his memory among all luture cadets entering the Artillery. 
The interest on the sum renders about £56 available every 
year for presenting the senior artillery cadet of each 
batch with a cheque, the amount of which varies with the 
number of classes commissioned in the twelve months. 

The prize was first gained in July, 1877, by F. E. D. 
Acland ; the names of subsequent winners will be found 
in the appendices. They are emblazoned on the panels of 
the dining-hall. 

Tombs was an Addiscombe man, and, in view of the 
close connection between his name and the " Shop," the 
following outline of his services may be given. He served in 
the Gwalior campaign, battle of Punniar; Sutlej cam- 
paign, battles of Moodkee, Ferozeshah, Budiwal, and Aliwal, 
1845-46 ; Punjab, '48-49, Ramnuggur, Chenab passage, 
Chillianwallah, Goojerat; the Mutiny, Hindun (horse shot), 
Badle-ka-Serai (two horses shot), Delhi (two horses shot), 
Nujjufghur, Lucknow, Allygunge, Bareilly, Rohilcund cam- 
paign ; Bhootan, Dewangiri. 

Colonel Vibart, R.E., in "Addiscombe: its Heroes and 
Men of Note," describes how Tombs Avon the Victoria Cross. 
It was on July 9th, 1857^ during the siege of Delhi. Lieu- 
tenant Hills of the Artillery had been surrounded by the 
enemy, unhorsed, and deprived of his sword. 

" Tombs, at this time having heard of the attack, had 
walked down to the ' Mound/ and in a moment was in the 
midst of the enemy, who were cutting at him on all sides. 
Having got through them he ascended the ' Mound/ when 
he saw Hills about thirty paces off on the ground, apparently 
entangled in his cloak, with a sowar standing over him 
with drawn sword. He at once fired at the man with 
his revolver, shot him through the body, and Hills was saved. 
Tombs helped Hills to rise ; but now they saw another 
sowar walking away with Hills' revolver, when they made 
towards him. The sowar at once attacked them, cutting 



FOOD AT THE "SHOP." 149 

at both oi them; two blows were parried, but the third 
broke down Hills' guard and clove his skull. In a 
moment he turned upon Tombs, who parried the blows, 
and then drove his sword right through the trooper's 
body. For this gallant exploit both James Hills and 
Henry Tombs were awarded the V.C." 

A curious thing with regard to the food at the "Shop" 
is the variety of description applied to it. "Visitors" held 
that it was " abundant and good ; in variety and quality 
quite equal to, perhaps above, the average of that found 
in the families of the gentry of the country." 

How did the cadet of the period describe it ? 

" We had breakfast at seven, of a meagre description. 
Dinner at three, consisting of a joint and a very heavy duff. 
Often meat ran short, and when more was required it 
was left to the discretion ot the officer on duty. One 
cadet officer was well known for recommending the 
* scrag-end ' to be taken up. It was not exactly known 
whether he had any personal motive ! Coffee of an 
inferior description at four ; tea squads at eight — tea of a 
light shade, loaf of bread and pat of butter; sometimes a 
scanty slice of meat or two bad eggs, and on grand 
occasions a slice of Bologna sausage ! " 

Leaving the food, he goes on to say : " We had no 
decent cricket-ground and but few games. There was a 
professional called Wales, an indifferent, medium-paced 
bowler. We played half-a-dozen matches : Sevenoaks 
Vine, Blackheath, Butterflies, I. Z., Garrison and Crystal 
Palace. At one match with the last named we had an 
exciting and unusual time. We drove over and started 
play. When the lunch hour came we were fielding, and 
clamoured to stop. They said, ' All right. Bread and 
cheese and beer.' We said, ' Oh no ! Where's the near- 
est pub. r It was found ; and a boiled leg of mutton 
and trimmings at four was highly spiced by our far- 
distant 7.30 breakfast. 

" After the match the team dined at the Crystal 



150 THE "SHOP" IX THE 'SEVENTIES. 

Palace. Nino o'clock found all the cadets' money spent, 
and the conveyance gone wrong. Nothing for tickets, but 
one (i. C. had a watch, which went some way. Train 
reached Blackheath, but our finances would not run to 
more than one cab. What a match it was ! 

"Besides the 'fire,' there was no very exciting event at 
the ' Shop ' in my time. I remember we turned out as 
guard of honour to the Czar when he came down to 
inspect the Horse and Field Artillery. I am not sure that 
the great Peall was not billiard-marker at the ' Shop ' then." 

Has any cadet ever noticed a hole — nowadays not always 
visible on account of the ivy — in one of the external walls 
of the racquet court ? Thereby hangs a tale concerning 
two(i. C.'s and a 13-inch mortar. Reposing peacefully behind 
the parapet of the " battery," this ancient warrior was en- 
joying the rest earned by years of violent exertion, his 
utmost work now being confined to a little drill with the 
artillery classes. But one day a certain cadet, a conspicuous 
figure in " Shop " athletics, inserted a charge of powder in 
the mortar, carefully calculated beforehand to be of sufficient 
size to just eject the spherical drill shell. The other G. C. 
stood upon the parapet, only a few feet away, prepared to 
catch the projectile when it emerged ! The first experiment 
proved a failure ; there was too little powder, and the mighty 
missile merely moved uneasily in its abode. So a larger 
charge was put in, the catcher stood ready, the fuse was 
lit, and — bang ! whizz ! 

The Providence which watches over cadets — and other 
people — fortunately guided the shell a few inches clear 
of the adventurous fieldsman, and took it in a wobbly curve 
to the racquet court, off a corner of which it sank igno- 
miniously to mother earth. One, at least, of the culprits — he 
was afterwards a highly popular " adjy " — has never forgotten 
the dire apprehension of the ninety-six hours' arrest which 
elapsed before being summoned to the Governor's presence. 
" And which of you gentlemen is it," said that officer, 
** who has so far neglected his lectures on Artillery as to 
grossly miscalculate the weight of a charge ? " 



CHAPTER VIII. 

THE " SHOP " IN THE 'EIGHTIES. 

The Justice of the G. C— Constant Acceleration Leads to Many "Drops" — 
Provisional Promotion — Excessive Demand for Officers Causes Ke- 
organisation — " A " Division Abolished — The " Shop " does Well at an 
Open Examination — "Drops" not to Take Sappers— "Cribbing" — Time 
Tables, 1885 and 1887— The Jubilee— The Swimming Bath Built — Uniform 
—Prince Ilbrahim Hilmy — Azziz Izzet Bey — Fatal Accident— Chemistry. 

Seldom after the 'seventies did the G. C. appear before 
his commanding officer charged with offences of a dis- 
honourable and ungentlemanly nature. The moral tone of 
the Cadet Company had indeed been improved in the last ten 
years almost out of recognition. Detection was, of course, 
followed by the most extreme punishment, but it is 
questionable whether this fact carried so much weight as 
the attitude of the cadets themselves. Indeed, it is not 
improbable that a culprit would have often preferred 
discovery by the authorities rather than by his comrades, 
as, perhaps, the following incidents may show : — 

( Jentleman-cadet Z was the possessor of a roulette 

table, and, contrary to all regulations, indulged in little 
gambling parties in his room. This was greatly appreciated 
by certain other cadets, and for a time all went well. One 
evening, however, the roulette table appeared in another 

cadet's room, and somehow it leaked out that Z had 

lent him the game for the modest fee of half-a-crown. 
Now, the "Shop" was not a commercial institution, and 
so thought the G. C.'s. To gamble, and thus defy the 
standing orders, was one thing; to trade was another. A 
consultation was held, and its subsequent results were 
apparent when the dripping forms of hirer and hiree were 



152 THE "SHOP" IX THE 'EIGHTIES. 

seen emerging, coughing and spluttering in mess dress, 
from the direction of the bath-rooms. 

Cold water, however, was not a sufficient damper to Z 's 

commercial instincts. He was again suspected, and presently 
proof was forthcoming that he had once more profited by 
some " snooker's " desire to possess the game for a week. 
It was now felt that the extreme punishment of room- 
wrecking must be resorted to. Accordingly, a band of 
G. C.'s strolled round to the culprit's quarters after dinner 
one evening, and proceeded to quietly but firmly immerse 
him once more in very cold water. Then he was placed 
in a corner of his room, and every stick of his private 
furniture reduced to matchwood. Pictures, frames, mirrors, 
easy-chairs, all were smashed to atoms and piled on the 
floor. On top of this altar the roulette table was sacrificed, 
with the aid of a poker, to the mammon of trade. Of 
such was the justice of the G. C. ! 

Room- wrecking was a savage form of punishment, and, 
though prevalent for some years, eventually died out about 
the beginning of the 'nineties. It led to many rustications 
and much trouble generally. 

Another little case of G. C. justice occurred many years 
ago. It was the night of the sports, and a small party of 

cadets were playing cards for modest points in G. C. A 's 

room. A s run of luck was extraordinary, and presently 

the amount of his winnings represented quite a satisfactory 
evening. Then his arms were suddenly pinned from behind, 

and the voice of B , a burly " rugger " player who had 

been quietly watching the game from the bed, remarked, 
" I think you fellows will find a card up his sleeve." And 
sure enough there was. Then a scene of wild confusion arose, 

A vainly expostulating and protesting his innocence. 

But it was of no use ; he had been caught red-handed. 
The news spread like wildfire through the " Shop," and 

G. C.'s came hurrying up from all directions. A was 

brought forth clad in his night-shirt, " toshed " in the water- 
jump, and made to run the gauntlet of 150 infuriated 



COURSE REDUCED TO TWO YEARS. 153 

cadets armed with swagger-sticks and waist-belts. Next 
day the R. M. A. knew him not. 

In 1880 the " Shop " was again called on to supply 
three batches for commissions. Contrary, however, to the 
usual custom adopted after such wholesale acceleration, 
a third entrance examination was not held ; a double number 
of candidates were admitted in October, the senior half 
forming the fourth class. 

The constant repetition during the last decade of a 
sudden demand for more officers than the senior term could 
conveniently supply had not been without its effect on 
the organisation and instruction of the cadets. 1 It led to 
a great many failing in the periodical examinations, the 
year 1881 furnishing no less than fifty-three drops. Ten 
of these were certainly owing to rustication, but thirty-nine 
were occasioned by want of knowledge. This unusually 
large number was due, not only to the accelerated instruction 
of the last few years, but also to the very strict enforcement 
of the qualification rule. In consequence of the latter 
reason it was decided that, in future, if a cadet failed in 
a subject by not more than twenty marks, and was otherwise 
deserving of promotion, he should be allowed to go up 
with his batch conditionally on his making good his deficit 
in that subject in his new class. Thus was "provisional 
class promotion" introduced. 

This innovation, although possessed of obvious disad- 
vantages, worked well as long as the course was not upset 
by the outbreak of war and its attendant excessive commis- 
sioning. Such an event occurred, however, very shortly 
after the introduction of the system. The campaign in 
Egypt necessitated two batches being passed out in July, 
188*2 — these, singularly enough, being the two that had, as 
we have just seen, entered the R. M. A. in October, 1880, 
viz., Mackenzie's and \V. R. Stewart's. So it was now 
determined to permanently reduce the course to four terms, 
and to pass the cadets through in two instead of two and 

1 In 1872, 1873, 1877, and 1878. 



154 THE "SHOP" IN THE 'EIGHTIES. 

a half years. Consequently, when the fifth class was pro- 
moted to third at the commencement of the autumn term, 
it was not replaced, and henceforward the " Shop " consisted 
of only four classes, each stronger than before, in order 
to keep up the supply for commissions. 

September, 1882, indeed, marks the beginning of a new 
epoch in the K. M. A.'s existence. The terms " A," " B," 
and " C " Divisions were abolished, and the cadet company 
was formed into the first, second, and third divisions, 1 each, 
as before, commanded by a subaltern officer. When a 
batch joined it was taken over by one of the company lieu- 
tenants, and remained in his charge until it reached the 
first class. The present system of choosing one senior under 
officer of the K. M. A. and three under officers of divisions 
from the first (or senior) class was instituted, and the 
remainder of the batch were promoted to be corporals if 
their conduct was satisfactory. Each of the divisions was 
split up into two subdivisions as before, but these were now 
commanded by the six senior corporals. The first class 
was placed in charge of all ^ the houses and table squads, 
carried out all the " duty " work of the company, and took 
over the " A " Division (the term died hard) dining-hall 
and billiard-room. 

The " Shop " had scarcely settled down to its new organi- 
sation when the course again ran the risk of being upset 
by a heavy demand for officers. It was therefore decided 
to pass out five batches in the two years 1884 and 1885 
by dividing the period into five terms. The curtailment of 
the ordinary term thus involved only amounted to about 
twenty days. In addition, ten cadets of the first class were 
commissioned in the artillery in the middle of the spring 
term, 1884. 

For the next few years nothing occurred which disturbed 
the instructional course. Classics were withdrawn from the 
list of voluntary studies in 1884 owing to a feeling that 
the subject was not of great importance in the cadet's future 

1 Subsequently Right, Centre, and Left. 



" DROPPING. 9 ' 155 

career. In the following year the " Shop " distinguished 
itself in the most marked manner at an examination, 
open to the whole country, for fifteen direct commissions 
in the RE. and twenty in the RA. Cadets from both 
the R. M. A. and R. M. C. were allowed to compete, and 
eleven from Woolwich presented themselves before the 
Civil Service Commissioners in London. Result: — 

First, C. C. D. Morice (third class). 

Second, 0. M. Slaughter (" snooker "). 

Third, E. H. W. H. Stafford (third class). 

Twelfth, F. K. Fair (second class). 

Fourteenth, C. B Collins (" snooker "). 

Two other " snookers/' R. F. G. Bond and C. de W. Crook- 
shank, also passed and qualified for R.A. They, however, 
refused the commissions and returned to the " Shop." 
Bond afterwards got the Pollock Medal, and both eventually 
obtained sappers. 

The old system of corporals keeping order in the class- 
rooms was revived in 1886, as were also study parades, but 
neither lasted longer than twelve months. After remaining 
in peace for nearly five years the educational course was 
once more disturbed, as the first and second classes (Godfrey 
Faussett's and Dick's batches) were both commissioned in Feb- 
ruary, 1888. An equal number of sapper commissions (fifteen) 
were i^iven to both, but only the senior — as is always the 
case when two batches are commissioned in one term — received 
the Sword and Pollock Medal. Double the usual number 
of cadets was admitted in April, the upper half forming 
the third, and the lower the fourth class. 

With the exceptions noted, the instruction of the cadets 
proceeded smoothly enough throughout the 'eighties. Two 
important questions, however, received particular attention 
during this period, one from the authorities and one 
from the cadets themselves. The former resulted in a 
new regulation coming into effect in 1889, ordaining that 
in future no cadet who " dropped " in any subject of study 
was to be allowed to take sappers. This order did away 



156 



THE "SHOP" IX THE 'EIGHTIES. 



with a very old abuse, viz., that of purposely failing to 
qualify in the examinations with a view to " dropping " into 
the class below, where, with the experience already gained, 
the chance of passing out in a higher place in the batch 
would be greatly increased. Instances had come to light 

of cadets sending in blank 
papers when they were well 
known to be quite able to 
answer a sufficient number of 
the questions set to at least 
qualify. "Sick drops" were 
not included in the category, 
as it was felt that, although 
in some cases injustice would 
not be done, yet that in others 
it undoubtedly would, and the 
nature of the case prevented 
a hard-and-fast line being 
drawn. 

The second question was 
that of " cribbing " in examina- 
tions. The practice had always 
been in vogue, generally among 
those in low positions in the 
classes. It was seldom that 
three or four cadets did not avail themselves of unfair means 
in answering the papers, although, of course, the discovery 
of the offence meant explilsion or, at least, rustication. 

It seems that at one time at the " Shop " one of those 
strange unwritten rules of cadet etiquette ordained that 
cribbing by those who were fearful of " dropping " a second 
time was not to be considered a dishonourable action. But 
the line was drawn when it came to a question of getting 
" sappers," and cases occurred when " cribbers " were 
compelled by their brother cadets to select an artillery 
commission, although their high positions in their several 
classes entitled them to a choice of corps. 




MAJOR-GENERAL J. F. M. BROWNE, 
C.B., R.E., GOVERNOR, 1880-87. 

Photo: Fradelle & Young, Regent St., W. 




t^l 




4 ^H 


•MJvJX 


• ^ 


K i iH M 






15* THE "SHOP 9 ' IX THE EIGHTIES. 

Now this was not intended, from the cadets' point of 
view, to be in any way unjust to the artillery. " Gunners '* 
and " sappers " were simply words signifying certain par- 
ticular objects of desire. The whole practice of cribbing 
was pernicious (that goes without saying), but the system 
adopted by the cadets at least made the best of a bad 
job and prevented injustice to the individual. Happily, 
in these later days, cribbing has become extremely rare. 
Deep-seated customs, especially evil ones, cannot be up- 
rooted in a day : and the quiet insistence of years has been 
necessary to cause the art to become classified among 
cadets as dishonourable. 

The daily time-table was twice revised during the 
'eighties. At the beginning of 1885 great alterations were 
made, the chief being the institution of a late dinner. 
This was due to a remark of the Board of Visitors in the 
previous year that " though not defective in physique, the 
countenances of the cadets generally looked pale and 
jaded. The cases of dyspepsia, numerous for their time 
of life, led to the impression that some alteration in their 
mode of living might be advantageous." By the removal of 
the dinner-hour to 7.15, the old " tea squad " was abolished. 





T IME. T A BLK, 




1*85. 


0.45 


Extra Drill. 


7.30 


Breakfast. 


8.30-9.30 


i Drill (none Saturdays). 


9.45-11.30 


First Study (8-9.30 Saturday). 


11.45-1 


Second Study (10-11.30 Saturday). 


1.15 


Cold meat lunch. 


2-3 


Third Study. 


4.30 5.30 


Voluntary Study. 


5.45-7 


Fourth Study. 


7.15 


i Dinner. 


1 .30 


Lights out. 



The gentleman cadet was now in danger of being badly 
spoilt. Not only had he a comfortable hot dinner of 




THE "SHOP" ALPINE CLUB. 



15i> 



three courses in the evening, but he was further indulged 
in a covered passage to his bath-room, and strong efforts- 
were being made to get every "last joined" a room to 
himself. Well might the " old cadet " sniff when he 
came down to review the scenes of his " snookerhood " and 
saw such signs of luxury ! 

The 1885 time-table did not remain long in force, for 




" sie(;e works. 



the one in present use was introduced in April, 1887, the 
chief alteration being the removal of the drill-hour from 
before, to after, morning study, and the abolition of the 
2 p.m. to .') p.m. study. This year the Cadet Company 
went up to London on June 21st, and took part in the 
(Queen's Jubilee. They were stationed at Buckingham 
Palace, opposite the Sandhurst cadets, falling-in in two 
ranks in rear of the troops lining the roads. 

There are clubs and club*, one could name a few hundred 
—the Carlton, the "Hag," Aston Villa, or the M.C.C., but 
perhaps the weirdest club ever formed was that which existed 
at one time at the R. M. A. It was known as the "Alpine 



160 



THE "SHOP" IX THE 'EIGHTIES. 



Club," and the only qualification for membership lay in 
making an entire circuit of the " Shop " along the roofs of 
the buildings. As these varied considerably in height, the 
difficulties encountered in scaling the different peaks were 
great, and were considerably enhanced by the fact that the 
designing architects had not preconceived the formation of 
this society of mountaineers. Tastefully designed medals, 
artistically moulded in putty, rewarded any particularly 

daring ascent, such as the "Grand 
Dome," the " Pic de Wettercoq," 
or the " Flagstaft'horn." The 
" Alpine Club " flourished ex- 
ceedingly as long as it succeeded 
in remaining select and avoid- 
ing official recognition. People 
who were not cadets, however, 
became aware of its existence, 
and disbandment under painful 
circumstances ensued, the in- 
evitable result of too much 
publicity on a club of this 
nature. 

The buildings of the R. M. A. 
received some slight additions 
during this period. On joining 
after the winter vacation, the "A" Division in 1880 occu- 
pied the present corporals' hall and ante-room. Later in 
the year a billiard-table was placed in the latter, and so 
now the three senior classes were provided with the means 
of playing the game. 

The coffee-room or "canteen" on the ground-floor of 
the East Tower was extended in 1885 by the addition of 
a tin building opening out from it on the east side. A 
number of small tables were put in, and from now on the 
canteen became very popular, especially after riding parades 
and dinner. 

The strength of the Cadet Company in 1888 reached 




MAJOR-GENERAL R. HAY, C.H., R.A 
GOVERNOR, 18S7— 80. 



UNIFORM. 



161 



the formidable figures of 280. The barracks were so 
crowded that only the first and second classes had rooms 
to themselves, and the dining-hall was filled to overflowing. 
A proposal to convert it into a chapel and to build a new 
mess-room was not approved of, and in September the sand- 
modelling shed between the billiard-rooms and the workshop 
was occupied by the second class as a temporary dining-hall. 

The swimming bath was begun in May, 1889, opposite 
to the entrance door of the 
East Racquet Court, and was 
ready for use in November. 
Great preparations, including 
refreshments, a swimming con- 
test, and the Beckwiths, were 
made for a formal opening. 
Unfortunately the bath refused 
to hold water. After being 
relined it worked well for a 
few months in 1890, and then 
started another leak. This one 
baffled the closest investigation, 
and, what with one thing and 
another, the bath was not fit 
for use until 1893. 

During this decade, two 
alterations of note were made 

in dress. A red mess-waistcoat was issued in September, 
1880, over which the tunic was worn open, the collar being 
held together by a strip of gold lace. This was far more 
comfortable than the old arrangement of wearing the 
tunic buttoned up tight, and also much neater in appear- 
ance. The following year saw the substitution of a very 
pretty " blazer," designed by Captain G. G. Simpson, the 
new Adjutant, for the jacket of rough blue serge which 
had succeeded the old "banyan." The pattern was ar- 
ranged as shown in Plate 8, viz. half-inch stripes of the 
"Shop" colours on a dark-blue background. 




MAJOR-GENERAL SIR RICHARD 

HARRI80N, K.C.B., C.M.G., R.E., 

GOVERNOR, 18*9— 90. 

Photo : Elliott & Fry, Baker Street, W. 



162 THE "SHOP" IN THE 'EIGHTIES. 

The R. M. A. had two supernumerary cadets during 
the 'eighties, Prince Ilbrahira Hilmy and Azziz Izzet Bey. 
The former, who was the son of Ismail Pasha, late 
Khedive of Egypt, completed his course and left the 
"Shop" in 1880. During his stay he resided at 220, 
Herbert Road. Although speaking English fairly well, he 
was not sufficiently proficient in it to be able to pass his 
examinations, and was therefore promoted from class to 
class with Hemming's batch without qualifying. The 
Prince was very stout, and consequently found the riding 
and gymnastic courses rather a trial. According to a 
contemporary at the "Shop," "he was a very good fellow 
and a great favourite with the cadets." 

Azziz Izzet Bey joined the " Shop " in 1887 as a super- 
numerary cadet. He was of Egyptian nationalit)', but 
adapted himself to the life and customs of the cadet with 
the greatest success. He lived in a house in the west 
wing, and carried out his drills and studies with Colvin's 
batch. He did not " pass in " in the ordinary way, but 
was privately examined by two or three of the professors; 
in the term examinations Azziz Izzet did very well, and 
eventually passed out forty-third in a class of sixty-four. 
He afterwards served for a short time in the Garrison 
Artillery and then returned to Egypt. 

It was seldom that " Azziz-z-z-z-z's " (as he was 
popularly called) quarters out of study hours were not 
filled with three or four cadets, chatting and smoking; 
and there were few rooms in the "Shop" where he was 
not a much sought-after guest at afternoon teas and other 
similar functions. He gained very many friends during 
his stay at the Academy, but was lost sight of by the 
majority after his return to Egypt. He revisited England 
in the summer of 1900, accompanying the Khedive as 
honorary aide-de-camp. 

A very sad accident happened in the winter term, 1886 
G. C. Buttar (who had joined with Dick's batch in Septem- 
ber) was running across the backyard of I House when he 



164 THE "SHOP" IN THE 'EIGHTIES. 

slipped upon the ice-covered asphalte (there was a severe 
frost) and fell heavily with his head against the wall. He 
was badly shaken, but felt well enough to attend evening 
study. After dinner, however, his head began to ache, 
and he grew semi-delirious. The corporal of the house 
took him down to the hospital about 11.30 p.m., where 
the poor fellow rapidly sank into unconsciousness. He 
recovered somewhat towards eight in the morning, and 
had a short chat with another cadet in the ward. The 
latter was soon afterwards removed to another room, and 
poor Buttar died about eleven. The Governor was anxious 
to pay him the only honours possible, by a military funeral, 
but Mr. Buttar, the father, refused to keep the cadets from 
their vacation for the purpose. The December dance, how- 
ever, was not held. 

To lecture single-handed to a class of seventy cadets 
on some abstruse problem in chemistry, accompanying it 
by some complicated practical experiments with things 
called retorts, and at the same time to keep order, is a 
very difficult task. The difficulties are further increased 
if you are a man of great kindness of heart, in love with 
your work, and not suckled on military discipline and 
methods. 

If you are of an unsuspicious disposition, you would 
probably regard it as a curious coincidence that seventy 
cadets at one and the same moment should light seventy 
crackling and noisome fusees. For smoking was once 
allowed in the east lecture-room to drown the stinking 
fumes which are the peculiar properties of experimental 
science. You might even pass unnoticed the extraordinary 
fact that, five minutes later, seventy wax matches were 
struck in succession from the left-hand end of the front 
desk to the right-hand of the back row. Wrapt in the 
task of transferring some deep calculation from the brain 
to the blackboard, with your back turned to the audience, 
you would certainly — unless you were built differently to 



CHEMISTRY LECTURES OF OLD. 



165 



other people — miss seeing half-a-dozen cadets shinning up 
the tall pillars supporting the iron roof. But if you turn 
suddenly and catch them sliding down — well, it is a different 
matter. 

Perhaps you may have occasion to bring off a slight 




A COUPOHAL S KOOM. 



explosion by the judicious mixture of certain acids, an 
explosion which reverberates through and shakes the 
lecture-room in the most unusual manner. When the 
smoky fumes clear away you may be surprised to find 
that seventy cadets are stretched prone on the floor behind 
the desks. But when an individual, with the conscious 
innocence of youth on his bland and chubby face, in 
response to your invitation to explain matters, assures 
ymi that he was fairly bowled over by the shock, what 
are you to do ? How can you possibly punish this child- 
like candour { 

However, even the kindest-hearted and most lenient of 



16<i 



THE "SHOP 7 IX THE 'EIGHTIES. 



men will turn. That is what happened in 1886, and 
"roosts" became appallingly frequent in the east lecture- 
room. Classes were ordered to parade for chemistry, and 
corporals placed on duty during the attendances. Even 
that would probably have availed little had not a rumour 
spread that, if things did not improve, the officer on duty 
would be directed to attend during lectures. Everyone 
had a foreboding at to what that might mean, so conduct 
became better at a bound. 




ri ft 



'M Hi 



THE "CAPTAIN." 
From a sketch in the Cricket Book, by Lt.-Col. L. G. Fawkes,Jl.A. 

(The "Shop" wears an unfamiliar appearance nowadays, for the "Captain," after many years of 
self-imposed service, Las rescued his billet, and left the "last-joined" to the tender mercies of the 
company subalterns. The "Snookers" were his peculiar charpe; wet or fine, lie nexer missed a drill 
or a uymnastic exercise ; and his eye was ever keen in picking out the future under-offlcer. He was 
very popular with the cadets, and consequently had often to endure much mild "roshing." 




THE NEW WING. 



CHAPTER IX. 

FROM 1890 TO MIDSUMMER, 1900. 

Bifurcation, its Trial and Results— A G. C. Passes in Last and Out First — The 
Quren Victoria Medal — Instruction and Commissions — Rajoelson of Mada- 
gascar and the " Soccer " Eleven — Prince Bovaradej — Alterations in 
Buildings — Uniform — Death of the Governor — The Diamond Juhilee — 
Unveiling the New Windows in the Hall — The Queen's Visit — The 
"Shop" Starts a Paper— " Ye Song of Ye Bar." 



BIFURCATION— that is, the division of the "Shop" 
into two distinct parts, one of artillery and one of 
engineer cadets — had long been the favourite theme 
of many high officials at the War Office and elsewhere. 

The system of educating together the candidates for 
hoth corps during their whole residence at the R M. A., 
was said to result in those who eventually became gunners 
learning more fortification and mathematics than was 
essential to their efficiency as artillery officers ; and that 
future sappers learned rather more artillery than was 
necessary. It was also considered that, under the bifurca- 
tion system, the artillery cadets would have time to learn 



168 



FROM 1890 TO MIDSUMMEB, 1900. 



so much of their special subject that they would leave 
the R. M. A. thoroughly trained garrison gunners. 

It was, however, obviously impossible to break up last- 
joined classes straight away into artillery and engineer divi- 
sions. That would have resulted in the entrance examin- 
ations deciding choice of corps and thus adding enormously 

to the value of " cramming," 
always a thing abhorred of the 
" Shop " authorities. Besides 
which, a certain number of 
subjects could easily be learned 
in common, so it was deter- 
mined to educate the two 
lowest classes as heretofore. 
Then, at the end of his first 
year's residence, a cadet could 
elect to enter the engineer 
or artillery division, accord- 
ing to his seniority, fixed by 
the marks gained in the fourth 
and third class examinations. 
Having once joined either 
division, no further change was 
permitted ; the marks gained 
in the first year were not carried on, and the cadet 
started afresh in the second class. 

The nature of the instruction during the whole course 
will be found in Appendix XXIII. The chief points of differ- 
ence in the last year's education of the two divisions, were 
that the sappers learned mathematics, much fortification, 
and little artillery; and landscape drawing was compulsory. 
The gunners did not take up mathematics, learned little 
fortification and much artillery, and landscape drawing 
was voluntary. 

Faber's batch was the first to come under the new 
regime, joining in March, 1889, and bifurcating a year 
later. Biggs's was the last to bifurcate, in June, 1896. 




MAJOR-GENERAL W. STIRLING, C.B., 
R.A., GOVERNOR, 1890—95. 



BIFURCATION. 169 

In " theory " the bifurcation system was sound. The 
future officers of one corps learned the minimum 
(necessary for efficiency) of the subjects belonging to the 
other, and vice versa. What was wrong was the " practice." 
The chief incentive to study — competition for corps — 
being removed at the end of the first year, the cadets in 
their last did the least amount of work consistent with 
qualifying in the examinations. Two or three men, per- 
haps, worked for the head place of the batch, though 
often that was such a certainty for some talented indi- 
vidual that it caused no competition. Half a dozen were 
" swanking " for prizes : that was all the hard work done. 

" Theory " also received a severe shock in the fact 
that the newly-joined gunner subaltern was found to be 
no improvement on the old. Garrison artillery, especially, 
had of late years become so scientific a branch of the 
service that the new course proved inadequate for the 
purpose for which it was designed, viz. the manufacture 
of the G. C. into a trained officer. 

Mounted reconnaissance was introduced in 1892 as a 
part of the topography course, and speedily became the 
most popular form of work at the " Shop." This year 
also saw the first stages of a most brilliant performance 
by a cadet. G. C. MacFie passed into the R. M. A. fiftieth 
in a class of fifty in March. By the end of his first year 
he had climbed up to seventh, and entered the engineer 
division. Eventually he passed out at the head of his 
batch, thus creating a record that has never been equalled. 
But his performance did not end there, for he also 
gained the unique distinction (for the engineer division) 
of securing the artillery prize ! 

Many cadets have gained similar successes, though in less 
marked manner. There are always great alterations in the 
seniority of the whilom "snookers" when they rejoin after 
the first vacation, and it is by no means an uncommon thing 
to find that several in the first and last twenty have changed 
places. 



170 



FROM 1890 TO MIDSUMMER, 1900. 



Cadets appointed to the artillery about this time 
received rather unfair treatment in being compelled to 
wait for their commissions for nearly a year after leaving 
the " Shop." A sudden dearth of vacancies had not been 
foreseen, and although steps were taken to remedy the 
defeat, some time elapsed before a satisfactory solution of 
the problem was arrived at. 

In January, 1896, the numbers of the classes were 
changed, the senior becoming the fourth and the junior the 

lirst, and two years later, by 
her Majesty's command, the 
Victoria Medal for proficiency 
in military subjects of study 
was instituted at the R. M. A. 
The first to gain the dis- 
tinction was Corporal Wagstaff, 
who thereby became entitled 
to a f after his name on the 
roll of the corps of Royal 
Engineers. 

An unusually large amount 
of acceleration was allowed 
during the last few years of 
the 'nineties — so much, indeed, 
that when Edgeworth's batch 
was commissioned in August, 1898, only twenty-one of the 
original class remained, all of whom obtained sappers. In 
the following year the Boer War necessitated such a large 
augmentation of the artillery that, although the corporals were 
commissioned in November, and the third class in December, 
yet the "Shop" was quite unable to supply all the officers 
required. One hundred and thirty "snookers" were admitted 
in January, 1900, and formed the two junior classes, and by 
July three big batches had been commissioned. Thus, what 
with individual " volunteering-up," and the acceleration 
of whole classes, a very large number of cadets went into f 
the artillery between the midsummers of 1899 and 1900 



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ONE OF THE PANELS IN THE HALL 
AT THE R. M. ACADEMY, RECORDING 
THE NAMfcS OF MEDAL WINNERS. 



GREAT PRESSURE ON THE "SHOP." 



171 



after a course of only twelve months at the Academy. 
The sappers commissioned in July, 1900, also had only 
one year's service. 

History thus repeated itself. The war with France in 
1793, with Russia in 1855, and (in a lesser degree) in 
Egypt in 1882, all necessitated a curtailment of residence 
at the " Shop." However, on this occasion the authorities 
prevented any disorder in the R. M. A.'s organisation by 
taking energetic steps in the short time available. The 




THE QUKEX VICTORIA MEDAL. 

demand for officers was satisfactorily met, although a con- 
siderable paring of the instructional course was involved, 
and a heavy strain thrown on the staff, both military 
and educational. 

The " Shop " received a valuable recruit for its association 
team when H. V. Rajoelson joined the R. M. A. in April, 
1890, as a supernumerary cadet. He was the grandson of 
the Prime Minister of Madagascar, and had already studied 
in England for several years. Like 1 Ibrahim Hilmy and 
Azziz Izzet he did not go up for the ordinary entrance 
competition, but was privately examined in mathematics, 
English, geography, and geometrical drawing by the 
professors. He failed to satisfy them at his first attempt. 
This was not surprising, in geometrical drawing, at any rate, 



172 FROM 1890 TO MIDSUMMER, 1900. 

for he made all his drawings on the blotting paper of the 
examination book, which eventually assumed a crypto- 
graphical appearance ! 

Rajoelson lived in the "Shop," and studied and drilled 
with Grubb's batch, but was promoted from class to class 
without examination. He was a very short, sturdy fellow, 
and a perfect terror in the football field. "Soccer" was 
his game, and the way he used to dribble, dodge, and run 
between his opponents' legs was a highly inspiriting sight. 
His " charge," too, took his shoulder into the average man's 
stomach, and altogether he was a very difficult person to 
tackle, especially when dusky evening helped to conceal 
him from view. 

Rajoelson had come to the " Shop " with an eye to 
eventually commanding the Madagascar army, an ambition 
which he hoped to realise with the assisting influence of 
his grandfather. Returning to his island home at the end 
of 1891, however, he met with a very sudden death. Lured 
into a cave by some natives, he was there foully murdered, 
jealousy being the supposed motive of the crime. 

In August, 1896, Prince Bovaradej, son of Prince Nares 
Varariddhi, half-brother of the King, and Minister of the 
Local Government of Siam, joined the R. M. A. with 
Usborne's batch. The Prince was perhaps the most popular 
foreigner of any that had come to the " Shop." He was 
a most generous, open-hearted little fellow, who bore 
his various nicknames with equanimity, entered with great 
zest into the milder amusements of the G. C, and possessed 
a particularly smokeable brand of cigar. He was a super- 
numerary cadet, but passed the ordinary examinations with 
the rest of the class, and went out in the 22nd place as 
an artillery officer. 

Many alterations, some trifling, others extensive, were 
made in the barracks during this period. To begin with, 
in 1890 the Governor and commandant moved their offices 
from the centre building to rooms over the adjutant's 
office in the west tower. These had been used by the staff 





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THE DINING HALL ENLARGED. 173 

as common and dining rooms since the Prince Imperial 
had vacated them in 1875, and the "cottage" at 63, 
the Common, was taken instead. Here many bachelor 
officers of the educational staff resided, obtaining bedrooms 
on paying a charge of 5s. per week. The old Governor's 
and commandant's offices in the centre building were now 
occupied as class rooms. The revolver range was also 
opened on the west side of the Gun Park, the firing position 
facing south. The greatest care was taken when designing 
the range so as to preclude any possibility of a bullet 
finding its way out. Elaborate precautions were taken to 
prevent accidents to the firers, and only one mishap has 
ever occurred. This was due to a very minute defect 
in construction, one of the guard plates being a quarter 
of an inch too short; but the victim — Gentleman-Cadet H. 
B. Mayne, who was wounded in the leg and foot — fortunately 
recovered very quickly from his injuries. 

An extension of the dining-hall was commenced in 1890 
and completed in the following year, the wall and stained- 
glass window at the north end being carried back about 
thirty feet. A fire-place was substituted for the old central 
entrance, two doors and porches being placed at the north- 
east and north-west corners of the hall. The alteration 
greatly improved the appearance of the handsome mess- 
room, as it thus gained the length requisite for perfect 
architectural beauty. 

In 1892 an addition to the east wing was completed, a 
block containing twenty bedrooms being erected on the 
south side of the Rear Road. The baths, with hot water 
laid on, were greatly appreciated by the G. C.s after foot- 
ball matches. This building is now known as the New 
Wing. 

The Cricket Pavilion was built in 1896 from funds 
chieHy raised by contributions from the R.A. and R.E. 
Its design was made similar to the other buildings by the 
special request of H.R.H. the Duke of Cambridge, who, with 
his usual care for its welfare, desired that nothing should 



174 



FROM 1890 TO MIDSUMMER, 1900. 



be erected that would spoil the picturesque appearance of 
the Academy. 

The " Shop " was given quite an unfamiliar appearance 
in the following year by the removal of the iron gratings 
from all the windows. This was done on account of the. 
risk to which the occupants would be exposed, especially in 




THE SWIMMING HATH. 



the first-floor rooms, should a fire cut oft escape by the 
passages. Besides, Charlton Fair being a thing of the past, 
of what use were barred windows ? 

A much-needed improvement was effected in 1898 by 
putting better lighting arrangements in some of the class- 
rooms. More space was also rendered available for games 
by levelling the ground south of the gymnasium, two foot- 
ball fields being formed — the eastern for Association and the 
western for Rugby. As the latter was also intended to 
eventually act as a second eleven cricket-ground, a tin 
pavilion was erected in the corner below the old gun-case 




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176 FROM 1890 TO MIDSUMMER, 1900. 

mate. In the same year the Governor and assistant-com- 
mandant once more moved their offices, this time to the south- 
east corner of the centre building. The adjutant and subal- 
terns went into the quarters thus vacated in the west tower, 
the ground-floor accommodating the quartermaster's staff. 

The old, smooth-cloth patrol, with red, false collar, was 
replaced in 1891 by a blue serge jacket with white linen 
false collar, breast and side pockets, and shoulder-straps. 
The subaltern under officers received a grenade on each 
side of the front of the collar. The skirts of the tunic 
were also altered, buttons and red piping being added. 

Several alterations in uniform were made in 1899. The 
patrol-jacket was greatly improved in appearance by the 
substitution of a high scarlet collar for the old blue one. 
The sleeve-knots denoting rank were removed from this 
jacket, and the following badges worn on the collar: the 
senior under officer, large gold-lace grenades ; under 
officers, brass grenades on three horizontal lace bars ; cor- 
porals, the same on two bars; and cadets, two bars only. 

At the end of the year the mess-kit was altered by the 
removal of the beads from the jacket and the addition of 
red cuffs. The S. U. 0. was given "crow's feet" of gold 
lace (with " eyes " all round) on the cuffs and gold-lace 
grenades on the collar ; the U. O.'s, simple " crow's feet " 
on the cuffs and gold grenades on the collar; and the 
corporals, "crow's feet" but no grenades. 

The "blazer," introduced in 1887 for general use, was 
replaced in 1898 by a startling concoction of" Shop" colours 
in half-inch stripes — a change viewed with very mixed feel- 
ings by the G. C.s. The new coat, however, had but a short 
life, for two years later it gave way to the neatest jacket 
that had yet been designed. This was made of dark blue 
flannel, with a narrow strip of R. M. A. ribbon running 
round the edges of coat and collar, around the sleeves, and 
along the tops of the pockets. 

A very sad accident in May (1897), arising from a most 
trifling cause, deprived the " Shop " of its Governor, and the 



THE DIAMOND JUBILEE. 



177 



cadets of a sincere friend. While walking across his garden, 
General Hewett slipped and fell, breaking his leg. An 
internal complaint was set up by the accident, and he died 
on the 3rd of June. He was buried at Chatham, the 
cadet company and the whole of the staff of the R. M. A. 
escorting his remains to the Arsenal Station. 1 

On the 22nd June, 1897, the cadets paraded in review 
order as a battalion of four 
companies at 7 a.m., 163 strong, 
and proceeded to London to 
take part in Her Majesty's 
Diamond Jubilee celebration. 
The usual company officers 
were supplemented by Major 
F. A. Curteis, R. A., and Captain 
S. B. Yon Donop, R.A., acting 
as battalion majors. The day 
was very hot, and never did 
the expression "Queen's 
weather " more thoroughly de- 
serve its meaning. The cadets 
were placed in position im- 
mediately outside the palace 
gates, lining both sides of the 
road leading to Constitution 
Hill. After the procession had 

passed the company had lunch at Wellington Barracks, and 
subsequently marched to the palace end of the Mall, lining 
the road on the return route. 

At the beginning of the autumn term this year, Gentleman- 
cadet H. de C. Martelli was presented on parade with the 
Royal Humane Society's bronze medal for a very gallant act 
in rescuing a person from drowning at Southsea during the 
summer vacation. 




MAJOK-GENERAL E. O. HEWETT, C.M.O., 
K.E., GOVERNOR, 189T>-i>;. 



1 General llewett's memory is perpetuated at the "Shop" by the Staff 
Mess, or " Common Room," which he removed from the Cottage to the first 
floor of I House in 1897. 
M 



178 



FROM 1890 TO MIDSUMMER, 1900. 



On the 8th December, 1899, H.R.H. the Duke of Connaught 
unveiled the four memorial windows in the dining-hall, the 
cost of which had been defrayed by the subscriptions of ;< old 
cadets." Each window contained two portraits: the Queen and 
the Prince of Wales, the Dukes of Connaught and Cambridge, 
Lord Roberts and Sir Lintorn Simmons, Sir Richard Dacres 

and Sir John Burgoyne. The 
two last-named officers were 
respectively C.R.A. and C.R.E. 
in the Crimea. 

His Royal Highness re- 
ferred in affectionate terms 
to the time when he himself 
had been at the Academy, 
and expressed himself greatly 
pleased at the smart appear- 
ance and good physique of 
the cadets. He stayed to 
luncheon in the corporals' 
hall, with the Duchess of 
Connaught ; and when they 
left the " Shop " the cadets 
turned out unofficially and 
sped them on their way with 
three hearty cheers. 

The R. M. A. received an- 
other royal visit on the 22nd March, 1900, when the 
Queen came to Woolwich to see the wounded soldiers 
from South Africa in the Herbert Hospital. The cadet 
company furnished a guard of honour, and also lined part 
of the road near the hospital. As Her Majesty had ex- 
pressed a wish to see the Prince Imperial's statue, en- 
trances were made in the railings at the foot of -the en- 
closure and a gravelled carriage-way (called the " Queen's 
Road ") thrown across the front of the monument, op- 
posite which a stand was erected for the staff and their 
friends. 




MAJOR-GENERAL F. T. LLOYD, C.R., R.A., 
THE 1'RESKNT GOVERNOR. 



THE U R. M. A. MAGAZINES 



179 



On the 1st May, 1900, the " R. M. A. Magazine" made its 
bow to the " Shop," the gunners, and the sappers. Captain 
W. P. Brett, RE., was its first editor, but with their usual 
modesty the G. C.'s left the task of contributing to the first 
number to the staff and others. Colonel Belgrave designed 
an artistic cover, and the publication immediately became 
popular. By the time No. 2 went to print the cadets had 





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become somewhat bolder, and this number was decidedly 
lighter in vein and more interesting. 

The '• K. M. A. Magazine " was not the first "Shop" paper. 
One. if not two, existed in pre-historic days, but the first of 
which any definite trace can be found was published in 1863. 
It began brilliantly, but unfortunately died an early death. 
The following poem is extracted from " Hard Times," as the 
paper was called : * 



From " Tin: Records of the II. M. A/' 



180 FROM 1890 TO MIDSUMMER, 1900. 



" YE SONG OF YE- BAR." 

" Dear earth I do salute thee." — Shakespeabe. 

The pommel I sought, the reins were as nought, 
My spurs in the flanks were well buried ; 

I bumped about like a 12- pounder shot 
As nearer the bar I was hurried. 

I closed mine eyes on the horrid sight, 

Wall's 1 admonitions spurning : 
All before me was dark as the dead of night, 

My mouth was parched and burning. 

I was seen again in a place of rest, 
But not in the saddle they found me : 

The yellow tan was on my breast, 

And the school swam round and round me. 

Nor few, nor short, were the words Wall said, 
But they were not words of sorrow : 

He tossed his arms and wriggled his head, 
As if trying to catch to-morrow. 

I thought, as he hollered, of my narrow bed, 

And sighed for my lonely pillow ; 
I groaned as each horse went over my head, 

And wished them beneath the billow. 

O, lightly some over the bar have gone, 
The trusty pommel had stay'd them ; 

And little they recked, though Wall might groan, 
And Boylin loudly upbraid them. 

At last from my heavy work I was freed, 
The clock struck the hour for retiring ; 

I cast a glance back at my noble steed, 
Which was quite the reverse of admiring. 

Slowly and sadly I hied me down 

From the field of my woe, tanned and gory ; . 
I sighed for the Line, and wished the bar gone, 
With Wall and Boylin^ to glory. 

1 Wall and Boylin— the riding masters. 




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CHAPTER X. 

THE G. C. OF THE PRESENT DAY. 

His Arrival— His Room— Breakfast Parade— The Hall— Hospital — Studies- 
Digging— Drills— " Hoxters "—Riding— After Dinner— "Rosh Bands"— 
Tea Squads— Dances— The G. C. and the Cabhie— Public Day— The End. 

rpUVICE every year the Charing Cross trains disgorge a 
JL mixture of young men and new portmanteaus on the 
platform of the Arsenal Station at Woolwich. Thence 
rackety four-wheelers convey them to the Common, where, 
probably for the first time, they will catch a fleeting glimpse 
of the glories of the horse and field thundering over the 
hard ground, with whizzing wheels, flying hoofs, and glitter- 
ing uniforms. 

Presently the cabs rattle through a great iron gateway 
and draw up at a small red-brick lodge. Here the travellers 
go through the process of signing their names in a book 
under the eye of a very smart individual in the blue livery 
with red facings and brass buttons of the R. M. A. servants* 
staff 

" Mr. Brown, I House, 55 Room ; that's the house over 
there, sir, on the left of the library. Mr. Smith, K House. 
You'll find your servants there, gentlemen : they will tell 
you what to do." 

The day is not a favourable one for his introduction to 
the "Shop" — a typical Woolwich morning, with a gloomy 
sky overhead and a raw, damp feeling in the air— and the 
new arrival has a distinct sense of depression as he walks 
across the well-kept, gravelled parade-ground. At the door 
of his house he is met by a liveried servant of truculent 
demeanour, with an atrocious squint, who seizes his baggage 



/ 



182 THE G. 0. OF THE PRESENT DAY. 

off the cab and bangs it on to the stone steps as if he has 
a particular grudge against each article. Our " snooker " 
finds his room without difficulty, the number being painted 
over the door, on which a card in a small brass frame records 
the fact that " Mr. Brown, Mr. Jones, and Mr. Robinson " 
reside therein. On entering, the paperless, distempered walls, 
uncarpeted floors, and great bare windows create a by no 
means favourable first impression. On one side is a massive 
iron fireplace, and on the other a huge wooden wardrobe, 
both bearing the unmistakable stamp of the War Department 
" fixture." The wardrobe — the name is a distinct compliment 
— is divided into compartments which hold the "snooker's" 
clothes, each having one to himself, with a separate door 
and lock. Under the window, facing the entrance, runs a 
broad shelf on which repose three basins, three soap dishes, 
and three water-bottles and glasses. Below this, again, 
lie two large, very bright tin pails, nearly two feet high 
by a foot in diameter, filling the role of the homely 
water-jug. These are familiarly known as "tosh cans" — to 
" tosh " signifying " to wash," " to take a bath," or " to bath 
another person." In each corner of the room is an erection 
which, on closer inspection, proves to be a bed, turned up 
on end and delicately draped in the daytime by curtains 
from the high overhanging wings. The remaining space is 
pretty well taken up by a barrack-table, a coal-scuttle, and 
three hard Windsor chairs. 

" You're the first of this room to come, sir ; so you'd 
better take your choice of beds," remarks the servant as he 
deposits the "snooker's" belongings on the floor. "That 
there one behind the door is gen'ally the fav'rit' with the 
genl'men." 

" Not much room for three, is there ? " says Brown. 

" Well, it his livin' pretty hintimate, as my dorter Sally 
remarked ; but Lor' bless yer, sir, there's four in some of 
'em, and you'll soon get used to that. The genl'men alius 
does grumble at first, but it's won'eriul 'ow soon they tumble 
into the way of it. 'Owever, you'd better go in the 'all 







as 



184 



THE G.C. OF THE PRESENT DAY. 



and get some lunch. The 'fall-in' is just going, but they 

don't expect you to parade the first day. You just walk 

into the 'all after the genTmen march in." 

" Oh, thanks, very much. By the way, what's your name ? " 
"You never mind my name, sir; you just ax for Caesar 

if you want me." 

Poor old " Caesar " is dead now, but there are few 




" OFFICE." 



cadets who will not remember him. He was an excellent 
servant, though at first his little trick of taking out his 
glass eye and putting it on the mantelpiece while he cleaned 
the grate was a trifle disconcerting ! To many it will be 
news that his real name was French. Like the immortal 
Mrs. Gamp, he was always quoting an unknown authority, 
generally his " dorter Sally," although it is doubtful whether 
such a person really existed. 

So the " snooker's " first introduction to official routine 
will probably be at luncheon in the dining-hall. This room 




«1 



C 

g 
S 

w 

ffl 

H 



186 



THE G. G. OF THE PRESENT DAY. 



is the show-piece of the " Shop," an honour which its appear- 
ance certainly merits. But for the white- clothed tables with 
their piles of dishes, it would be easy to imagine oneself in a 
chapel. The magnificent high stained -glass windows in their 
arched and mullioned settings, the eagle-supported lectern, 
and the lofty, black oak roof, all strongly convey that im- 
pression. Wood-panelling runs round the room, bearing in 




LUNCH I'ARADE : JUST BEFORE THE 



old English gold letters the names ot all who have in their 
time won the " Sword," the " Pollock," the " Tombs," and the 
" Victoria." Between the windows hang the banners and 
coats-of-arms of past governors; and on other parts of the 
walls are figures in armour, trophies of old weapons, battered 
breast-plates, halberds, pikes, and such-like gear of ancient 
war. 

The " snooker " spends his first few days at the " Shop " 
chiefly in settling down to his new life. The books and in- 
struments issued for his use have to be collected, the numbers 
of the class-rooms in which he is to attend the various studies 




< 
as 



188 THE G.C. OF THE PRESENT DAY. 

found out, and parades for "fitting clothing" attended. A 
caution for being late for some study or parade will probably 
be his first introduction to military discipline, a repetition of 
the offence leading to closer acquaintance at a very early 
hour in the morning. Of this, more later. 

The reveille conies floating in at the window at 6.15 a.m. 
in a peculiarly weird and aggressive manner ; and on their 
first morning Brown, Jones, and Robinson will probably come 
yawning out of bed before the trumpet notes have ceased 
echoing through the semi-darkness. But not on their second, 
for the " snooker " soon learns that ten minutes is ample time 
for dressing, including a bath and a shave. So breakfast 
parade being at 7.15, he rises at 7.5. Even this is considered 
unnecessarily early by many, who, putting into practice what 
they preach, steal a few extra minutes of slumber, and have 
many short, but not sweet, interviews with the officer on 
duty. 

The fashion of the G. C.'s morning "tub" is simple, 
although not recommended for hotel or domestic life. Clad 
in the original Adam's primeval garments, he dashes forth 
from his room, through the passages, into the bathful of 
running water, and back again — glowing with health, and 
scattering cold showers from a very moist sponge over dry 
cadets on the outward-bound track. The water in some of 
the houses is heated nowadays, and the passages to the bath- 
rooms are covered in. Formerly, as we have seen, a " tosh " 
in winter necessitated running across a courtyard, often 
covered with snow, the first man in to break the ice. The 
shock of finding the bath occupied on a cold morning is left 
to the imagination ! 

Fires are not lighted in the rooms nowadays before 
breakfast, so the operation of drying is very rapidly carried 
out ; and, jumping into his clothes with a speed that savours 
of sorcery, the G. C. bolts for parade. This is held in the inner 
court, a large asphalted space at the back of the library, en- 
closed on all sides by arcaded buildings and walls covered 
with ivy and creepers. 



190 



THE G. C. OF THE PRESENT DAY. 



" Markers ! Steady ! S'n' at ease ! " from the under officers, 
and the cadets gather round near their respective parade 
points. As the old clock strikes the quarter-hour the trum- 
peter sounds the " fall in," the little groups dissolve rapidly 
into long lines of subdivisions, and a perfect babel of echoes 
is roused as the six corporals race through the names in their 
respective charges. 




A GYM. SQUAD. 



In less than thirty seconds all is silent, save for the hollow- 
soimding footsteps of the under officers as they stride up and 
down the flanks of their divisions, and of the S.U.O. marching 
smartly from end to end of the whole company. 

" First Division ! ' Tchun ' ! Fall out the corporal on duty," 
and reports of absentees are made. The U.O.'s sign their 
" parade states," using the corporal on duty's back as a con- 
venient desk ; the S.U.O. collects the slips of paper, doubles 
up to the officer on duty, salutes, and hands in the reports. 

" March in ! " orders the subaltern. 




o 

£ 

W 



192 THE G. 0. OF THE PRESENT DAY. 



i 

I 

5 u March in ! " shouts the S.U.O. 



« . "Number— subdivision! Right turn! Quick march!" 

J shout the corporals in charge, and one by one the sub- 

J ' divisions tramp off into the dining-hall through the great 

! arched doorways. 

! \ On entering the G. C.'s stand by their respective tables, 

• prayers are read by the subaltern on duty from the lectern, 

j » the command to " sit down " is given, and all fall to de- 

I . molishing the piles of fish, eggs, and bacon spread before 

} . them. There is no scarcity of food, and everyone is allowed 

i to supplement the official menu in the time-honoured " table 



) squad " manner. 

\ f The officer on duty sits at a small table behind the 

\ . lectern. Having allowed a suitable time to elapse, he 

gives the word to " turn out." Those who have finished 
thereupon depart to fill their pipes, read the morning 
S papers in the library, and collect their books and instru- 

1 ments for the particular study to be attended. 

{ This is the time for paying the doctor a visit if 

i necessary, and the corporal on hospital duty falls in the 

' sick cadets outside, and marches them down to the 

i hospital. The officer of the Royal Army Medical Corps 

J • attached to the " Shop " inspects the patients. Cases of a 

! serious nature are few and far between, a fact speaking 

^ volumes for the healthy, hard-working life of the G. C. 

j One, perhaps, is given an ointment and restricted from 

riding; another has a sore heel, and is recommended a 
treatment of easy shoes — and consequent absence from 
drills— for a day or two; and another is detained for bed 
and the careful attendance of the nursing staft. The 
second is, perhaps, the most popular prescription of the 
three ; " restrictions," as it is called, allowing the ultra- 
diligent man an hour of study while his comrades are 
drilling, and the ultra-idle an opportunity for the con- 
sumption of tobacco and light literature. The treatment, 
however, has its drawbacks, as it involves abstention from 
games and inability to leave barracks. 




fad 
rt 
o 

Q 
O 
O 

H 



O 

■J 

O 
> 



194 



THE G. C. OF THE PRESENT DAY. 



Studies vary according to the day of the week, but 
the hours for attendance thereat remain pretty much the 
same. At ten minutes past eight the big bell over the 
centre building clangs forth a warning peal; and for the 
next few minutes streams of cadets pour over the pave- 
ments and passages, making their way towards the various 
classrooms. At 8.15 every G. C. is at his desk, the bell 
tolls forth a few final notes, and the exterior of the 
buildings is deserted, save for the inevitable figure, swiftly 

running v of the " man who is 
always late." 

Until a quarter to twelve, with 
/ a fifteen minutes break at 9.45, 

l^^^_ ^ the cadet remains at work, draw- 

' * \ ing complicated figures, elucidating 

/ intricate problems, and absorbing 

A^ ^ the wisdom of his instructors in 

^wV / mathematics, electricity, fortifica- 

tion, or artillery, as the case may 
y be. If the subject be military 

topography, he will probably be 
out in the open air all the morn- 
ing, pacing the country in company 
with a three-legged plane-table, 
contouring hills and valleys, and 
making great efforts generally to- 
wards transferring the features of the ground to his paper 
in the correct military manner. 

Artillery and fortification, too, lend themselves to the 
blending of in and out door work. In the former he has 
to learn to handle some of the larger types of guns 
(field-gun drill being a separate study), to erect huge 
sheers for lifting heavy weights, and to pay visits to the 
various buildings in the Royal Arsenal. In this enormous 
city of furnaces, factories, and workshops he becomes 
acquainted with the methods of making everything, from 
the wheel of a trench-cart to the mountings of an 80-ton 



MAJOR J. F. DAXIELL, R.M.L.I., 

PROFESSOR OF MILITARY 

TOPOGRAPHY. 

Photo: (i. West & Son, Gosport. 



DIGGING. 



195 




MAJOR B. K. WARD, B.E., 

PROFESSOR OF 

FORTIFICATION, l'JOO. 

I'lioto : Ilyrall, Aldcrshot. 



gun, from the Lee-Metford bullet to the 12-inch shell, 
from the time and percussion fuze to the lyddite burst- 
ing charge of a breech-loading howitzer. 

Under his sapper instructor the G. C. puts in some 
pretty stiff exercise at field works, espe- 
cially when he is first introduced to 
the noble art of digging. The energy 
with which a " snooker " class start in 
at excavating a shelter-trench is sub- 
lime: for five minutes the pick plies 
merrily, and huge shovelfuls of earth 
fly out of rapidly increasing holes. 
Then a small ache starts in the back ; 
the shovels become extraordinarily 
heavy, clumsy weapons: and the pile 
of earth in front never seems to grow 
any bigger. Presently one stops to wipe his brow* and then 
another. But that " blooming hole " has got to be finished 
somehow; and finished it is, though at the expense of a 
goodly collection of blisters and uncomplimentary thoughts. 
However, digging — like many another 
bad thing — can be got used to in time ; 
and the embryo officer will certainly 
gain from personal experience some 
idea of the practical difficulties that 
his men have to contend with, which 
fact will doubtless make him a better 
taskmaster in his future career. 

The manufacture of field kitchens 
out of earth, the boiling of potatoes 
on them, and the construction of a 
water-tight hut out of sticks, straw, 
and mud are amongst the numerous 
arts of military engineering acquired 
by the G. C. 

Study attendance over, twelve o'clock brings parades 
tor field-gun drill, sword drill, and gymnastics, according 




MAJOR R. ST. J. KARTER, 

10™ (lixcolx) REOT., 

PROFE880R OF TACTICS, 

1WX). 

Photo: MaullA Fox, 
Piccadilly. 



196 



THE G. C. OF THE PRESENT DAY. 



to which class the cadet belongs. Under its division officer 
the second class attains a very high efficiency in the 
first-named exercise ; whilst the " snookers " in the gymna- 
sium pile on flesh and muscle under the vigilant eye of 
Q.M.S. Giles, who by the sheer force of his own bounding 
personality imbues his class with such vitality that in a 
very short time they are also bounding through the various 

exercises in a manner worthy 
of their smart little instructor. 
The muscular young Mars who 
^^^P returns home in the vacation 

^ is a very different looking 

person to the crude article 
which left there a few months 
previously. 

Lunch parade at 1.15 differs 
from other meal parades in 
that the corporals inspect their 
subdivisions with an eagle eye 
for a speck of dust. The 
passer-by in the road must 
often be struck by the unique 
appearance of the "Shop" for 
the ten minutes preceding this parade. The stone steps 
leading from the doorways of the houses are crowded with 
cadets brushing each other, in pairs, trios, quartettes, with 
the greatest energy and determination. Forage-caps, coats, 
trousers, all receive the most minute attention; then the 
brushes go whizzing and clattering into the passages, and 
everyone makes a bolt for the inner court. 

In days of old the most spotless clothes did not always 
suffice to save some unlucky ones from an extra drill, 
and perhaps the corporals may occasionally have abused 

their power. Some years ago S , a snooker of most 

exceedingly mild appearance, fell a victim to the insidious 
" hoxter " through a mistaken sense of kindness, the fruits 
of which he thereafter tasted daily. B , the corporal 




MAJOR F. H. CRAMPTON, R.A., 
PROFES80R OF ARTILLERY. 



THE l( HOXTER." 197 

of his subdivision, was a confirmed stammerer, and during 

his first inspection his attention was drawn to S , 

possibly by the latter's aggressively guileless face. Stopping 
before him, and touching him delicately on the chest with 
his forefinger, he ejaculated : 

"T— t— t— turn out for d— d— d— d " 

"Drill," kindly helped the benevolent S . 



" T — t — t — take another ! " replied the corporal, passing 
on. 

Poor S ! He became a constant early bird; but 

there are few worms of any value to a G. C. at 6.30 on 
a December morning. However, every dog has his day, 

and eighteen months later Corporal S was never 

satisfied with the blood of less than twenty victims per 
diem. 

In the words of the immortal showman : — " The ' hoxter ' 
is a ubiquitous beast. He follows in the footsteps of the 
officer, and, lying concealed in the forefinger of the corporal, 
tickles the back of the 'snooker/ He is not tanned like 
the rough-riding G. C, nor bruised like the rugger player. 
In fact, he is usually blue and brassy to look at, and wears 
a carbine. His favourite haunts are the front parade, 
the inner court, and even, in very bad weather, the gym. 

" His coat-of-arms is charged with a bar vertical rising 
from a Wellington jyrone, and his motto is ' Right Wheel/ 
He is a silly little animal, 'cause he gets up early/' 

At one time there was much abuse of power in giving 
extra drills ; and a small battalion of G. C/s, looming like 
a phantom army through the grey mist of earl}'- dawn, 
was by no means an uncommon sight at the R. M. A. 
Few classes did not rejoice in the possession of a " Hoxter 
Jones" or " Hoxter Robinson," as the case might be. Some 
unfortunates turned out regularly every morning and 
afternoon. Tradition has it that one gentleman cadet was 
seventy "hoxters" in arrears when he received his com- 
mission, but doubtless this is an exaggeration. Another 



198 



THE G. C. OF THE PRESENT DAY. 




LIEUT. -COL. D. T. C. BELGRAVE, 

R. W. K. REGT., PROFESSOR 

OF DRAWING. 



legend relates that an officer in the Guards was once 
unlucky enough to get an extra drill at the "Shop"! 

Impossible as it may appear, 
the legend is true, for a cer- 
tain G. C, having been gazetted 
to the Scots Guards, was ordered 
to remain at the R. M. A. until 
the end of the term, and succeeded 
in creating what will probably be 
a lasting record ! 

If a cadet receives a " hoxter," 
he must send in a report to, or 
personally inform, the corporal on 
duty in his division — which is 
adding insult to injury. Once 
upon a time a G. C. lost a coat 
button as he was coming on lunch 
parade, with the inevitable result- 
Now, he was a forgetful youth, and neglected to make the 
necessary report (for which he received another " drill ") or 
to turn out at 6.30 — a serious 
crime entailing two more. In 
such manner do great results come 
of small beginnings. 

At 2.15 the "snooker'' indulges 
in an hour's infantry drill, advanc- 
ing by stages from the "stand at 
ease by numbers " to the awful 
moment in which, called out to 
drill the remainder of the class 
under the stern eye of his officer, 
he completely forgets his words 
of command, ties half his company 
in a knot, and marches the re- 
mainder into a brick wall ! 

The second and third classes 
ride twice a week, and the corporals five times. The three 




H. HART, ESQ., M.A., 
PROFESSOR OF MATHEMATICS. 

Photo : Wayland, Blackheath. 



RIDING. 199 

schools of the Royal Artillery Riding Establishment lie 
about half a mile from the " Shop," and here many a G. C. 
makes his equestrian debut, his first few experiences usually 
being painful and well remembered. Let us take a glance 
at a class doing their first ride. 

Marching into the broad, spacious shed, the G. C. becomes 
aware of a long line of horses standing down the middle, 
some impatiently pawing the soft tan on the well-covered 
floor, others champing their bits and tossing their heads, 
and all looking very wild, untamed steeds to the unfor- 
tunate ones who have never ridden before. After spending 
a few minutes in endeavouring to mount " by numbers," our 
cadet manages to scramble up into his perch, and presently 
finds himself following his companions round the school. A 
short period of steady walking soon begets confidence, and, 
with the aid of a few pointed remarks about stomachs, 
chins, and saddles, from the smart, well set-up riding-master, 
the class begins to look quite presentable. 

But alas ! the long drawn-out command — "Tr-r-r-r-o-o-ot!" 
brings a woful change. Chins go down, elbows out, legs 
anyhow, and the riding-master's stream of allusions moment- 
arily becomes more uncomplimentary. 

" Now, sir, what are you doing with that mare's 
ears { " 

"Sit down, No. 3;' sit down in your saddle, sir, not on 
your horse's neck ! " 

"Sit up, No. 0, and leave go of that pommel!" 

" Elbows in, No. 7, elbows in ! Stop flapping 'em like a 
pair o' donkey's ears ! " 

u Now, sir, where the deuce are you coming to i Who 
told you to leave the ranks, sir ? " — as some horse, bored 
with the eternal procession round the walls, brings his help- 
less rider into the middle of the school. With a desperate 
effort the perspiring G. C. manages to haul his steed round, 
gallops into the tail of the ride, bores between the last 
few men and the wall amid much recrimination, and 
finally rolls off" in a corner, whence he emerges with his 



200 



THE G. C. OF THE PRESENT DAY. 



mouth full of tan to meet the unsympathetic inquiry : 
" Who ordered you to dismount, sir ? Ride, ha-a-alt ! " 

We will not probe the further miseries of " Stirrups-up- 
and-cross-'em. T-r-r-rot! Fold your arms. Increase the 
pace, the leading file. Canter-r-r-r ! Tr-r-rot ! Halt ! " We 
venture to think that few soon forget their experience of 

the foregoing formula. 

Later on, when the riding- 
master considers him capable of 
keeping them out of his charger's 
ribs, the G. C. is allowed to put on 
his spurs, and this gives him 
something new in life to think 
about. To the very young soldier 
the wearing of these tinkling little 
instruments is a source of great 
joy — a feeling doubtless shared by 
worthy Mr. Craig, the boot-maker 
— a landmark in " Shop " history, 
for does not the novice cut him- 
self most unmercifully about the 
instep ! 

Later still furze-covered hurdles 
are brought into the schools, and 
this is probably the first day of riding really appreciated. 
If the class distinguishes itself, jumping henceforward forms 
part of the day's programme ; if not, it is probably deferred 
for a short time. The senior class ride with swords, and, 
being by this time pretty expert horsemen, look forward to 
the riding parade with far greater pleasure than to, let us 
say, a study attendance for the purpose of chasing "x" 
The competition, too, for the prize is very keen ; and, 
although the favourite is generally fairly obvious, the " dark 
horse " sometimes wins. 

A voluntary study is held from four to five twice a week 
for the benefit of those struggling for marks ; otherwise the 
G. C. is thankful to be left in peace from 3.15 to 5.15 p.m., 




MAJOR W. P. BRETT, R.E., 

PROFESSOR OF EXPERIMENTAL 

SCIENCES. 

Photo: (!. Wed & Son, Sottthsea. 



AFTER DINNER. 



201 




DR. A. WEISS, M.A., 

PROFESSOR OP 

GERMAN. 

Photo : Benedetto £ Son, 
Peckham. 



and this interval he fills in as best pleases him. The 
swimming-bath, racquet courts, workshops, and billiard-rooms 
are well frequented all the year round, 
and in the summer the lawn-tennis courts 
and cricket nets are fairly overcrowded. 

At 5.15 p.m. the cadet attends 
another study for two hours, and that 
finishes the day's work. Dinner is at 
7.30, but only the three junior classes 
and the under officer and corporals on 
duty parade for it. The remainder of 
the senior term assemble in their mess- 
room (punctuality, of course, being in- 
sisted on), where the S. U. O. sits as 
president. 

The meal over, the inevitable 
"swanker" hies him to his room and 
spends the few remaining hours of gas- 
light poring over pages of " swot," " stinks," or " G. D. ,! 
haps some of these terms will be 
strange to old cadets. Translated, 
the four mean respectively " extra 
hard worker," " mathematics," 
" chemistry," and " geometrical 
drawing." 

The remainder of the " Shop " 
disports itself in various fashions. 
On two evenings in the week volun- 
tary classes in woodwork and metal- 
work are held in the shops. As 
500 marks are given for these sub- 
jects, they are taken up by prac- 
tically all the cadets, an examin- 
ation being held at the end of the 
term. The carpenter's shop has 

been greatly improved in the last year, thirty small benches — 
each with a neatly arranged tool-rack — being provided for the 



Per- 




MONS. ALHERT HARRKKE, 
PROFESSOR OF FRENCH. 
Photo: Tarmit,lVoolu:ich. 



202 



THE G. C. OF THE .PRESENT DAY. 



G. C.'s use. A sound practical knowledge of the arts of wood- 
cutting and nail-driving is very advantageous. At any rate, 
the future officers of the scientific corps will never share 
the unpleasant experiences of the unfortunate man whose 
fierce struggle with a picture, a hammer, and a nail Jerome 
so humorously describes in his " Three Men in a Boat." 

The billiard-rooms are always full after dinner, and, as 
the majority of the cadets find that 100 takes a lot of 
getting, it is perhaps fortunate for those waiting for a game 
that the tables are booked by time. Twice a week a portion of 

the Royal Artillery Band plays in 
the school of arms, and a more 
amusing and instructive sight than 
the G. 0. indulging in the terpsi- 
chorean art is not to be seen. The 
waltzing in itself is edifying, but 
the lancers — with variations — as 
danced by the G, C. is hard to beat 
as a comic spectacle. Original 
figures quite unsuitable for ladies, 
mad whirling " chains," and cart- 
wheel " visits " result in more ex- 
ercise being taken than it would 
be possible to obtain in an average 
" rugger " match. 

The mattresses at one end of 
the gymnasium are sacred to the use of the corporals, as of 
yore, but the custom has crept in of allowing the third term 
to occupy others near them. The second class still sit along 
the west wall, and opposite to them is the " snookers' " abode. 
The latter must turn up in mess dress, " flannels " not being 
permissible. While on this subject it should be noted that on 
no occasions are " snookers " allowed to wear " Shop " jackets 
with " flannels " until the senior cadet of the second class has 
signified his approval of their conduct and manners, this 
generally occurring about half-way through the term. Until 
then the blue patrol is de rigueur. 




LIEUT. -COL. L. E. COKER, R.A. 
ASSISTANT-COMMANDANT, 1900, 



"IIOSH BANDS." 



203 



Nowadays one great feature of these evening entertain- 
ments has entirely disappeared, viz. " rosh " band night. A 
few years ago the schoolboy who had just passed his 
examination, and was sitting at home at ease, had no idea of 
the fearful ordeal he would have to undergo on this occasion. 
As soon as their uniforms had been issued the word was 
passed round for all the last joined to attend the band on 
a certain evening. The proceedings began, as usual, with 
a waltz, in which, however, no "snooker" was allowed to 
perform without permission from the second term. Then a 
violent and unexpected collision sent 
a couple of brand new uniforms 
sprawling on the floor. That was 
the beginning of the show. Presently 
another pair received a staggering 
charge from behind, and the fun 
shortly became general, being only 
stopped by the conclusion of the 
dance. 

The next item, a polka, led to 
more effective charging; but the 
" snookers," now thoroughly on their 
guard, warmly returned the compli- 
ments received. The climax came 
with the lancers, the sets being 
strictly made up of men in the 
same class. With a whoop and a rush, the whole of the 
second term descended on the devoted last joined. Then 
" Conspuez snookaire ! " " Down with the beggars ! " " Give 
'em beans ! " and the third term joined in, with the corporals 
falling impartially on the lot. 

What a scene it was! Imagine upwards of 150 G. C.'s 
piled in a huge writhing mass on the floor, the scrummage 
rising to a height of six or eight feet in the centre. Occa- 
sionally a cadet disentangled himself, retired about twenty 
yards, and then, rushing madly down, flung himself with 
a wild yell on top of the heap of struggling humanity. 




CAPT. A. E. J. PERKINS, R.A., 

ADJUTANT, 190O. 

Photo: Johnstone cC Hoffmann, 
Calcutta. 



204 



THE G. C. OF THE PRESENT DAY. 



Picture to yourself — or can you dimly recall to mind ? — the 
feelings of the men in the bottom layer! The band, with 
the indifference born of long experience, calmly finished the 
piece, and shortly afterwards the huge heap dissolved into 
individual G. C.'s dispersing to their respective parts of the 
gym. Here and there one might be seen limping to his 
seat, or another holding a bloody nose ; but the majority were 
unharmed, only a bit blown, and very anxious to resume the 




11.30 A.M., SATUKDAY — 

fray. And the beautiful new uniforms, and the once shapely 
forage caps ! Ye gods, what sights they were ! 

The "snookers' concert" in the gym. is still a great 
function every term. Everyone, whether he can or cannot, 
must sing. The senior classes sit round and applaud, or 
hoot, or throw things, according to the quality of the per- 
former. A good comic song will go down at once ; but the 
warbler who passionately urges some fair unknown to "fly 
with him" must prepare to receive polo caps and other 
missiles. 

The second term boss the show; indeed, the bringing 
up of the "snooker" in the right way is their peculiar 



'SNOOKER" CONCERTS. 



205 



care. On occasions there have been rebellions against their 
authority. Once upon a time — in the days when the 
" snooker concerts " were held in the front houses — the third 
term objected to the date chosen for the performance, and 
stormed " H " house, in which it was taking place. The top 
floor was a seething mass of struggling figures, and the stair- 
case the scene of a tierce assault. Naturally, the banisters 
gave way — they were not constructed for "snooker concerts" 




AND FIVE MINUTES LATER. 



— and a couple of tons of G. C.'s went hurriedly downstairs. 
Someone broke a leg, the adjutant's dinner-party was dis- 
turbed, and the concerts were held in official disfavour for 
some considerable time afterwards. 

Bullying and drinking find no place at the "Shop" 
nowadays. The former — although isolated cases have since 
occurred — disappeared about 1875. Drinking, however, lasted 
until the end of the 'eighties ; although, of course, not so 
prevalent as it was fifty years ago, the practice generally 
centring in one set in each term. 

Perhaps the most popular after-dinner amusement is 
the " tea squad," nearly all the cadets who have rooms to 



206 THE G.C. OF THE PRESENT DAY. 

themselves indulging in one periodically, and inviting 
thereto rather more of their particular "pals" than the 
apartment can conveniently hold. The giving of one of 
these functions necessitates a preliminary visit to Hansford, 
who, from his storeroom near the dining-hall, dispenses 
such luxuries as biscuits, jams, sugar, condensed milk, 
and cakes of all sorts, including the far-famed "genoa" 
— an almond-topped, much-raisined confection held in 
great and lasting favour by the G. C. 

From here the host issues laden with packets ot 
various eatables, his load being supplemented in the 
winter by a plentiful supply of crumpets. A call is then 
made on " Charles," who rules over the canteen, for a 
box of cigarettes, the consumption of tobacco being a 
special characteristic of the " tea squad," and proceeding 
merrily at the same time as the operations of eating and 
drinking. Good, hearty appetites — whetted by much brain 
work and open-air exercise earlier in the day, and not in 
the least put oft* by dinner half an hour previously — 
being satisfied, the invaluable man with the banjo tunes 
up ; and a thunder of popular choruses rolls out of the 
door, opened to emit some of the dense fog of smoke 
rising from the dozen or so tobacco furnaces within. 

But at ten o'clock every G. C. must be standing at 
the door of his room, ready to answer to his name at 
" rounds," so the meeting breaks up with much laughter, 
shouting, and "roshing." The corporals on duty go round 
their divisions, make their reports to the officer, and the 
entrance doors of the houses are locked for the night. 
At 10.30 the trumpeter sounds " lights out," and peace- 
ful silence reigns supreme in the R. M. A. 

The end of the term draws near, the examinations are 
approaching, and the G. C. wears a studious and worried 
appearance. " Midnight oil " is burned to the accompani- 
ment of much strong coffee, and it is not surprising that 
many pale and anxious countenances are seen within the 
precincts of the E. M. A. However, the worst is over at 



THE END OF THE TERM. 207 

last; and, after resounding for many days to the scratch- 
ing of the irritating quill, the classrooms are deserted, 
instrument cases and books go hurtling into room corners, 
and the G. C.'s troubles for the term are over. 

Sisters and aunts, fathers and brothers, mothers and 
cousins (of all degrees) are collected from far and near 
for the final ball. Tastefully coloured lighting, discreetly 
shaded kola juygas, and artistically draped walls transform 
the gym. into a veritable palace of delight, where the fairy 
slippers of the beauteous maiden and the glossy Wellingtons 
of the bold G. C. glide smoothly over the well-polished 
floor to the dulcet strains of the gunner band. 

When the last dance is over wild shouts are raised of 
" S. U. 0. ! S. U. O—o ! S. U. O—o— ho ! " and amidst 
great excitement on the part of the fair sex the individual 
in question is hunted out from some obscure nook, raised 
shoulder high, and carried blushing round the room to 
the chorus of " For he's a jolly good fellow." The under 
officers and one or two of the most popular corporals come 
in for a similar ovation. Then the whole assemblage 
join hands in a great ring stretching all round the room, 
and " Auld Lang Syne " fairly lifts the roof. 

Most, if not all, of the G. C.'s attend the "Shop 
hops." Once upon a time there was a great, broad- 
shouldered, dare-devil of a cadet called Y , a famous 

boxer at the R. M. A., who never went. On the night of one 
of the dances he and a few kindred spirits were wandering 
round the " Shop," when they encountered a hansom, 
driven by a " cabbie " well known locally for his pugilistic 
accomplishments. 

" Hullo, cabbie ! Let me drive that concern for a minute," 
cried Y . 

" Not if I knows it," was the reply. 

" 'Well, get down and fight," said Y . 

" All right, if one of you genTmen 'olds the 'oss," and 
down he came. It was a fine mill ; but the G. C. was too 
good, and presently " cabbie " was stretched out. Seizing 



208 THE G. C. OF THE PRESENT DAY. 

the opportunity, Y sprang up behind, the rest piled 

inside, and off they went at a gallop over the snow-covered 
enclosure and round the "Shop," yelling like demons. 
How they escaped a smash was a mystery, but escape they 
did ; and cabbie eventually left the enclosure a richer man, 
with his hansom unscratched. 

The morning after the dance brings Public Day, or, 
as it used to be called when the Duke of Cambridge was 
at the head of the Army, Dukes Day. The Commander- 
in-Chief comes down accompanied by his staff, and it is 
seldom that several distinguished old cadets do not 
journey to Woolwich for the occasion. The Cadet Company 
march past, go through a few manoeuvres, and are dis- 
missed. Then, while the fortification, topographical, and 
landscape drawings are being criticised in the library, the 
cadets bolt to their rooms, change their clothes, and in 
the twinkling of an eye are out again, ready for further 
exhibitions. The corporals are inspected at riding ; the 
third term demonstrate the swordsman's art ; the second 
class give a brilliantly smart performance at field-gun 
drill ; and the " snookers " go through some marvellous 
evolutions in the school of arms. Here the whole Cadet 
Company finally parades, and, after the Governor has "read 
his report for the term, the Commander-in-Chief presents 
the prizes. He then makes a short speech, congratulating 
the cadets on their smartness and good behaviour, wishing 
the corporals a successful career, and alluding in compli- 
mentary terms to any recent brilliant performances by 
officers of the corps which they are going to join. 

The end has come at last ; and though, doubtless, at the 
moment none feel any sadness at leaving, yet there are few 
who will not in after years look back with affection on 
the good old " Shop," and with kindly remembrances of 
the days spent there — days that ended with the last sharp 
command, " Fourth Class ! * Tchun ! ' Right turn ! 

Dismiss ! ! " 




CHAPTER XI. 
"shop" games. 




TKKM ATHLETIC Ct'I\ 



To become entitled to the distinction 
of wearing the broad "blue, blacky 
and yellow " — in many a cadet's 
opinion the highest ambition attain- 
able at the R. M. A.— it is necessary 
to represent the Academy against 
Sandhurst either in the athletic sports, 
or at cricket, Rugby, Association^ 
racquets, gymnastics, or revolver 
shooting. The origin of the "Shop" 
colours is not exactly known. They 
were chosen in 1865, and are popu- 
larly supposed to stand for the in- 
gredients of gunpowder - - saltpetre, 
charcoal, and sulphur — and there 
seems to be no reason for discarding 
this theory. 

In looking through the records of 
the '■ Shop " games given in this 
chapter, it must be borne in mind 
that the Sandhurst cadet averages 
a year more in age than his Wool- 
wich contemporary, and that there- 



fore the latter has to fight against odds. 

THE R. M. A. ATHLETIC SPORTS. 

Tlit; first recognised athletic meeting held in England was the R. M. A. 
sports in 1H45I, and, by virtue of seniority in years, this annual event 
tikes precedence in the list of "Shop" games. Captain F. W. M. 
Kanlley-Wilmot presented a silver bugle in 1850, to »e competed for 
annually, the winner of the greatest number of events to hold it for a 



210 



'SHOP" GAMES. 



year, and to have his name engraved on it. In time the bogle became 
.so covered with inscriptions that it was found necessary to attach a 
numl>er of silver coins for the purpose. The winner used to receive a 
small model of the bugle to keep jiermanently, but nowadays this 
memento has greatly decreased in size. 

u The first winner of the bugle/' says the "Records of the R. M. A^ n 
*' was a Cornishman of very short stature, but square as a tower and of 
very great strength. On joining he threw in wrestling all the strongest 
cadets, and before he left he jumped more than his own height. He 
died after a very short service in the Artillery. " 



THE ROLL OF BUGLE WINNERS. 



-4 



1850 

1851 

1852 

1853 

1862 

1863 

1865 

1866- 

1868 

1869 

1870- 

1872 

1873 

1874- 

1876 

1877 

1878 

1879 

1880 

1881 

1882 



1. 
2. 
3. 
4. 
5. 



F. 
J. 
H. 

<;. 

M. 

J. 

H. 

W, 

E. 

H. 

H. 

C. 

(Jr. 

G. 
G. 
R. 
J. 
A. 

I J. 
L. 

! ; ' : 

A. 



Temple. 

Bevan-Ed wards. 
L F. E. Hicks. 
R. T. Stevenson. 
H. Hayes. 
S. Biscoe. 
H. Crookenden. 
. J. Joyce. 
H. Cameron. 
H. Hart. 
S. Dalbiae. 
K. Wood. 
P. Onslow. 
E. Giles. 
G. Simpson. 
L. S. Vassall. 
E. Harvov. 
M. C. Dale 

L. Smith 2, 3, 4, 12 

Hanwell 6, 9, 13, 14 
II. Ducrot 8, 9, 13, 15 
Vans Agnew 1, 8 

W. Pringle 3, 4 

D. Young 6, 15 



1883 J. R. Ritchie 2, 9 

1884 C. Prescott-Decie 1, 2, 8 

1885 J. M. Bum 1, 6, 8, 12, 13 

1886 H. S. Woodcock 1, 5 

1887 T. G. Tulloch 7, 11, 14 
1888-9 W.Gillman (7,9, 11), (2,6,7) 

1890 V. de V. Hunt 2, 6, 7, 8, 11 

1891 J. G. Austin 7, 9, 10, 11 

1892 



I 
1893 { 

1894 
1895 
1896 
1897 
1898 

18S9 I 

1900 



J. E. Cairne8 1, 7, 14 

M. O'C. Tandy 6, 8, 9 

G. P. C. Blount 1, 6 

M. O'C. Tandy 7, 8 

W. A. de C. King 3, 4, 5 
J. G. Dooner 1, 2, 8 

R. E. T. Hogg 7, 8, 11 

R.F.A.Hobbs 6,7,8,9,10,12 
W. M. Turner 7, 8, 10, 11 
A. H. Du Boulay 1, 2, 13 
W. M. Turner 9, 10, 11 
H. C. Hawtrey 4, 5 



100 Yards. 
Quarter-mile. 
Half-mile. 
One Mile. 
Two Miles. 



8. 

9. 

10. 



Events Won. 
120 Hurdles. 
High Jump. 
Broad Jump. 
Steeplechase. 
Shot. 



11. 
12. 
13. 
14. 
15. 



Cricket Ball. 
Wheel Race. 
Marching Order Race. 
Pole Jump. 
440 Hurdles. 



From the list of bu^le winners it will be seen that no sports were 
held from 1854 to 1861 inclusive, but from 1862 to the present day they 
have been held without intermission. There have been some good all- 
round performances by cadets who gained the trophy, notably by 
Woodcock in 1886, Burn in 1885, Hunt in 1890, King in 1894, and Hobbs 
in 1897. King took the half-mile in 2 m. 6Js., the mile in 4 m. 48±s., 
and the two miles in 10 m. 31 J s. — times, considering the heavy going, 
better than they appear on paper. On the cinder- track at Sandhurst, 




ill z 

I* 



W^M 



■ 



■a 



0> 
0> 
00 

u 
o 

< 

QC 



CO 
QC 
LU 

Z 

z 



UJ 

-I 

S 00 



UJ 

I 



THE "SHOP" SPOUTS. 



211 



however, he improved on these considerably, winning the half in the 
record time, for these meetings, of 2 m. I s., and the mile in 4 m 42?, s. 
King, when stationed at Chatham in the R. E , won the amateur half- 
mile championship in 189(5. Hobbs' performance in 1897 is, perhaps, 
the best of all. He took the 120 hurdles in 18 s., the high jump 
with r> ft. 4.J in., the broad with 21 ft., the shot with 31 ft. 2 J -in., the 
wheel race, and the steeplechase— a very fair day's work. 

In LS87 T. (1. Tulloch and G. O. Bigge caused some amusement in 
the high jump by diving over the bar head foremost, and landing on 
their hands! The former created a record of 5 ft. 7.\ in. This 
method of jumping (introduced by H. T. Kelsall, R. M. A., in the 
previous year's encounter with Sandhurst) was the subject of much 
controversy at the time. The Amateur Athletic Association eventually, 
in 1888, decided that in future it should be considered illegal. 

In 1890 the "strangers' invitation race, open to officers, to cadets 
of the R. M. C. and to the R. I. E. C," was abolished in favour of a 
" strangers' invitation han- 
dicap ' (440 yards), open to 
the L. A. C, A. A. A., and 
all affiliated clubs, the han- 
dicapping being placed in 
the hands of the secreta- 
ries of the two first-named 
associations. For a prize 
the " Shop " presented the 
11 Hard ley- Wilmot Cup," so 
called "to commemorate 
the first recognised ath- 
letic meeting held in Eng- 
land," originated by the 
second captain of the Ca- 
det Company, and taking 
place at Woolwich in 1849. 
This race has proved very 
popular, and never fails 
to produce some distin- 
guished competitors. THE Hl . OLE _ 

To celebrate the jubilee 
of the "Shop' sports, a hundred yards' handicap, open to all former 
bugle winners, was held in 1899. Several well-known old cadets "toed 
the line, " viz. : Dalbiac (1870-71), Hanwell (1880), Ritchie (1883), Wood- 
cock (iss(i), Tulloch (1887), Austin (1891), Dooner (1895), and Turner 
(1K9M). A yard of start for every year that had passed since winning 
the bugle was allowed each competitor, and a notly contested race 
resulted in a dead heat between Dalbiac and Woodcock. On its being 
run off. the former won in the easiest imaginable manner. Sad to 
relate, less than a year later he was killed in South Africa. A keen 
>l>oi tsman and a wonderful horseman, Dalbiac won the Artillery Cold 
< Up five times and the (hand Military once on his own horses. Clever 
writer, and almost equally handy with his pencil, he contributed many 
amusing articles to the sporting papers. Brave to rashness and 
utterly careless of his life, he met the death that, above all others, 
he would most have desired— seated on his horse and fighting against 
o.l.l.s. 




212 



"SHOP" GAMES. 




TERM TUG-OP- WAR CUP. 



THE R. M. A. V. R. M. C. ATHLETIC SPORTS. 

The first inter - collegiate athletic 
meeting was held at Beaufort House, 
Fulham, in 1868, when General Cameron 
and Colonel Ormsky, the respective 
Governors, presented a shield to be com- 

Seted for annually by the R. M. A. and 
L M. C. under the following conditions : 
"(1) The College or Academy winning 
the greatest number of events to retain 
the shield for the year ; (2) the shield 
to become the property of the Academy 
or College winning it for three consecutive 
years." 1 

The first and third meetings were won 
by the " Shop," the second was tied ; and 
as (owing to a change in the constitution 
of Sandhurst) ten years elapsed before 
the fourth encounter, the point arose as 
to whether Woolwich were or were not 
entitled to permanent possession of the 
trophy under clause 2 of the conditions. 

Mr. Julian Marshall, a well-known tennis and lawn-tennis player, was 

appointed arbitrator by mutual 

consent, and decided against the 

" Shop " retaining the shield. In 

1880 the "Shop" representatives 

in the Sandhurst sports were first 

given their "colours," with the 

consent of the other cadets. Silver 

medals for the winners and bronze 

medals for the other competitors 

were struck and issued in 1881. 

Sandhurst won the shield in 1882 

for the third consecutive year, and 

retained it. Another was provided 

by the "Shop " out of the common- 
room wine fund. The second of 

the two original conditions of 

the meeting was cancelled ; other- 
wise the R. M. A. and R. M. C. 

would have had two new shields to 

provide in the next twelve years. 
A summary of the results of 

the Woolwich and Sandhurst 

sports is given in the following 

table, a glance at which shows 

the superiority of the R. M. C. in 

the short, and of the R. M. A. in 

the long, distance races. The 

" Shop" has not won the quarter since 1884, and the 100 only once in 

that time. On the other hand, it seems to possess a monopoly in the mile, 
i The R. M. A. Sports' Record Book. 



i 

i 


% 




*V *_— 


rJil 



SWIMMING CUP. 




CD 



O 

a 

CO 

iu 

x 



WOOLWICH AND SANDHURST SPORTS. 



213 



WOOLWICH I 


" SANDHURST ATHLETIC SFQKTS 








: 


,; 
>* 


=4 a" 


| 


. at 


* 

1-5 


4 
? 


1 


i a £ * 


Year. 


Wl_VSEtI. 


B 


^ 
? 


— 6-» 


5 

- 


5 

9 


< 
8 


3 

O 

a. 


do 




1868 1 


WnOlwU'Q 


w 


W 


s s .„ 


w 


W 


w w w 


/•'ri//#n ijj 


1869- 


Tie 


w 


w 


S 8 .-. 


w 


T 


H 


S 8 


Tie- 


1870* 


Woolwich 


w 


... 


w s ... 


' s 


S 


W 


„. w 


\V r on. 


iW"t-:9 


No Meetings 
















I Nil. 


1880* 


Sandhurst 


> 


s 


w , w Z 


s 





8" 


!!! w 


; Won. 


1S81 


Sandhurst 


s 


s 


s w ... 


s 


♦S 


s 


w w 


Loflt, 


1882 


Sandhurst 


S 


S 


s w „ 


8 


W 


s 


8 8 


Won. 


1883 


Wool with 


W 


w 


w s ., 


w 


H 


w 


> W 


Wun, 


1S84 


Woolwich 


w 


w 


w w .„ 


tt 


H 


w 


s s 


Lust. 


1^8-' 


Xo Meeting 















„. I ... 


Kit 


18SG 


Sandhurst 


s 


s 


T W „. 


5' 


w 


s 


s * 


Won. 


18W7 


Wool with 


& 


s 


w s ... 


w 


w 


w 


W s 


Won. 


]KHN 


^nndhur^t 


s 


s 


s s m , % 


w 


T 


8 


3 H 


Won. 


1880 


Wool wi eh 


w 


fcj 


w w „. 


w 


T 


W 


W W 


Won. 


1890 


Wu'.i]wi(-h 


s 


s 


w w tM 


S 


S 


\V 


w \v 


Lost, 


i 8<i i - 


Wool with 


s 


s 


w w ... 


w 


T 


w ... a 


Won. 


1892 


Woolwich 


s 


>s 


w w w 


s 


W 


w ... w 


Lost, 


Idas 


Sjindhurtt 


S 


s 


s W w 


H 


T 


8 t Js 


1 Lost. 


1394 


Sandhurst 


K 


s 


w w w 


s 


S 


s ... H 


Won. 


1895 


Sandhurst 


K 


♦s 


8 W W 


s 


s 


& L. H 


1. >!. 


IB&6 


S*nclhiu«t 


M 


s 


*S W W 


s 


\v 


H 1 ... W 


Won r 


18U7 


W« olwich 


s 


s 


IV w s 


w 


w w .,, n 


Won. 


]Hy*-G{> 


Xo Meetings 


III 


«.. 


.+ . 




.. ► >-■ hi 


Nil. 


inrwj 


Sandhurst 


s 


s 

4 


8 W S 

11 15 5 


s 

8 


T S , M 8 
7 10 5 D 


Won. 


10 Wins 


to Woohvuh, 


Wottia 




I Tie, 




»*■ 


1 




li .,. ' 


Ti.d I 


10 Wins 


to Sandhurst. 


i'o 


la 


fi 2 


ta 


8 11 B 12 


Lost 6 



1 A 250 yards flat race and 380 yards hurdles were both won by Woolwich. 

2 A 250 yards flat race and 250 yards hurdles were both won by Woolwich. 

3 A 180 yards flat race and 250 yards hurdles were both won by Woolwich. 

4 A 220 yards flat race was won by Sandhurst. 

5 A 440 yards hurdles was won Ly Woolwich. 



It will be seen from the foregoing table that Sandhurst have 
altogether won ninety-nine events to the eighty-seven of Woolwich, a lead 
chiefly accounted for by the " Shop's " poor form in 1888 and 1900. In 
the former year T. 1. Pitman cave an extraordinary exhibition in 
winning the 100, (juarter, half, and mile. 

The 1H97 meeting at Woolwich will long be remembered by those who 
were fortunate enough to be present. Each side had won on nine occa- 
sions, and from all that could be gathered were very evenly matched. 
The reputation of the Sandhurst ;t long distance " man, Bayley, had 



214 



"SHOP" GAMES. 




It. M. C. ATHLETIC 81'OHIS. 

(First Shi««l«l.) 



preceded him, and was further increased by his performance in the first 
event— the two miles— which he won with ease, running in very pretty 
form. Hobbs, the bugle winner, then took the broad jump with 20 feet 
3 indies, and matters were square. Sandhurst took the 100 in 

10 } seconds, and again Hobbs 
brought the "Shop" level by 
jumping a height of 5 J feet. 
E. h . St. John, a long cadet with 
a huge stride, got off in front in 
the half-mile and stayed there 
—time, -2 minutes f>£ seconds. 
Hobbs won the hurdles in 17£ 
seconds, and thus put the " Shop" 
two ahead, G. O. Turnbull— an 
international Bugby player and 
one of the finest G. C. s that ever 
st ripped— -toyed lightly with the 
1(> lb. shot and finally nicked it, 
with no apparent exertion, 41 feet 
—a record for these meetings. 
Muir then brought Sandhurst 
even with a quarter-mile run in 
54 seconds. 

Four all ! The excitement 
was intense as St. John, Bayley 
and four others lined up for the last event, the mile. Amidst a 
perfect yell of "They're off!" the pistol went, and a dead silence 
ensued. From the first it was evident that there were only two in 
it, although Venning ran very pluckily. The first time past the stand 
there was a hurricane of ap- 
plause. " Go it, St. John !" " Well 
run, Bayley ! " " Stick to it ! " 
St. John had settled down in 
front, but half-way round the 
second lap Bayley made a strong 
effort to get past him. The long 
man .just cast a glance over his 
shoulder and put an extra inch 
on to his stride. The danger was 
averted ; but again, in the third 
la]), Bayley challenged, and for 
some time they ran neck and 
neck. This was the critical 
moment, and the din was deafen- 
ing. One G. C, wild with ex- 
citement, and hoarse with yelling 
advice across the enclosure, sub- 
sided vigorously on to his head 
over the back of the football 
stand ; but, except for missing a 

view of the race for part of a second, he was unhurt. St. John eventually 
shook off his opponent, and, running magnificently, won amidst a scene 
of great enthusiasm. 




A. T. K. M. C ATHLETIC SPORTS. 
(Second Shield.) 



CRICKET. 



215 





RECORD PERFORMANCES. 




= Z Z H . M. A. r. H. M. V. . It. M. A. SPORTS. 


Event. 


*=«£ 1 *' ! 


1 pj 




~*~ liKCORI). XAMK. J , KKCORD. 

_. '" - ...... I_£_| 


Xamk. ! g 

. ■ > 


100 Yards .. 


10s. 10;s. E. H. Cameron (W)lSOs! 10?s. 


J. M. Bum Il88.0 






H. H. Hart (W)1869 


H. S. Woodcock 1886 






H. 8. Dalhiac (\V) 1870 


A. H. DuBoulay 1898 






M. R. Portal (S) 1880 


A. H. DuBoulay|1899 






V. K. Birch (S)!l894' 




440 Yards . . 


4St«. 51-s. 


V. K. Birch (S)1894 53?s. 


C. Hamilton |l892 


Htlf-mile .. 


lm.54?s. 2m. Is. 


W. A. de C. King (W) 1894 2m. o;s. 


T. McGowan ,1900 


Mile .. 


4111.17s. 4m. 3i»3s. 


E. O. A. Newcombe(W) 1893 1 4m. 44;s. 


C. F. Parry 11889 


Two Mih-s .. 


<iin.l~<[s. 10m.l7;s. C. J. L. Allanson (W) 1 189(5 10m. 19s. 
Gft.4iii». 5ft. o'in. ! M. O'C. Tandy (W) 1893 5ft. «in. 


P. G. H. Hogg UK96 


High Jump. . 


M. O'C. Tandy 1893 




, 


T.C.Lloyd-Thomas(W);1893 5ft. 7Ain. 


(*) T. G. Tulloch J1887 




' 


R. V. Savilc (S) 1893 


I 


Hroad Jump 


24f.f,Jin.21ft.35in. 


( l ) A. F.C. Williams (S) 1S90 21ft. Tin. 


M. O'C. Tandy 1893 




21ft. f^in. 


(i)R. E. T. Hogg (W) 


189t> 


! 


Pol* 1 Jump . 


lljft. lOAft. 


W. C. Tonge (S) 


1882 10ft 


H.G.Sandilandsl883 


Putting Shot 


47ft. 41ft. G. O. Turnlmll (S) 


1897 38ft. 3 \\n. 


C. A. Sykes 11889 


120 Hurdles 


lots. lf» L 's. i A. C. Harris (S) 


1894 1 17s. 


L. D. Jackson il881 


440 Hurdles 


hi). His. H. G. Lloyd (\V) 


1891 lni. 2s. 


L. H. Ducrot !l881 


Cricket Ball 


127^y<l. 


. 108 yds. 


C.H.A. Hervey 'l881 



(') Williams' jump gave very great dissatisfaction as regards the ' 
however, considered it perfectly fair. 

(-) This cadet dived over the bar head tirst. 



; take off." The referee, 



R. M. A. CRICKET. 

The inter-col legiate matches were first played at Lord's, then at 
Prince's, and finally alternately at Woolwich and Sandhurst. The 
thirteenth match, in 1879, saw the "Shop" leading with six victories- 
against one. The twentieth, and again the twenty-fifth, in 1892, brought 
matters square. Since then Sandhurst have slowly forged ahead, until, 
including the 1900 match, the record stands : It. M. A., played 33 — 
won 9, lost 15, drawn 9. 

Twelve centuries have been made for Sandhurst, and one for the 
"Shop.*' The former made the highest score, viz. 489 in 1882; the 
"Shop" the lowest, 13 in 1879. 1 \V. P. Ward (R. M. C) scored 233 in 
1*82, the largest individual innings in the series of matches. 

A cricket record book was started in 1885, and has been very artisti- 
cally treated by G. H. A. White, H. G. Gandy, Gentleman- cadet Green, 
Lieutenant-colonel Fawkes, and others. Unfortunately, in the last few 
years the records of matches have not been kept as complete as many 
old cadets would have wished. 

A much-debated point among " Shop :> cricketers, past and present, 
is, kk Who was the best batsman ever at the It. M. A. ?" The question 
is di then It to answer, for time and circumstances must be considered. 
H. W. Renny-Tailyour, A. P. Douglas, W. L. Foster, and A. J. Turner, 
all in their prime, would make a happy start for any team. The reader 
must make his choice. 

The li. M. A. Staff v. the Cadets is generally looked ui>on with much 
favour by both sides ; by the former because an opportunity is gained 



216 



"SHOP" GAMES. 



of making the acquaintance of the G. C.'s from other than an official 
stand point, and by the latter for various reasons. Some, perhaps, 
regard it as a great help towards their averages ! Others, possibly, 
enjoy seeing a stately professor rushing madly alter a leg hit into a 
remote corner of the ground ! But these are pure suimises. Who 
shall say ? 

It has been found impossible to discover the exact date on which 
this match was first played. It is a far more ancient fixture than that 
with Sandhurst ; in fact, the Staff were probably the first opponents 
the " Shop" ever had in the cricket field. 

The nets looked strangely unfamiliar at the beginning of the season 
of 1900, for Cragg, after over twenty years of hard work at the R. M. A., 
had gone. He was a capital "coach and an excellent practice bowler, 
who always took the greatest interest in the doings of the team. Few- 
old cadets will forget his oft-repeated "Co'om farward, sir. co'om 
farward," or his " Well bowled, Mr. Smith. Well lowled indeed, sir ! " 



FIRST MATCH. 



Woolwich won, at Lord's, May 24th, 1865. 



s 


AXDHl'lCST. 




First Innings. 




Stcontl Innings. 




J. F. Hornby, c Duthy, b Turner 





run out 


. 5 


E. H. Wilson, b Sealy 


1 


b Turner ... 


. 


G. H. Denshire, b Sealy ... 


2 


b Tinner ... 


. 7 


J, H. Lewes, b Sealy 





b Mackintosh 


. 7 


T. F. Hobday, b Turner 


10 


b Mackintosh 


. 2 


R. G. Bellers, b Sealy 


1 


not out ... 


. 10 


F. Webber-Smith, b Sealy 





b Turner ... 


. 


F. W. Robinson, b Sealy 


1 


b Mackintoh 


. 2 


R. C. Beatty, b Turner' 


c 


b Mackintosh 


. 


G. L. Richardson, c Shore, b Sealy 


12 


b Mackintosh 


. 


R. A. Woolley, not out 


2 


b Turner 


. 3 


Extras 


8 


Extras 


. 5 



Total 



Total 



41 



Woolwich. 

A. Turner, b Robinson ... ... ... 

Hon. W. F. Shore, c Hobday, b Robir.son 8 

W. Mackintosh, b Richardson ... ... 60 

A. E. Duthy, st Bellers, b Hornl y ... 65 

G. M. Moore, b Robinson ... ... ... 14 

D. M. Campbell, b Woolley 27 

C. W. Sealy, b Woolley 19 

A. B. Stopford, c Bellers, b Hornby ... 20 

K. Stephenson, b Woolley ... ... 2 

J. G. Pottinger. not out 10 

H. M. Gregscn, c Woolley, b Hornby ... 5 

Extras ... \ * ... 22 



Total 



THE SANDHURST MATCHES. 



217 



SECOND MATCH. 
Drawn, at Lord's, May 24th, 1866. 



Woolwich. 
Hon. W. F. Shore, c Cuthell, b 

Robinson 79 

A. C. Talbot, c Cuthell, b Major ... 1 

W. J. Mackintosh, c Werry, b Major 

A. E. Duthy, b Major 19 

A. 8. Griffiths, c and b Robinson... 84 

C. W. Sealv, b Werrv 14 

H. G. Gattaker, b Werry 15 

K. Stephenson, v Pearson, 1) Werry I 

J. C. Pottinger, b Robinson ... 

E. A. .Johnson, not out ... ... 4 

M. II. Gregson, 1 b w, b Robinson .. 6 

Extras 32 



Total 



255 



Sandhurst. 
F. Webber - Smith, c Duthy, b 

Johnson 54 

J. Deverell, 1 b w. b Sealy 11 

P. Pearson, b Johnson ... 15 

C. W. Anson, b Mackintosh ... 

E. G. Keppel, c Gregson, b Duthy 36 

Sir C. Leslie, b Pottinger 11 

X. W. Werry, b Johnson 19 

F. W. Robinson, b Pottinger ... 6 

F. Maltby, b Pottimrer 4 

W. A. Cuthell, not out 3 

r . C. Major, b Pottinger 

Extras ... 17 

Total ... 176 



Sandhurst had scored 150 for five wickets when Pottinger went 
on to bowl and took four wickets for 4 runs. The batting of Shore 
and Griffiths for the "Shop" was very fine. The latter was subse- 
quently a very well-known Gunner cricketer. He played for the 
44 Gentlemen of the South" in the days when the match between them 
and the " North " was a great event. But he was not only a cricketer ; 
he was a very fine racquet player, and a capital singer and actor — in 
fact, there was little he could not do well. Webber-Smith, of Sand- 
hurst, afterwards of the 55th, was a very fine bat. Keppel Stephenson 
for the next twenty-five years was a perfect pillar of strength for the 
Royal Regiment, not only on the cricket field, but in the racquet court 
as well. Indeed, at the present date he is still playing, and fielding 
almost as brilliantly as ever. Tylden, of the '73 team, and Stephenson, 
of the '(>.">, played for the 11. A. against the "Shop" in 1900. When the 
two veterans got together for the last wicket 34 runs were still required 
to win. They made 52, and then retired ! 

THIUP MATCH. 

Drawn, at Lord's, May 23rd, 1867. 

Sandhurst. 

¥. W. Cowan, at Walker, b Johnson ... 50 

('. Howden, run out ... li 

E. W. Robinson, b Johnson 2 

F. Graham, e and b Longcroft 14 

M. Murphy, not out ... ... ... 25 

E. G. Keppel, b Johnson... 

C. 11. Short, 1) Longcrof t 10 

E. H. Townshend, *t Walker, b Johnson 23 

II. Brooks, b Johnson 10 

.1. I). Rrowne, b Longcroft .'J 

M. Churchill, b Longcroft 

Extras ... 19 

Total 1G7 



218 



SHOP" GAMES. 



"Woolwich. 



First Innings. 

P. W. Miles, b Short 6 

F. E. Walter, b Short 1 

F. M. Longcrof t, run out ... ... 

A. S.Griffiths, b Short 21 

K. Stephenson, b Townshend ... 2 
H. T. S. Yates, b 1 ownshend ... 3 
M. H. Gregson, b Townshend ... 13 
E. A. Johnson, c Keppel, b Town- 
shend .. 2 

W. S. Baldock, b Townshend ... 

E. G. Selfe, not out 5 

P. C. Walker, b Townshend ... 

Extras 14 

Total C7 Total (for 8 wkts.) 66 

Woolwich lost six wickets in their second innings for 14 runs, but 
a most determined stand .by Gregson and Yates averted defeat. 

FOURTH MATCH. 

Brawn, at Lord's, May 22nd and 23rd, 1868. 

Woolwich. Sandhurst. 



Second Innings. 
c Churchill* b Robinson 
b Short 
b Townshend 
c Graham, b Townshend . 
b Townshend 

b Howden 

not out 

c Murphy, b Howden 

not out 

b Townshend 

Extras 



1 

6 

3 
11 
30 

7 

3 



P. W. Miles, c Winter, b Short ... 6 

E. G. Selfe, b Saulez 4 

G. Gatteker, b Saulez ... ... 44 

F. Walter, run out 25 

H. W. Renny-Tailyour, b Saulez 43 

C. F. Fuller, run out 3 

E. W. Creswell, b Saulez 12 

F. M. Longcrof t, b Saulez ... 10 
P. C. Walker, b Short 8 

G. R. Ponsonby, st Deane, b Day... 3 
T. H. Darton, not out 6 

Extras 64 



Total 



..228 



T. Cowran, b Miles 

R. B. Day, run out 

P. H. S. Barrow, b Miles 1 

H. Brooks, b Miles... 1 

C. H. Short, b Miles 2 

N. Saulez, b Miles 

G. Winter, b Renny-Tailyour ... 4 

W. Coles, b Miles 2 

G. W. Deane, b Renny-Tailyour.. . 

It. Auld, not out 11 

B. G. McPherson, run out... ... 6 

Extras 26 

... 53 




RENNY-TAILYOUR. 

V. &D. Downey, Ebury St. 



Total ... 
Woolwich Bowling. 
Miles, six for 12 ; and Renny-Tailyour, two for 15. 

The first two-day match was spoilt by 
rain, no play being possible on the second 
day. Miles was quite unplayable, and had 
it not been for the kindness of the "Shop" 
stumper (in the matter of extras) and a great 
stand for the last wicket Sandhurst might 
possibly have been all out for just over ten ! 
It will be seen that, for Woolwich, *' Mr. 
Extras " beat the opposite side off his own 
bat ! 

H. W. Eenny-Tailyour played for Kent 
and the Gentlemen of England a few years 
later. He has also played- the greatest 
number of innings of anyone in the "Gunner 
and Sapper " match, his average .in that 



EENXY-TAILYOUE AND FELLOWES. 



219 



being something like 50 for over forty com- 
pleted innings ! Miles came from Marl- 
borough, and was afterwards one of the best 
bowlers that ever played for the R. A. P. C. 
Walker was a fine pugilist, and distinguished 
himself on several occasions at Charlton Fair. 
He wrote a burlesque while a G. C. He met 
with a very sad death, being murdered at 
Hyde many years later. 

The name of Colonel J. Fellowes, H.E., 
should not be allowed to go unmentioned 
in a record of "Shop" cricket, though he 
left before the Sandhurst match was insti- 
tuted. He played afterwards for the 
Gentlemen, and for Kent. 




COLONEL J. FELLOWES. 
Photo : Hawkins & Co., Brighton. 



FIFTH MATCH. 
Woolwich icon, at Lord's, May 24th and 25th, 1869. 







Wool 


-WICH. 






First Innings. 




Second Innings. 




K. 


(\ Trollope, b Stokes ... 


.. 27 


b Spens 


. 17 


J. 


Hone, run out ... 


5 


run out ... 


. 


II 


W. Kenny-Tailyour, b Atkinson 


c Walker, b Mackenzie 


. 3 


1\ 


W. Miles, b Atkinson ... 


.. 1 


b Stokes 


. 32 


K. 


Allsopp, b Stokes 


.. 21 


b Mackenzie 


. t5 


(f. 


I*. Owen, b Stokes 


.. 5 


b Mackenzie... 


. 14 


K. 


W. (Veswell, b Stokes ... 


.. 3 


b Mackenzie 


. 


W 


. 1,. Davidson, e and b Stokes . 


.. 8 


c Coles, b Stokes ... 


. 50 


I\ 


( '.Walker, c Mackenzie, b Stokes 2 


b Stokes ... 


. 1 


li. 


1*. Maitland, not out ... 


.. 


not out 


. 6 


F. 


T. Maxwell, c Walker, b Stok 


es 


b Mackenzie 


. 15 




Extras 


.. 10 


Extras 


. 18 




Total 


.. 82 


Total 


.161 






Sandhurst. 




K. 


Pogson, run out... 


.. 1 


b Trollope 


. 


M 


Mackenzie, 1> Trollope ... 


.. 


b Owen 


. 5 


('. 


W. Muir, b Trollope ... 


7 


ruu out 


. 


T. 


Clark, 1) Trollope 


.. 


c Hone, b Trollope ... 


. 2 


c. 


Down, 1) Trollope 


.. 


b Trollope ... 


. 23 


L 


T. Spcns, b. Miles 


.. 10 


runout 


. 13 


\\ 


. 1*. Kennedy, b Trollope 


.. 1 


b Trollope 


. 3 


n. 


S. V. Walker, b Miles... 


.. 


b Trollope 


. 


F. 


Stokes, 1> Trollope 


.. 


1 b w, b Kenny-Tailyour ... 


. 


< . 


< '<>l«s, run out 


.. 


run out 


. 1 


It 


V. Atkinson, not out ... 


.. 


not out 


. 




Extras 


.. 13 


Extras 


. 19 



Total 



32 



Total 



66 



J)«ividson (a tine free hitter), Trollope (who bowled eleven wickets 
for :$7 runs), and Allsopp in after years played in many a Gunner and 
Sapper match. 



2L>0 



"SHOP" GAMES. 



SIXTH MATCH. 
Sandhurst won, at I.ortTs, May 23rd and 24th, 1870. 



Sandhurst. 



First Innings. 

E. Pogson, b Wood 43 

A. C. Bunny, st Maitland, b Wood 
H. Cummings, 1 b w, b Owen ... 57 

G. N. Wyatt, b Boddam 62 

R. S. F. Walker, c Maitland, b Owen 7 

W. E. Curteis, b Owen 

C. McCallum, b Ferguson ... ... 4 

J. H. Spyer, b Renny-Tailyour ... 14 

A. Loudon, not out ... 15 

E. Heathcote, c and b Owen ... 

O. G. Hervey, c Exhain, bOwen... 

Extras 30 



Second Innings, 
b Renny-Tailyour ... 
b Smith 
b Kenny- Tailyour ... 

b Smith 

b Smith 

c Hone, b Wood 
run out 
b Boddam ... 
h w, b Smith 

not out 

b Smith 

Extras 



Total 



...232 



Total 



Woolwich. 



J. Hone, c Walker, b Loudon 

H. W. Smith, c Loudon, b Hervey 

G. P. Owen, b Loudon 

H. W. Renny-Tailyour, c Walker, 

b Hervey 

R. P. Maitland, b Loudon... 

P. G. Von Donop, c Loudon,b Wyatt 

H. S. Ferguson, b Hervey... 

E. M. T. Boddam, run out 

A. Goodwyn, b W r yatt 

S. H. Exham, iun out 

C. K. Wood, not out 

Extras 



4 b Loudon 

b Loudon 

5 b Loudon 

41 b Loudon 

1 c Walker, b Wyatt.. 
38 b Wyatt 

b Loudon 

33 c Pogson, b Loudon 

16 runout 

5 b Loudon 

1 not out 

31 Extras 




3 

10 

9 

19 

11 

14 









14 

80 




17 
32 

3 

20 
9 
6 
7 

10 
4 


25 



Total 



.175 



Total 



.133 



SEVENTH MATCH. 

Wcohvich won, at lord's, May 18th and 19th, 1871. 



Woolwich. 



First Innings. 
P. G. Von Donop, c Constable, b 
Masters ... ... ... 

H. W. Smith, b Constable ... 3 

G. P. Owen, b Constable ... .<. 32 

R. P. Maitland, b Masters 11 

H. E. Rawson, c Baines, b Masters 
E. M. T. Boddam, b Baines ... 25 

R. M. Ruck, 1 b w, b Constable ... 1 

W. E. Hardy, b Baines 

A. Goodwin, c Chisholm, b Masters 25 

W. L. C. Baddeley, not out ... 5 

C. K. Wood, c Hutchinson, b Bethell 

Extras 9 



Second Innings. 



b Masters 

b Constable ... 

b Constable 

b Masters 

b Constable ... 

run out 

run out 

not out 

c and b Masters 
b Constable ... 
st Baines, b Masters 
Extras 



13 

41 

2 

4 

16 

11 
21 
13 
5 
9 
17 



Total .. 



...Ill 



Total 



.157 



A TOUGH TALE. 



221 





s 


AXDHURST. 


T. 


II. B. Foster, c Owen, b Wood 


2 


c Owen, b Wood 


S. 


D. Baines, c Boddam, b Wood... 


6 


bWood 


E 


L. B. Booth, c Rawson, b Smith 


10 


bWood 


J. 


Spens, c Boddam. b Wood 


6 


st Rawson, b Wood 


L 


blasters, b Wood 


20 


bWood 


J. 


Seott-Chisholm, c Wood, b Owen 


16 


c Boddam, b Wood 


g 


Hutchinson, c and b Wood 


2 


not out 


F 


Whalley, c and b Boddam 


7 


c Rawson, b Smith 


K 


H. Browning, c and b Wood ... 


18 


b Boddiin ... 


K 


0. Bethell, not out 


3 


run out 


K 


Constable, b Wood 


2 


b Boddam . . . 




Extras 


5 


Extras 



15 
2 


49 

30 
4 

15 
1 
9 
2 


17 



Total 



97 



Total 



.144 



Another close match, Woolwich winning by 27 runs. C. K. 
Wood bowled splendidly for the " Shop " ; and for many years 
afterwards played regularly in the " Gunner and Sapper Match " for the 
11. E., with Rawson and Von Donop. The last named also secured his 
international cap at Association football, and all three played in the R. E. 
team which won the Association Cup in 1875. 

Hardy returned to the R. M. A. later as subaltern and then adjutant, 
and much of the " Shop's " success at Rugby in the early 'eighties 
was due to his excellent coaching. One of the above team is fond of 
relating a curious experience that befel him in the cricket field. In a, 
certain match his side had 93 runs to win. "Of these," he says, 
" I made 92, and we won by one wicket ! " He generally concludes. 
by giving the name of a well-known parson as evidence for the veracity 
of liis yarn. 



EIGHTH MATCH. 
Drawn, at Lord's, May 23rd and 24th, 1872. 



Sandhurst. 




First Innings. 


Second Innings. 




F. A. Ciirrir, 1) Selbv 7 


b Addison 


1 


T. II. Mills, b Sidby" 7 


b Addison 


10 


E. G. Tippingr, c Kawson, b Selby 68 


b Addison 


.52 


W. F. ("urteis, c Rawson, b Ord ... 31 


e Stafford, b Selby ... 


19 


1\ Worinald, b Stafford 14 


run out 


2 


.1. Ilughes-Halk'tt, c Maxwell, b 






Addison 25 


b Addison 


1 


M. Bowers, not out... ... ... 8 


b Addison 


9 


A. S. Hussey, <■ Talbot, b Selby ... 


not out 


38 


K. II. Kelly, e Rawson, b Selby ... 3 


c Kawson, b Stafford 


11 


F. S. Gwatkin, 1 b w, b Addison ... 


run out 


1 


Hon. (J. Brnnet, e Kawson, b Selby 6 


b Addison 


16 


Extras 30 


Extras 


30 



Total 



...199 



Total 



...190 



222 



"SHOP" GAMES. 



Hon. M. G. Talbot, c Bowers, b 

Wormald 

St. O. S. Smyth, b Tippinge 
A. D. Addison, run out 
H. E. Rawson, b Wormald 
W. E. Hardy, b Wormald 
R. C. Maxwell, b Hussey ... 
E. F. Rhodes, b Hussey ... 
C. W. Stratford, b Kelly ... 
W. F. H. Stafford, not out 
E. W. Selby, b Hussey ... 
St. J. Ord, b Hussey 

Extras 



Woolwich. 


. 13 
. 
. 40 
. 3 
. 13 
. 10 
. o 


c Gwatkin, b Hussey 
run out 

1 b w, b Wormald .. 
c and b Tippinge . . 

b Hussey 

b Gwatkin ... 


. 
. 15 
. 9 
. 11 
. 12 


not out 
not out 

Extras 



5 


38 


48 

5 



10 
14 

16 



Total 



126 



Total (for 6 wkts.) 136 



Some ^ fine all-round cricket by Addison, who scored 78 runs and 
secured eight wickets, enabled the " Shop " to effect a draw. 



NINTH MATCH. 

Woolwich ivon, at Lord's, May 22nd and 23rd, 1873. 





Sandi 


HURST. 






First Innings. 




Second Innings. 




R. C. G. Mayne, c Addison, b Talbot 21 


c Cunliffe, b Wheble 


... 12 


H. M. Ridley, c Tylden, b Talbot. 


.. 22 


c Stafford, b Pratt 


... 3 


R. L. Pemberton, b Talbot 


.. 2 


run out 




... 12 


W. E. K. Fox, st Addison, b Wheble 1 1 


b Wheble ... 




... 7 


A. J. English, 1 b w, b Talbot . 


.. 28 


c Cunliffe, b Pratt 




... 16 


F. C. Lister- Kaye, b Stafford 


.. 16 


b Pratt 




... 5 


F. A. Amcotts, b Talbot ... 


.. 3 


b Pratt 




... 2 


Hon. E. Daw nay, b Stafford 


.. 


b Pratt 




... 20 


W. A. H. D. Moray, not out 


.. 10 


b Pratt 




... 9 


H. Marrett, run out 


.. 


not out 




... 


W. B. Peirce, c Pratt, b Talbot 


.. 


b Pratt 




... 1 


Extras 


.. 11 


Extras 




... 10 


Total ... 


..124 


Total ... 


... 97 




Woolwich. 




Hon. M. G. Talbot, b Moray 


.. 5 


b English 


... 37 


W. Tylden, c Kaye, b English 


.. 29 


c English, b Mayne 


... 15 


J. St. L. Wheble, b Moray 


.. 16 


b Moray 


... 17 


A. W. Addison, b English... 


.. 5 


b Moray 


... 1 


St. 0. S. Smyth, c and b Mayne 


.. 3 


c Dawnay, b Moray 


... 22 


L. B. Friend, 1 b w, b English 


.. 5 


c Moray, b English 


... 21 


A. S. Pratt, b Mayne 


.. 17 


b Moray ... 


... 


W. F. H. Stafford, c Mayne, 


b 






English 


.. 


not out 


... 25 


F. L. Cunliffe, not out ... 


.. 18 


b Mayne 


... 1 


C. W. Stratford, c and b Mayne 


.. 2 


b Marrett 


... 


A. B. Purvis, b English ... 


.. 7 


c Kaye, b English 


... 


Extras 


.. 5 


Extras 




... 21 



Total 112 



Total 



.160 



AN EXCITING MATCH IN 75. 



223 



Talbot took six wickets for 48, and Pratt seven for 66. The former, 
Stafford. Stratford, and Friend (who played for Kent) became Sappers, 
and Tylden, Wheble, and Pratt Gunners. They were all good bats, 
as also was Addison ; in fact, the 1873 team was very strong. 



TENTH MATCH. 
Woolwich icon, at Lord's, May 20th and 21st. 1875. 



Woolwich. 




First Innings. 




Second Innings. 




W. N. Lloyd, b Maisey 


8 


c Russell, b Gardiner 


... 23 


E. C. Stanton, c Maisey, b Farmer 


6 


b Maisey 


... 18 


F. G. Howies, b Maisey 


15 


b Gardiner ... 


... 1 


C. E. Maturin, b Maisey 





c Fisher, b Evans 


... 1 


F. J. Fox, b Farmer 





c Maisey, b Evans ... 


... 36 


K. A. Bannatine, b Russell 


17 


runout 


... 3 


A. Chambers, b Maisey 


4 


not out 


... 32 


J. J. llewson,e Gardiner, b Russell 


3 


lb w, b Maisey 


... 5 


F. A. Curteis, b Russell 





b Gardiner . . 


... 1 


A. J. Abdy, b Russell 


17 


b Gardiner 


... 2 


11. Bruen, not out ... 


6 


b Gardiner 


... 2 


Extras 


16 


Extras 


... 20 


Total 


92 


Total ... 


...144 


Sandhurst. 




G. H. llayhurst, b Curteis 


8 


c Hewson, b Bruen 


... 8 


E. L. Maisey, e Maturin, b Curteis 


24 


b Bruen 


... 11 


R. B. W. Fisher, run out 


53 


c Maturin, b Lloyd 


... 21 


A. G. Russell, run out 


18 


c Maturin, b Curteis 


... 1 


11. Gardiner, c Chambers, b Lloyd 10 


st Maturin, b Bruen 


... 


A. 11. Young, st Maturin, b Bruen 





c Maturin, b Bruen 


... 2 


•C. M. P. Burn, b Bruen 


4 


b Bruen 


... 


A. A. Gammell, c Maturin, b Bruen 





st Maturin, b Bruen 


... 17 


\V. O'Shaughuessy, b Bruen 


4 


b Lloyd 


... 


C. H. Farmer, c Bowles, b Bruen 


1 


b Lloyd 


... 


G. S. Evans, not out 


14 


not out 


... 19 


Extras 


4 


Extras 


... 5 



Total 



.140 



Total 



84 



Woolwich Bowling. 
Curtris, three for 62; Lloyd, four for 30 ; Bruen, eleven for 123. 

The "Shop" won a grand match by 12 runs only. Maturin's 
wicket -keeping may certaiuly claim to have brought about this result, 
as he e<iu(jht Jive, stumped three, ran out two, and gave no byes ! 

F. A. Curteis was afterwards Instructor in. Artillery at the R. M. A. 
from 1H87 to 181)2, and Professor from then until 1898. He captained 
the R. A. cricket team for many years, and by his plucky batting re- 
trieved many a hopeless position. Lloyd was a very fast bowler, and 
IJruen the best slow bowler that ever played for the R. A. 

RECORD TO DATE. 

R. M. A. played ten, won five, lost one. 



'SHOP" GAMES. 



ELEVENTH MATCH. 

Woolwich won, at Lord's, May 25th and 26th, 1876. 
Sanlhvkst. 

Second Innings. 

3 c Curteis, h Faber 7 

b Llovd 24 

49 e and b Lloyd 9 

49 run out ... ... ... ... 

9 c Faber, b Curteis 19 

11 v. Curteis, b Fabor 14 

25 b Faber 

23 c He wson, b Faber 7 

2 c Bowles, b Curteis 

1 b Lloyd 8 

not out 

8 Extras 4 



First Innings. 
(r. F. Willes, c Bowles, b Lloyd ... 
('. G. Taylor, c Lloyd, b FalxT ... 
W. Maekeson, run out 
Sir K. Kemp, b Allsopp ... 
H. F. Ramsden, b. Allsopp 
W. Bertie- Roberts, b Allsopp 
E. Cooke, run out ... 
W. A. Young, b Curtis 
A. (I. Banning, e Jervoise, b Faber 
A. B. Bewieke, not out 
C. F. Stevens, c and b Faber 
Extras 



Total 



...ISO 
Woolwich. 



Total 



W. X. Lloyd, b Willes 37 not out 

E. C. Stanton, c Bewieke, b Willes 24 b Stevens 

F. G. Bowles, c and b Willes ... b Ramsden ... 
F. E. Allsopp, c Banning, b Willes 12 not out 

A. J. Abdy, st Cooke, b Willes ... 
('. E. Jervoise, st Cooke, b Willes 38 
F. J. Fox, c Willes, b Ramsden ... 13 
J. J. Hewson, b Stevens ... ... 8 

M. Lindsay, c Stevens, b Ramsden 
W. V. Faber, b Stevens ... ... 

F. A. Curteis, not out 13 

Extras 17 Extras 



92 

50 

9 

49 



Total 



..162 



Total (2 wkts.) 113 




Woolwich Bowling. 

Faber, seven for 75 ; Lloyd, four for 
62 ; Allsopp, three for 44 ; Curteis, threo 
for 59 ; Fox, for 6 ; Lindsay, for 14. 



Abdy and Allsopp subsequently 
played much cricket for the Artillery. 
This was the last victory the " Shop " 
gained for eight years, having now 
won six and lost one out of eleven 
matches. There was no match in 
1877, on account of the disorganiza- 
tion of the usual term times and 
vacations, which was caused by an 
extra batch being commissionea. 



THE TERM CRICKET CUP. 



BIG SCORE BY SANDHURST. 



225 



TWELFTH MATCH. 

Drawn, at Prince's, July 31st and August 1st, 1878. 



San 
First Innings. 
S. I). Maul, c Stafford, b Druitt ... 30 
L. Dorling, run out ... ... 2 

S. F. Charles, c Higginson, b King 15 
R. H. B. Taylor, c Druitt. b Stafford 20 
A. J. Lindner, c Armitage, b King 31 

E. II. Randolph, b Stafford ... 1 
J. R. Colvin, b Druitt 1 

F. II. McSwiney, b Druitt ... 4 
H. S. Vanrenen, b Stafford ... 1 

W. A. Thompson, not out 4 

P. S. Dyson, b Druitt 

Extras 7 



Total 



DHUR8T. 

Second Innings. 

not out 219 

c and b King . . 11 

bKing 51 

c Druitt, b Harvey 87 

st Armitage, b Stafford 10 

c Armitage, b Darley 25 

b Druitt 

b Druitt 

c and b Darley 2 

c Armitage, b King ... ... 2 

b Druitt 5 

Extras 16 

.116 Total 428 



Woolwich. 



E H. Armitage, run out 12 

W. St. P. Punbury, b Taylor ... 12 
H. L. Stafford, c Vanrenen, b 

Taylor 23 

E. Druitt, lbw, b Lindner ... 32 

S. W. Lane, c McSwiney, b Taylor 29 
('. D. King, st Charles, b Thompson 6 
C. R. Higginson, c Charles, b Taylor 3 
.J . E. I Iarvey , c Charles, b Thompson 4 
( J. R. Darley, c Taylor, b Thompson 6 
(I. B. Smith, c Dyson, b Taylor ... 20 

A. Stokes, not out ... 14 

Extras ... ... ... 10 



b Taylor 

b Taylor 

c Vanrenen, b Thompson 

b Thompson 

lbw, b Taylor 

not out 

b Lindner 

b Taylor 

c McSwiney, b Taylor 

not out 



Extras 



Total 



.171 



Total (8 wkts.) 



10 


7 
15 
11 

7 
19 


21 

1 

4 
95 



The bowling analysis for this match, perhaps fortunately for the 
" Shop " trundlers, has gone astray. Sandhurst ran up the largest total 
vet made, and that very fine batsman S. 1). Maul (afterwards a well- 
known " Yorkshire (tentleman ") contributed the first century made in 
these matches. Not content with that, he increased his score until it 
seemed safe that his record would never be equalled. Another 
Collegian, S. F. Charles, kept wicket twenty years later for Sussex, and 
also won the amateur heavy weight boxing championship. 

The " Shop" tail wagged with some success, and probably saved the 
match. Among those paying were E. Druitt and H. C. L. Stafford, 
the former one of the best H.E. bowlers, and still getting wickets in the 
<J miner match (1JMX)), and the latter a batsman who would with oppor- 
tunity have been absolutely first-class. C D. King afterwards played 
regularly for the K.A. at cricket and racquets. He was a company 
officer at the " Shop " later, when he took great interest in the cadets' 
games, especially Uugby, not only refereeing in every match for nearly 
six seasons, but playing in all the practice games as well. 



226 



"SHOP" GAMES. 



THIRTEENTH MATCH. 

Drawn, at Prince's, July 3rd and 4th, 1879. 

Sandhurst. 

G. H. Lefeuvre, b Maclagan 3 

R. A. Henderson, c Crampton, b Maclagan 

C. C. Munro, b Crampton ... ... ... 

V. A. Couper, b Crampton 1 

L. Tristram, not out 57 

E. C. Kennedy, lbw, b Crampton 5 

L. E. Lushington, c Crampton, b Maclagan 8 

P. St. L. Wood, b King 6 

Hon. R. J. French, run out ... 

G. A. Carleton, b McMahon 17 

F. A. Adams, b Maclagan 13 

Extras 10 



Total 
Woolwich. 



.. 120 



First Inning*. 

M. Morris, b Adams 1 

H. Brownlow, b Adams 

J. McMahon, c Tristram, b Adams 

A. Stokes, b Henderson 

C. D. King, 1 b w, b Henderson ... 1 

S. Lane, run out 

A. Dale, not out 4 

L. Garden, c French, b Henderson 

R. S. Maclagan, b Henderson ... 3 

J. Smith, b Adams 2 

F. H. Crampton, b Adams 

Extras 2 

Total 13 



Second Innings. 
b Henderson., 
b Adams 
b Adams 
b Henderson... 
not out 
b Henderson, 
b Henderson... 
b Adams 

c Lushington, b Adams 
did not bat 
did not bat 

Extras 

Total 



6 


14 
23 
9 
2 
1 
3 



61 



It rained hard on the first day, no cricket was possible ; and in spite 
of an atrocious first effort the " Shop " were undefeated. Needless to 
say, the total 13 constitutes a record for these matches ; there 
were two pairs of spectacles on the side. Maclagan was afterwards 
a very fine bowler for the R.E., while the performances of Crampton 
for the R.A. have been very noteworthy, both in batting and bowling. 
He and Dale both returned to the " Shop " later as instructors, and the 
former is now Professor of Artillery there. 

FOURTEENTH MATCH. 

Sandhurst won by Jive wickets, at Woolwich, July 1st and 2nd, 1880. 

Woolwich. 
First Innings. 

H. Brownlow, b Anderson 

J. McMahon, c Benbow, b Anderson 1 

H. Stanton, b Wintour 32 

J. L. Smith, c Somers-Cocks, b 

Barton 28 

H. Calley, c Lewin, b Barton ... 32 
P. Dorehill, b Wintour 7 



Second Innings. 




b Benbow 


... n 


c and b Barton 


... 3 


c Eyre, b Barton 


... 10 


b Barton 


... 33 


not out 


... 33 


c Eyre, b Barton 


... 4 



THE "LITTLE MAX." 



227 



H. Clutton, c Anderson, b Wintour 15 
F. Birdwood, c Mackenzie, 1» Win- 
tour 3 

P. G. Best c and b Barton ... I 

F. Johnson, b Wintour 9 

U. Percy-Smith, not out 

* Extras 9 



b Barton 

c Anderson, b Wintour 

b Wintour 

b Wintour 

e Evre, b Wintour ... 
Extras ... 



Total 



...137 



Total 



II. 
JI. 
J. 
F. 

S. 
C. 
AY 
C. 
(J. 
C. 
F. 



Saxdhukst. 
V. Heale. e Johnson, b McMahon 32 
II. Soincrs-Coeks, b Calley ... 
Benbow, c Birdwood, b Johnson 31 
Wintour, c Brownlow, b MeMa- 
hon ... ... ... ... 4 

Mitchell, b Dorehill 

J. Mackenzie, c Calley, b Clutton 20 
.11. Lewin, c J. L. Smith, b Calley 22 
Barton, c and b Johnson ... 41 

\V. Rawlings, not out 25 

(J. Eyre, c McMahon, b Johnson 4 
Anderson, c MacMahon, b Dore- 

Iiill 21 

Extras ... 7 



c Stanton, b Calley. 
b Calley 

not out 

b Dorehill ... 

not out 



run out 

c and b Calley .. 
Extras 



Total 



.207 



Total 



11 

2 
6 



.124 



4 
4 

19 

11 

4 



3 
10 



The matches from this year on were played alternately at Woolwich 
and Sandhurst. Dorehill afterwards did great things for the Gunners 
for very many years, and the first R.A. and R.E. match that he did not 
play in was in 1809. The absence of the *' little man," as he was called, 
created quite a noticeable blank. He could stick, hit, or bowl ; and, 
fortunately for his opponents, had a partiality for "putting his leg 
in front." 

On the Sandhurst side were Wintour (afterwards in the I loyal West 
Kent, a fine cricketer) and C. J. Mackenzie (Seaforth Highlanders), 
both well known afterwards in Staff College cricket. 



FIFTEENTH MATCH. 



Sandhurst iron by nn inmntjH and 30 runs, at Sandhurst, June 24th and 2oth, 1881. 

San dii ikwt. 

J. M. Stewart, lb w, b ( 'alley 24 

It. H. Page, st Stanton, b Dorehill 

.». F. M. Prinsep, c and b Clutton 84 

J. Dunn, <• (.'alley, b Thomas ... 31 

.1. K. Lindley, l/llandley 14 

E. II . Wellesley, b Calley 18 

A. Hughes Onhlow, b Handley ... ... 21 

H. M. Johnson, b Calley 

K. II. Butler, b ('alley " 

('. II. II. Price, not out 19 

O. H. Pedley, c Dorehill, b Stanton ... 7 

Extras 12 



Total... 



230 



228 



"SHOP" GAMES, 



First Inning*. 
H. Bonham-Carter, b Butler 
A. C. Currie, b Butler ... 
H. E. Stanton, c and b Price 
P. H. Dorehill, c Page, b Butler. 
T Haggard, b Price 
H. Calley, c Wellesley, b Butler. 
W. \V. Cookson, b Price ... 
A. Handley, b Butler 
W. M. Thomas, b Price ... 
H. T. Clutton, not out ... 
W. T. By thell, b Price ... 

Extras 



Wool 


WICH. 

Second Innings. 




. 


b Butler 





. 9 
. 2 

. 1 


b Prinsep 

c Johnson, b Butler 

b Price 


50 

7 


7 


b Butler 


18 


. 10 

. 8 


c Wellesley, b Butler 

b Butler 


4 



. 
. 7 
. 1 
. 


c Butler, b Prinsep 
c and b Prinsep 

b Prinsep 

not out 


6 
20 
36 




. 7 


Extras 


7 



Total 52 Total ... 148 

The Sandhurst team contained some fine cricketers, notably 
" Johnny " Dunn, whose sad death in the early 'nineties was deplored 
by everyone who knew him. He was drowned in the wreck of the 
P. and O. Bokhara, with nearly the whole of the Hong Kong cricket 
team, when returning from a cricket visit to a neighbouring colony. 

SIXTEENTH MATCH. 
Sandhurst won by an innings and 119 runs, at Woolwich, June 23rd and 24th, 1882. 

Sandhurst. 
W. C. Oates, c Bonham-Carter, b Hsggard 131 



W. C. Tonge, c Bonham-Carter, b Norris ... 
R. A. Carruthers, c Bonham-Carter, b Norris 

B. Cottui, c and b Adair ... 

B. St. J. Mundy, c Norris, b Adair 

W. Clayton, c Cooper, b Buckle 

E. L. Engleheart, not out 

T. 1). Leslie, b Buckle 

L. A. H. Hamilton, b Currie 

Extras 



Total 
Woolwich. 



First Innings. 
H. Bonham-Carter, c Carruthers, b 

Kaye 17 

H. R. Adair, c Hamilton, b Mundy 27 

J. Haggard, b Kaye 26 

W. W. Cookson, c Cotton, b Leslie 16 
A. C. Currie, c Engleheart, b Clayton 4 
S. J. Chamier, c Cotton, b Kayo ... 15 
W. T. By thell, b Leslie ... " ... 3 
E. S. Cooper, b Leslie ... ... 6 

C. R. Buckle, b Kaye 1 

A. G. Norris, not out 28 

L. G. Milles, b Mundy 13 

Extras ... ... ... 8 



... 489 



Second Innings. 



Total 



164 



c and b Kaye 

c and b Hamilton ... 

c Leslie, b Hamilton 

c Carruthers, b Hamilton 

b Leslie 

b Kaye 

c Cotton, b Leslie ... 
c and b Hamilton ... 
c Tonge, b Kaye ... 
b Leslie 
not out 

Extras 

Total 



. 51 
. 22 

. 10 
. 1 
. 44 
. 20 
.. 11 
. 3 
. 5 
. 24 
. 4 
. 11 

.206 



J 



A RECORD SCORE. 



229 



A crushing defeat of the " Shop/' who had by no means ^ bad side, 
including a very fine wicket-keeper in Bonham- Carter (afterwards 
[I.E.), who caught five men and let three byes in a total of 489 ! Adair 
.subsequently played for many years for the R.A. ; he was a steady bat, 
and very hard-working, good length bowler. 

But the Sandhurst side was peculiarly strong, for how else could 
L. A. H. Hamilton have gone in last 1 A very few years later, when in 
the 5 1st, he played regularly, and made big scores, for Kent. W. P. 
Ward's 233 was a fine contribution, assisted, however, by some luck, 
and has remained the record score for these matches, as has also 
Sandhurst's total of 489. After joining the 101st (Royal Munster 
Fusiliers) Oates and a private (Fitzgerald) did a wonderful performance, 
making 623 for the second wicket in a match at the Curragh in 1895, 
the longest partnership on record. 

Currie and Haggard played for many years for the R.A. after leaving 
the " Shop " ; both were good bats and exceptionally fine fields. The 
former and Stanton became company officers later on, and another of 
the team (Handley) was Adjutant from 1894 to 1899. 



SEVENTEENTH MATCH. 
Sandhurst won by eight wickets, at Sandhurst, June 15th and 16th, 1883. 



W 

First Innings, 
11. Bonham- Carter, b Mantell 
J. P. Ducane, c and b F. Cox 
H. M. Campbell, b Mantell 

W. ( I. .Medley, b Mantell 

A. (J. Norris, c P. Cox, b Streatfield 
J. C. Kimington, c Baker, b Streat- 
field 

S. J. ( 'hamier, not out 

P. II. Fowler, c Xorio, b F. Cox... 
W. ( '. I ledley, c Streatfield, b F. Cox 

T. L. Coxhead, b Mantell 

A. L. Swainson, b F. Cox... 

Extras 



OOLWICH. 

Second Innings. 

7 c and b Mantell 

29 c P. Cox, b Streatfield 

1 c Streatfield, b P. Cox 
c Moon, b P. Cox .. 

21 c Moon, b P. Cox 

3 c Moon, b P. Cox 

28 c Streatfield, b Mantell 

2 c Streatfield, b P. Cox 

8 bP. Cox 

b Mantell 

3 not out 

13 Extras 



9 
65 
13 



2 
2 
3 
12 
3 
2 
8 



Total 



...115 



Total 



Sandhurst. 
Bonham-Carter, 



\V. (J. Baker, 

b Hedley 4 

A. \V. Moon. 1 1) w, b Hodley ... 4 

A. W. Baker, 1) Medley 10 

A. (J. Hedlev, b Medley 8 

A. M. Streatfield, not out IIS 

B. Went worth, c Carter, b Norris 31 

E. \V. Norie, c Carter, 1) Norris ... 3 
II. Marwood, c Carter, b Hedley... 
P. X. Cox, c Ducane, b Hedley ... 

F. Cox, b Norris ... ... ... 9 

P. K. Mantell, b Norris 

Extras 10 

Total 197 



b Medley 

e Ducane, b Medley 

not out 

not out 



Extras 



Total 



.124 



6 
21 
11 

4 



2 
44 



230 



SHOP" GAMES. 



It seems strange that the " Shop " could not win this match, con- 
sidering that in Hedley and Medley it possessed two of the finest 
bowlers that have ever entered the Army. Both subsequently became 
Sappers. Hedley bowled fast right-hand, and represented his corps 
against the E.A. at cricket, racquets, golf, and billiards. He played 
for Kent, and afterwards for Somerset, for which county he made 
several centuries and took many wickets. Medley was a magnificent 
slow left-hand bowler, and would certainly have risen to the first rank 



of county players but for his untimely death a year or two after joining 
at Chatham. While these two played for the Sappers their opponents' 
score sheet generally ran : " b Hedley, c Hedley b Medley, b Medley, 



c Medley b Hedley, b Medley, b Hedley," etc. 



EIGHTEENTH MATCH. 

'Sandhurst won by 30 rims, at Woolwich, June 30th and July 1st, 1884. 
Woolwich. 



First Jnnintfs. 

T. L. Coxhead, c Ward, b Powell . 
T. A. H. Bigge, c Stainf orth, b Powell 5 

W. C. Hedley, b Powell 20 

A. E. J. Perkins, e Stewart, b Dew- 
ing 54 

F. W. D. Quinton, h Oxley ... 2 

A. G. N orris, c Powell, b Stainf orth 71 

C. Presiott-Decie, b Oxley ... 

W. C. Staveley, b Dewing ... o4 

T. E. Marshall, b Oxley 11 

C. H. de Rougemont, c Browning, 

b Oxley ... 30 

A . W. Medley, not out 

Extras 24 



Second Innings. 
run out 

b Powell 

st Ward, b Oxley 

b Oxley 

b Powell 

c Newbury, b Powell 

b Oxley 

b Oxley 

not out 

c Newbury, b Oxley 

e Ward, b Powell 

Extras 



24 
31 
18 

7 
11 


2 
5 

a 

4 
2 



Total 



..271 
Sanj)huiist. 



Total 



R. H. Dewing, b Medley ... ... 1 

Hon. E. H. Ward, b Medley ... 11 

H. E. Walker, b Coxhead 7 

F. A. Browning, b Medley ... 

B. A. Newbury, c de Rougemont, 

b Medley' 

R. S. Oxley, c Quinton, b Medley 11 
H. G. Stainforth, c Quinton, b 

Medley 23 

V. G. Ormsby, c Bigge, b Medley 45 
H. B. Powell, not out 11 

C. G. Carnegv, c Coxhead, b Bigge 17 
C. G. Stewart, b Bigge 

Extras 11 



c Quinton, b Medley 

b Medley 

lb w, b Bigge 

c Perkins, b Medley 

c Hedley, b Medley 

b Hedley 

b Perkins 

c de Rougemont, b Medley 
st de Rougemont, b Medley 
not out 

b Hedley 

Extras 



.104 

.111 
. 
. 28 
. 31 

. 11 
. 9 

. 6 
. 8 
5 
. 30 
. 3 
. 26 



Total 137 Total 268 

There were some very fine cricketers on both sides in this match, 
but the " Shop " tail, which had distinguished itself in the first innings, 
refused to wag in the second. Medley took thirteen wickets, but 
Hedley was comparatively ineffective. Of future Gunners there were 
three distinguished players — Quinton, a fine free bat who played 
regularly for Hampshire ; Perkins, another big hitter, who came back 



THE "SHOP'S" BEST TEAM. 



231 



to the " Shop " first as company officer, and again as Adjutant ; and de 
Rougemont, yet another dashing player and a brilliant field. Bigeje 
became a Sapper, and his achievements for his corps on the cricket field 
would fill a good-sized book. 

R. M. A., 1885. 

Matches played, 15; trow, 10; lost, 5. 

Batting Averages. 









Times 


Highest 








Inn. 


not out. 


Runs. score. 


Average. 


A. P. Douglas 




17 


6 


730 135* 


663 


F. W. D. Quinton 




17 


1 


510 125 


31*8 


A. E. J. Perkins (Capt.) 




18 


1 


427 100 


251 


(\ Ainslie 




19 


2 


350 90 


20 5 


E. McL. Blair 




18 


3 


259 51 


17-2 


W. A. Boulnois ... 




14 


1 


195 91 


15-0 


H. E. Stockdalc 




15 


2 


191 46* 


14-6 


J. II. Twiss 




12 


3 


122 23 


135 


T. M. Usborne 




16 


1 


159 32* 


10-6 


T. A. II. Bigge 




16 





129 47 


80 


J. M. Macgowan 




14 


4 


75 19 


75 


Douglas made three i 


centuries 


. His 


scores, match bv match, were 


J, 47,0, 


7*, 62*, 57, 55*, 5, 72, 13 


5*, 108* 


29, 22. 


, 18*, 3, 104, and 5. 








* Not out. 








Bowling Averages. 










Overs. 


Maidens. 


Runs. Wickets. 


Averages. 


Quinton 




22 


6 


58 6 


9*6 


Macgowan 




239 


115 


395 40 


98 


Perkins ... 




269 


94 


639 50 


12-7 


Blair 




359 


118 


904 58 


15-5 


Ainslie 




113 


30 


314 13 


24-1 


Biggcs 




51 


9 


153 6 


25-5 



Up to the present day (19(H)) the 1885 
team possesses the distinction of being the 
best " Shop " eleven of any year. First 
and foremost came A. P. Douglas, con- 
sidered by many to be the finest batsman 
that has ever passed through the R. M. A. 
After joining the (runners he played for 
Surrey ; but on going to India his name 
ceased to be heard of in the cricket world. 
Blair performed great deeds both with 
bat and ball after joining the Sappers ; 
and also played for Kent at cricket and 
Kugby and Association football, as well 
as winning the Army Cup at racquets. 
Usborne and Macgowan, l>oth afterwards 
({miners, were respectively brilliant wicket- 
keeper and destructive bowler. Other 
members of the eleven have already been 
remarked on. On the whole there was 
no weak spot in the team. Of the five 
matches lost, three were defeats by 1 run, 
7 runs, and 17 runs only. 

The record with R. M. C. now stood 




W. C. HEDLBY. 
W.i 1). Downey, Ebury St., W % 



232 



SHOP 1 ' GAMES. 



at seven wins, six losses, and six draws — the last in which the " Shop " 
headed the list. 

The match " Staff v. Cadets " had a very exciting ending. In their 
second innings the latter had an hour in which to get 110 runs to win. 
Thanks to some fearless hitting by Perkins and Quinton, these were 
obtained in fifty minutes. 

NINETEENTH MATCH. 

Woolwich iron by ten wickets, at Sandhurst, July 3rd and 4th, 1885. 



' 


Woolwich. 


First Innings. 




Second Innings. 


E. M. Blair, c Barton, b Lees 


. 6 


not out 


T. Ainslie, run out 


. 8 


not out 


A. E. Perkins, c Pedley, b Barton 


40 




F. D. Quinton, b Hornby 


. 20 




A. P. Douglas, b Southey 


. 72 




T. A. Bigge, c Hornby, b Arnold 


47 




T. M. Usborne, b Southey 


. 12 




W. A. Boulnois, not out ... 


. 25 




J. H . T wiss, b Southey 


. 8 




H. E. Stockdale, b Southey 


. 12 




J. M. Macgowan, c Bell, b Arnold 







Extras 


. 22 


Extras 


Total 


.272 


Total 




Sandhurst. 


J. Lees, b Blair 


. 


c Usborne, b Macgowan . 


C. D. Sandf ord, run out 


. 4 


c and b Blair 


L. W. Fox, c Bigge, b Blair 


. 8 


b Macgowan 


A. E. Barton, b Blair 


. 7 


b Macgowan 


A. S. Arnold, st Usborne, b Blair 


27 


b Macgowan 


W. G. Walker, 1 b w, b Blair . . 


. 37 


b Macgowan 


H. A. Hornby, b Blair 


. 14 


c Usborne, b Macgowan . 


P. T. Bell,lbw, b Blair 


. 1 


not out 


S. H. Pedley, b Blair 


. 2 


b Macgowan 


W. H. Wreford-Brown, b Perkins 


st Usborne, b Blair... 


W. M. Southey, not out 


. 15 


b Blair 


Extras 


. 10 


Extras 



45 




1 


;'*A 


32 


^S 


6 


'3 


8 


■^3 


16 


:.W 


26 


£ 





•3*1 


2 
3 


■•! 


2 




9 


■'$ 



Total 



.125 



Total 



...150 



Blair took seven wickets for 42 runs and three for 45 in the first and second 
innings respectively. Macgowan's seven in the Sandhurst second innings cost 
about 50 runs. 

R. M. A., 1886. 

Matches played, 12; won, 2; lost, 9; drawn, 1. 



Batting Averages. 







Times 




Highest 




Inn. 


not out. 


Runs. 


score. 


A. P. Douglas (Capt.) ... 


18 


4 


679 


145 


H. O. Lathbury 


17 


2 


257 


59 


H. R. Stockley 


10 





156 


77 


P. D. Hamilton 


14 


3 


163 


42 


G. Laird 


..." 10 


2 


113 


31 


F. G. Smallwood 


17 





214 


43 


C. G. Burnaby 


17 





213 


64 


J. M. Macgowan 


14 


2 


115 


31 



Average. 
48*5 
17-1 
15*6 
14-7 
14-1 
12*5 
12-5 
9-5 




2 



3CH ^ 
H | 

13 fa 






a si 






234 



11 SHOP" GAMES. 







Times 




Highest 






Inn. 


not out. 


Runs. 


score. 


Average. 


C. Ainslie 


11 





93 


62 


8-4 


J. S. Liddell 


14 


2 


98 


29 


8-1 


H. H. Austin 


11 





63 


22 


57 


A. D. Kirby 


16 
Bowling 


3 
Averages. 


32 


7 


24 




Overs 


Maidens. 


Runs. 


Wickets. 


Average. 


Macgowan 


... 428 


142 


918 


72 


12-7 


Burnaby 


... 113 


40 


321 


21 


15-2 


Hamilton 


83 


35 


148 


7 


21-1 


Stockley 


... 171 


53 


396 


14 


28-2 


Douglas 


75 


21 


188 


6 


315 


Small wood 


30 


6 


65 


2 


32-5 


Ainslie 


40 


12 


94 


2 


47*0 



J. S. Liddell, a magnificent cover-point, nearly created a record in 
the cricket world when playing for the Sappers against the Staff College 
in 1896. He made 204 in the first innings and 175 run out in the 
second ! 

TWENTIETH MATCH. 

Sandhurst won by 1 run, at Woolwich, June 25th and 26th, 1886. 



Sandhurst. 



First Innings. 

F. W. Burbury, b Macgowan ... 5 
A. Wolfe-Murray, b Macgowan ...169 
R. P. Spurway, b Macgowan ... 
W. Johnston, c Stockley, b Ham- 
ilton 65 

C. E. Higginbotham, b Macgowan 24 
W. H. Brown, c Austin, b Ainslie 11 
A. R. Barwell, b Macgow r an ... 24 
H. Butterworth, b Macgowan ... 12 

G. G. Irtng, c Austin, b Macgowan 1 
W. Blair, not out ... ... ... 

H. Thompson, b Macgowan ... 

Extras 29 



Second Innings. 

b Macgowan 

b Hamilton ... 
b Macgowan 

b Macgowan 

b Macgowan 

c Lathbury, b Macgowan 

c Stockley, b Macgowan ., 

b Macgowan 

b Macgowan 

run out 

not out 

Extras 



Total 



.340 



Total 



Woolwich. 



H. O. Lathbury, b Burbury ... 

C. G. Burnaby, b Johnston ... 64 

A. P. Douglas, b Johnston ... 37 

F. G. Smallwood, c Lang, b Brown 43 
P. D. Hamilton, c Higginbotham, 

b Barwell 42 

J. Laird, c Spurway, b Johnston... 16 

C. Ainslie, b Barwell 

A. D. Kirby, not out 

H. R. Stockley, b Thompson ... 54 

H. H. Austin, b Thompson ... 19 

J. M. Macgowan, b Barwell ... 

Extras 22 



b Thompson 

b Barwell 

c Spurway, b Johnston 
b Burbury ... 

run out 

b Thompson 

run out 

b Barwell ... 

b Barwell 

c Blair, b Johnston... 

not out 

Extras 



. 8 
. 31 
. 10 

. 11 
. 40 
. 9 
. 26 
. 3 
. 
. 2 
. 5 

• H 

.156 



50 


35 
10 
62 

1 
1 
3 
31 
2 



Total 



...297 



Total ... 



...198 



THE ONE 1WN MATCH. 



235 



The Staff took their revenge this year by defeating the Cadets by 50 
runs ; the Adjutant making 48 not out, and Sergeant-major Hunter 
securing seven wickets for 72 runs. 

With the exception of Douglas and Macgowan, the "Shop" team 
performed very badly throughout the season ; but the game with 
Sandhurst will for ever remain in the memories of those who witnessed 
it as the most keenly contested in the annals of R. M. A. cricket. 

The " Shop " entered on their second venture on Saturday afternoon 
with 201 runs to win, and nine wickets fell for 131. The Sandhurst 
supj)orters were jubilant. Macgowan, the last man, walked in and 
promptly put a ball into the hands of point, who as promptly dropped 
it ! Profiting by this piece of luck, and undeterred by the failure of 
the rest of the side, Ainslie and Macgowan kept up their ends, and, 
hitting brilliantly, piled up the notches at a great rate. 50 to win— 39 



Stftq 
Via*** 



#r,^ ; ■fail 



VfRY oLT> Ffl*£"Z£ o*c* wVjc. 



(From tin* It. M. A. Crickrt Honk.) 

runs so far for the last wicket, nothing very unusual ; Sandhurst sup" 
porters confident. 40 to win ; Woolwich waking up, Sandhurst still 
confident. 30 to win ; Sandhurst distinctly uneasy. 20 to win, 10 to 
win ; Woolwich wild with excitement, Sandhurst feverishly glum. 2 
to win : a brilliant drive between mid-off and cover-point by Ainslie. a 
stupendous cheer suddenly broken short off, a superhuman bound by 
Spurway at cover, a magnificent one-handed piece of fielding, followed 
l»y a tcrrificly fast, straight shot— and three stumps all "anyhow," with 
the Woolwich man a full yard short of his crease. 

It would be utterly impossible to describe the ensuing scene, the 
shrieks and howls of applause, the reception given to the men who so 
nearly won the game, and to the man wlio did win it. Poor Spurway ! 
He played many a game at the scene of his triumph when stationed 
later at Woolwich, where he died suddenly in 1898, to the sorrow of all 
who knew him as the best of good fellows and the keenest of sportsmen. 

Kach side had now won seven matches. 



236 



" SHOP" GAMES. 



1887. 
Stockley captained the "Shop" in 1887, and, although the batting 
was not good, smart fielding and bowling prevented general results 
being very bad. The captain's bowling is worthy of note, and he was 
well backed up by Edlmann at the other end. The tie was in the 
RE. match. 

Matches played, 11 ; won, 5 ; lost, 4 ; tied, 1 : drawn, 1. 
Batting Averages. 







Times 




Highest 






Inn. 


not out. 


Runs. 


score. 


Average. 


A. D. Kirbv 


13 


5 


160 


43 


20-0 


J. S. Liddell 


16 


3 


243 


113 


186 


G. H. Nicholson 


12 


3 


116 


31 


12-8 


J. Bellhouse 


11 





134 


71 


12-1 


H. R. Stockley (Capt.) .. 


15 


1 


168 


37 


12-0 


E. L. Tomkins 


15 


1 


166 


32 


11-8 


W. Strong 


13 





147 • 


43 


11-3 


G. Laird 


13 





146 


50 


11-2 


E. Edlmann 


14 


2 


122 


19 


101 


H M. Barnes 


13 





112 


34 


8-6 


W. Arthy 


3 
Bowling Av 


1 

EKAGES. 


26 


15 


130 




Overs. 


Maidens. 


Runs. 


Wickets. 


Averages. 


Stockley 


... 325 


91 


604 


69 


8-7 


Edlmann 


... 279 


63 


538 


44 


12-2 


Bellhouse 


58 


16 


130 


10 


130 


Barnes 


... 157 


24 


401 


27 


14-8 



The Staff were beaten this year by eight wickets. 



TWENTY-FIRST MATCH. 

Sandhurst won by jive wickets at Sandhurst, July 1st and 2nd, 1887. 



Woolw 
First Innings. 

A. D. Kirby, c Bell-Smyth b Mullen 43 

H. M. Barnes, run out ... ... 5 

W. Strong, b Mullen 4 

E. Edlmann, b Mullen 

J. S. Liddell, c Cloran, b Wintour. 18 

H. R. Stockley, c Cloran, b Wintour 

G. Laird, b Cloran 4 

E. L. Tomkins, b Mullen 14 

G. H. Nicholson, not out 10 

J. Bellhouse, b Wintour ... ... 9 

W. Arltry, c Cloran, b Mullen ... 7 

Extras 10 



ICH. 

Second Innings, 
c Black, b Johnstone 

runout 

c and b Mullen 

c Cloran, b Johnstone 

b Mullen 

c Bowdea- Smith, b Wintour 

c Cloran, b Wintour 

c Price, b Wintour 

1 b w, b Wintour 

b Wintour . . . 

not out 

Extras 



Total 



..124 
Sandhurst. 



Total 



Sir C. Cuyler, Bart., c and b Barnes 22 
W. MacFarlan, c Laird, b Stockley 79 
E. Wintour, c and b. Strong ... 43 
R. de L. Fance, b Edlmann ... 13 
J. F. Cloran, b Stockley 3 



b Edlmann 

h Edlmann 

b Bellhouse 

c Laird, b Bellhouse 



. 11 

.. 13 

.. 30 

.. 1 

.. 7 

.. 31 

.. 10 

.. 15 

.. 6 

.. 71 

.. 4 

... 10 

..209 





10 

5 

4 



'SHOP" CRICKET W 



237 



J. 


A. Bell-Smyth, c Nicholson, b 






Bellhouse 41 


c Liddell, b Barnes, 


c. 


V. Price 10 


not out 


w 


. Bowden - Smith, c Laird, b 






Stockley ... 4 


not out 


\v 


. C. Black, c Nicholson, b Edl- 
mann ... ... ... ... 10 




J. 


L. Mullen, c and b Bellhouse ... 15 




F. 


11. Johnstone, not out ... ... 8 






Extras ... 24 


Extras 



.-. 3 
... 1 

... 34 



Total 



...272 



Total 



62 



1888. 



There was no match with Sandhurst, on account of the prevalence 
of scarlet fever. The cricket score-book was lost at the end of the 
season, and but few records and no averages kept. F. A. Wynter 
was the batsman of the year, and his 142 not out against the I.Z. was 
a brilliant exhibition, especially of cutting. The others who obtained 
their colours were W. Strong (captain), J. Bellhouse, H. M. Barnes, 
V. A. Sykes, W. V. J. C. Elwes, J. K. Kendall, C. E. Budworth, 
E. J. Peel, J. Home, and W. Bignell. 

In the M.C.C match,* against the bowling of Rawlin and Cooper- 
Key, the " Shop " were only able to muster 20 runs in their nrst 
innings, seven of the team securing "ducks" ! 

1889. 

In spite of a fine effort by Capt. F. A. Curteis, who made 70 
runs, the Staff were defeated in the annual match by an innings and 
f>2 runs, thanks to the bowling of Holloway and Elwes and the batting 
of Bradshaw (98) and Sheppard (03 not out). 

Matches played ', 14 ; won, 6; lo&t, 7 ; drawn, 1. 

Batting Averages. 







Turn's 




Highest 






Inn. 


not out. 


Huns. 


scon*. 


Average. 


S. H . Sheppard 


6 


2 


166 


63* 


30-5 


\V. V. J. (.'. Elwes (Capt.) 


16 


2 


251 


38 


180 


F. A. AVyntrr 


18 


3 


257 


33 


17-1 


.1. (». AiiHtiri 


1.') 


3 


202 


47 


15-5 


F. Bradshaw 


16 





233 


98 


145 


K. S. Hamilton 


5 





68 


33 


13-6 


A. II. < 'unnin^ham 


18 





184 


37 


102 


K. .1 \l. IV«1 


13 





117 


59 


9-0 


\\\ O. Hollowjiv 


16 


3 


117 


18 


90 


II. F. K. I'Wland 


8 





45 


17 


5-6 


11. If iiiisdcii 


12 





34 


14 


2-8 




* Not out. 










Bowling Av 


EKAGES. 










( )Vils. 


Maidens. 


RllTlH. 


Wickets. 


Average, 


Khvi-s 


— 


105 


748 


64 


11-6 


Holloway 


— 


80 


667 


46 


145 


Sh«*ppard 


— 


2 


49 


3 


16-3 


Fnrland 


— 


5 


130 


7 


18 5 


NVyiitf-r 


— 


11 


59 


3 


19-6 


Hamilton ... 


... 


1 


64 


2 


320 



238 



"SHOP" GAMES. 



TWENTY-SECOND MATCH. 

Woolwich won by 149 rtms, at Sandhurst, June 28th and 29th, 1889. 



Woolwich. 


First Innings. 




Second Innings 


E. J. R. Peel, c Ross, b Willes ... 


27 


c Champion, b Kelly 


F. Bradshaw, c Kelly, 1> Willes ... 


16 


c Champion, b Kelly 


A. H. Cunningham, b Kelly 


37 


b Willes 


F A. Wynter, b Kelly 


5 


b Patterson ... 


W. V. Elwes, c Champion, b Pat- 






terson 


27 


b Patterson 


S. H. Sheppard, b Leman... 


36 


b Patterson 


W. Hollo way, b Patterson 


4 


c Champion, b Patterson 


J. Gr. Austin, not out 


16 


not out 


H. Ramsden, 1 b w, b Patterson . . . 


1 


b Patterson 


H. F. Freeland, b Patterson 





b Patterson ... 


R. S. Hamilton, c Leman, b Patter- 






son 


20 


c Kelly, b Leman . . . 


Extras 


18 


Extras 


Total 


207 


Total- 


Sandhurst. 


H. Ross, run out ... 


14 


c Austin ,• b El wes ... 


G. B. Scriven, b Holloway 





b Holloway 


H. B. Champion, c Elwes, b Hollo- 






way 





b Freeland ... 


A. B. Ritchie, c Austin, b Holloway 


13 


b Holloway ... 


A. G. Prothero, b Holloway 


5 


b Elwes 


R. H. Price, b Elwes 


1 


c Holloway, b Elwes 


R. C. Leman, o Hamilton, b Elwes 


14 


b Holloway ... 


C. G. Stockwell, not out 


54 


b Elwes 


C. E. Willes, b Hollowav 


5 


b Holloway 


G. Kelly, b Holloway " 


9 


b Elwes 


W. H. Patterson, run out... 


5 


not out 


Extras 


9 


Extras 



Total 



..129 



Total... 



... 9 

... 18 

... 

... 46 

... 11 

... 24 

... 11 

... 31 

... 3 

... 5 

... 33 

... 9 

...200 



... 25 
... 4 

... 20 

... 5 

... 3 

... 5 

... 38 

... 2 

... 12 

... 3 

... 2 

... 10 

...129 



1890. 



The team began the season well by getting the R.N.C. out for 30, 
the captain taking six wickets for 13 runs. Later on, in June, there 
were some interesting matches. That with the Mote at Maidstone 
produced some curious cricket. The Mote batted first and made 
75, the "Shop" responding with 33. The Mote then got out for 25, 
Holloway taking five wickets for 9 runs. Altogether in the match 
he took eleven for 42 ! As the "Shop" could only make 12 for four 
wickets in their second venture, they lost the game on the first innings. 
Thirty-four wickets thus fell for 145 runs. The match against the 
Foresters was won by 12 runs; and three days later Blackheath, with an 
exceptionally strong side, beat the " Shop " by 19 runs. On this oc- 
casion Atkinson and Robertson made a bold bid for victory by scoring 
40 for the last wicket. The Staff succumbed to the bowling of Holloway, 
and Freeland making 92, the "Shop" won by an innings and 7 runs. 
In the final " term match " the Snookers (Nuttall 122 and 75, Waters 73) 
beat the Corporals by six wickets, Holloway making 22 and 164, and 
Birch 5 and 128, three centuries thus being scored in the match. 



A GOOD MATCH SPOILT BY BAIN. 



239 





Batting 


Averages. 

Times 




Highest 






Inn. 


not out. 


Runs. 


score. 


Average. 


J. (i. Austin 


17 


4 


346 


84 


266 


\V. 0. Holloway (Capt.) 


18 


2 


357 


118 


22-3 


V. R. Hine- Haycock ... 


18 


1 


350 


73* 


205 


K. S. Hamilton 


15 


1 


280 


78 


200 


H. W. Bowen 


14 





276 


67 


19-7 


H. F. E. Freeland 


16 





312 


92 


19-5 


C. C. Robertson 


13 


5 


158 


31 


15-8 


E. E. M. Waters 


9 





127 


65 


141 


B. Atkinson 


19 


4 


179 


38 


137 


J. Donaldson 


19 





195 


35 


102 


C. M. Nuttall 


14 


2 


121 


30 


101 




* Not out. 










Bowling 


Averages 














Overs. 


Wickets. 


Average. 


W. 0. Holloway 






159 


63 


126 


H. F. E. Freeland 






75 


27 


138 


J. Donaldson 






341 


9 


19-0 


H. W. Bowen 






691 


27 


12-8 


B. Atkinson 






384 


8 


24-2 


CM. Nuttall 






39 


13 


150 



TWENTY-THIRD MATCH. 

Drawn, at Woolwich, June 27th and 28th, 1890. 
Woolwich. 



J. 
H. 
H. 

W 
V. 
('. 
J. 
It. 



First Innings. 

Donaldson, b Paget 14 

W. Bowen, c Jacob, b Paget ... 1 
F. E. Freeland, c Tristram, b 

Drurv 18 

. O. Holloway, b Paget 6 

R. I line-Haycock, run out ... 1 

M. Nuttall, b Maling 9 

(i. Austin, b Maling 84 

S. Hamilton, c Lushington, b 

Drury 15 

E. N. Waters, e Jacob, b Lush- 
ington ... ... ... ... 05 

AtkiiiHon, c Paget, b Lushington 26 

('. Robertson, not out 2 

Extra* 25 



Total 



Second Linings. 
c Tristram, b Drury 
b Drury 

c Tristram, b Drury 
c Tristram, b Drury 
c Tristram, b Young 

not out ... 

not out 



Extras 



.. 14 

.. 4 

.. 9 

.. 5 

.. 9 

.. 12 

.. 24 



... 12 



...266 
Sandhurst. 
II. U. Blore, c Freeland, b Holloway 

A. I j. Jacob, b Freeland 

II. Andrew, c Holloway, b Freeland 
E. M. Young, c Hamilton, b Holloway 
II. (J. M. Amos, b Donaldson 

A. J. Maling, b Bowen 

B. II. Drury, b Bowen 

M. H. Tristram, not out 

A. ('. S. Barchard, c Freeland, b Bowen 
W. X. Lushington, b Freeland 

II . P. E. Paget, b Freeland 

Extras 



Total (5 wickets)... 89 



9 

2 

53 

3 

47 

23 

4 

15 

2 

1 

25 

16 



Total ... 



...200 



240 



SHOP" d AM VS. 



R. M. A., 1891. 

Matches play/d, 14 ; won, 3; lost, 6; drawn, 5. 

Hatting Averages. 







Tiiiu's 




Highest 






III)!. 


not out. 


Runs. 


score. 


Average. 


V. K. Hinc-Haycook .. 


9 


1 


384 


68* 


38-6 


J. E. Cairnes 


15 


1 


418 


102 


27 7 


J. G. Austin (Capt.) 


12 


2 


311 


97* 


25-9 


H. H. Bond 


6 


3 


101 


30 


168 


E. B. Macnaghten 


14 


2 


231 


80 


16-5 


S. F. Gosling 


11 


2 


165 


59 


15 


E. E. Waters 


S 


1 


115 


39 


14-4 


W. Ellershaw 


16 





226 


73 


140 


B. Atkinson 


14 





188 


43 


13-4 


J. B. F. Curric 


3 


2 


36 


19* 


12 


W. F. Lamont 


14 

♦ Not < 




»ut. 


83 


21 


6-0 




Bowling Averages. 










Overs. 


Wkts. 


Mrins. 


Runs. 


Average. 


S. F. Gosling 


304.1 


45 


88 


624 


13-8 


E. B. Macnaghten 


347.3 


51 


97 


686 


13 2 


B. Atkinson 


56 


8 


20 


185 


23-1 


H. H. Bond 


82.2 


6 


16 


185 


30-8 



Besides beating the I.Z. by an innings and 36 runs, the " Shop " 
(303) severely defeated Blackheath (130). Three centuries were made 
in the Staff match, Lieut. Currie 100, Captain Curteis 106, and 
J. E. Cairnes 102. The Staff made 381 and 106 for four wickets, 
and the " Shop" 307 and 150 for five, the match being drawn. 

Against Sandhurst, Austin's performance was a very fine one, but 
could not retrieve the " Shop's " poor batting in the first innings. 

TWENTY-FOURTH MATCH. 

/Sandhurst won by seven wickets, at Sandhurst, Juno 26th and 27th, 1891. 
Sandhurst. 



First Innings. 

G. B. Gosling, b Macnaghten ... 16 

C. H. Harington, b Atkinson ... 16 

D R. Napier, b Gosling 25 

H. C. Whinfield, c Macnaghten, 

b Atkinson 

A. N. D. Fagan, not out 94 

E. J. Neve, c Macnaghten, b Gos- 

ling 

C. E. Wilson, b Macnaghten ... 5 
G. L. Paget, c Hine- Haycock, h At- 
kinson ... 

F. C. S. Norrington, c Austin, b 

Atkinson ... 1 

W. W. Bickford, b Bond 20 

F. J. Bowen, c Walters, b Currie . 40 

Extras 12 



Second Innings. 
not out 

c and b Gosling 
c Lamont, b Currie... 



1 b w, b Gosling 
not out 



45 
11 
37 



29 



Extras 



Total 



...229 



Total (3 wickets) 139 



^V EXTRAORDINARY MATCH. 



241 



Woolwich. 



\\\ F. Laniont, 1> Norrington ... 5 

. Ellorshaw, b Norrington ... 2 

K. Cairnes, b Norrington ... 8 
It. Hine- Haycock, 1 1) w, b Bowen 6 

Atkinson, run out ... 1 

Cf. Austin, not out ... ... 26 

W. Waters, v Bo wen, b Norri ngton 1 
1>. Macnaghten, c Bowen, b 

Norrington ... ... 20 

. H. Bond, c Harington, h Bowen, 4 

F. (iosling, c and b Norrington . 35 

B. F. Carrie, b Norrington ... 

Extras ... * 1 

Total 109 



b Harington... 

b Harington 

c Whinfield, b Norrington 

c Gosling, b Napier 

b Harington 

c Fagan b Norrington 

run out 

b Norrington 
1) Harington 
b Harington 
not out 

Extras 




33 
12 
36 
22 



3 



16 

19 

15 



It. M. A., 1892. 
Matches played, 12 ; won, 7 ; lost, 4 ; 

Batting Averages. 



Total 



drawn, 1. 



...256 







Times 




Highest 






I ti ii. 


not Mit. 


Huns. 


score. 


Average 


11. II. Bond 


13 


2 


352 


115 


32-0 


II. 1). Foulkos 


11 


5 


183 


37 


305 


M. O'C. Tandy 


13 


1 


354 


91 


29-5 


E. B. Macnaghten (Capt.) 


12 


»> 


227 


45 


22*7 


E. E. X. Waters 


12 





199 


42 


16-5 


J. E. Cairnes 


11 





142 


51 


129 


K. A. Birley 


11 





139 


37 


12-6 


(.'. (\ Barnes 


13 





125 


49 


9 6 


('. Wigram 


13 


1 


96 


29 


8-0 


J..1 Hanks 


7 


1 


44 


2 Knot 


out) 7'3 


S. E. Macnagbten 


6 


1 


30 


28 


60 



The howling 
averages were, un- 
fortunately, not 
made out before the 
score-hook was, as 
usual, lost. 

The twenty-fifth 
match with Sand- 
hurst will not readily 
he forgotten either 
by those who jdayed 
or those who looked 
on. The "Shop's" 
first innings came to 
a close at a quarter 
t<> three o'clock on 
Saturday afternoon 
for, curiously 
cnoiurh. exactly the 
same total as Sand- 
hurst's, viz., 304. 
HfiH'f had the htnmur 
4>f snirintf tin- '>nff/ 




THK *'SHO!»" 8POHTS: THE HIGH iVhil 



2412 



'SHOP" GAMES. 




C. WIGKAM. 



century ever obtained by Woolwich in these 
matches, and Tandy had bad luck in not getting 
into three figures. 

All hope of a finish had been given up when 
the K. M. C. began their second innings at 3.5 p.m. 
But Wigram of Winchester was there, and in a 
little over an hour the telegraph board read 66 — 
10—6. His bowling was unplayable, his analysis 
reading : 20 overs, 10 maidens, 25 runs, 6 wickets. 
Tandy and Foulkes made no mistake about the 
runs, and, amidst the wildest excitement, the 
"Shop" won a glorious victory— their last, alas! 
for many years. 



TWENTY-FIFTH MATCH. 

Woolwich uon by eight wickets, at Woolwich, July 1st and 2nd, 1892. 





Sandhurst. 




First Inning 8. 




Second Innings. 




J. G. Greig, c Waters, b Bond . 


.125 


runout 


... 1 


P. H. Bundas, c Macnaghtec 


L» 






b Cairnes 


. 27 


b Wigram 


... 


M. D. Wood, b Foulkes ... 


. 7 


run out 


... 


E. F. Rutter, c Birley, b Waters . 


. 44 


e Waters, b Cairnes 


.. 24 


It. S. Chaplain, e S. E. Maenaghter 


t, 






b Wigram 


. 62 


c S. Macnaghten, b Wigram 


.. 3 


L. S. Brown, run out 


. 9 


b Wigram 


.. 


E. L. Challenor, b Wigram 


. 11 


b Wigram ... 


.. 2 


R. L. Ricketts, b Foulkts 


. 1 


not out 


.. 10 


H. A. Denham, b Wigram 


. 11 


b Waters 


.. 4 


W. E. Sykes, b Wigram ... 


. 2 


b Wigram 


.. 5 


B. M. Brodhurst, not out 


. 


b Wigram 


.. 6 


Extras 


. 7 


Extras 


.. 5 


Total 


304 


Total 


... 66 




Woolwich. 




H. D. Foidkes, b Brodhurst 


. 


not out 


... 23 


R. A. Birley, c Denham, b Brown 


4 


c Greig, b Brodhurst 


... 9 


M. O'C. Tandy, 1 b w, b Brown .. 


91 


not out . . 


... 33 


11. H. Bond, b Brodhurst 


.115 






J. E. Cairnes, b Sykes 


. 17 






C. Wigram, b Brown 


. 






E. B. Slacnaghten, b Sykes 


. 






E. E. Waters, b Wood 


. 42 


bWood 


.. 


C. C. Barnes, b Sykes 


. 9 






T. T. Hanks, not out 


. 21 






S. E. Macnaghten, b Wood 


. 






Extras 


5 


Extras 


.. 2 


Total 


.304 


Total (2 wickets) 


.. 67 



For Woolwich, Wigram took ten for 105, Cairnes two for 32, Foulkes two for 
61, Bond one for 22, and Waters one for 26. 



FOSTER'S YEAR. 



243 



R. M. A., 1893. 
Matches played, 16 ; icon, 6 ; lost, 6 ; drawn, 4. 





Batting Averages. 












Times 




Highest 






Inn. 


not out. 


Runs. 


score. 


Average. 


W. L. Foster 


17 


2 


612 


133 


40 8 


R. A. Birley 


16 


2 


471 


117 


33*6 


C. Wigram (Capt.) 


20 


1 


465 


58 


24-4 


M.O'C. Tandy 


17 


1 


386 


159 


24*1 


C. (\ Barnes 


19 


5 


308 


82 


22-0 


K. L. Wheeler 


16 


5 


223 


64* 


20-2 


K. (t. Meyriek 


8 


2 


100 


30 


16-6 


P. P. de B. Kadcliffe .. 


16 


1 


229 


65 


15-2 


L. K. Stanborough 


13 


6 


101 


19* 


14-43 


P. Blount 


18 





198 


61 


11-0 


K. Kirke 


4 


2 


8 


7* 


4*0 




* Not out. 










Bowling A^ 


t'EKAGES. 










Overs. 


Maidens. 


Runs. 


Wickets. 


Average. 


K. Kirke . 


... 98.3 


36 


174 


19 


9-16 


C. Wigram 


... 422.3 


104 


1004 


67 


1502 


L. K. Stanborough 


... 204.1 


45 


567 


33 


17-18 


C ('. Barnes 


... 11 


2 


43 


2 


21-5 


M. O'C. Tandy 


... 75.2 


13 


257 


12 


21-58 


P. Blount ... 


... 193.4 


44 


567 


26 


21-81 


R. A. Birley 


... 166 


21 


561 


23 


24-57 


W. L. Foster 


... 27.2 


7 


89 


3 


29-67 


E. L. Wheeler 


3 





10 





— 



18J); 
result, 
as W. 
chester 
HradhY 



* was a most disapj minting year as regards 
With such fine batsmen in the team 
L. Foster of Malvern, Wigram of Win- 
, Tandy of Tollbridge, and Barnes of 
Id, more matches should certainly have been 

won. Hut the bowling was 

not j >articularly strong, with 

the exception of Wigram. 

Foster played some great 

innings ; his chief scores 

were 110, 41,* 84, 73,* 50, 

133. 44. and 39; but he 

was unfortunately credited 

with a 4< brace " against the 

M.C.C. ! After leaving the "Shop," he played 

regularly for Worcestershire, his great performance 

being the scoring of 140 and 172 not out against 

Hampshire, his brother R.E. also taking two 
Tandy. centuries in the same match ! 





W. L. FOHTElt. 



244 



"SHU!*" (,'AMHS. 



TWENTY-SIXTH MATCH. 

Sandhurst won fat ten wickets, at Sandhurst, .June 30th and July 1st, 

Woolwich. 
First Inn in tjit. 

C. Wigruin, b Healing 

K. A. Birley. v Druic b Wood 

W. L. Foster, c Thomson, b Wood 

0. C Barnes, c Browne, b Healing 82 

K. (t. Mcyrick, not out 

E. L. Wheclor, v Givig, b Browne 

P. Blount, b Deiiham 

P de B. Kadcliffe, b Denbam ... 

M. OT. Tandy, b Healing 

L. K. Sturihoroiigh, c and b Denbam 

K. Kirke. 1» Dcnham 

Extras 



1893. 





Second Inning*. 




i:j 


v Druce, b Healing 


... 2 


<> 


h Dcnham 


... 23 


14 


b Healing 


.. 39 


S2 


c Druce, b Wood ... 


... 7 


17 


c Blundcll, b Healing 


... 29 


41 


e Druce. b Healing... 


... 


14 


c and )) Dcnham 


... 


13 


e Wood, b Healing... 


... 14 


41 


bWood 


... 9 





b Healing 


... 12 





not out 


... 1 


S 


Extras 


... 26 



Total 



.24!) 



Total 



Sandhurst. 
C. E. Bateman -Chamnain, 

b Wigram ... ... 48 not out 

E. P. Thomson, e Tandy, b Kirke 100' 

M. D. Wood, b Wigram 62 

I). H. Blundcll, 1 b w, b Wigram 

0. Druce, not out ... 33 

A. .1. Paine, c Wheeler, b Kirke... 107 not out 
II. A. Denham, c Wheeler, b Kirke 4 

C. O. Greig, not out 26 

Extras 12 



...162 



... 9 



... 7 



Total (0 wickets)* 3US 

* Iimiiiys declared closed. 
AV. J. Lambert, K. K. Healing, H. E. Browne did not hit. 

P. 31. A., 1894. 
Matches played, 17: iron, 6: lost, 10; dran-N, 1. 



16 





Batting Averages. 










Times 




Highest 




Inn. 


not out. 


Runs. 


score. 


W.I, Foster (Capt.) .. 


10 


2 


693 


92* 


E. E. B. Wilson .. 


7 


6 


139 


49 


S. D. Barrow 


11 


2 


159 


30 


B. H. Bignell 


IS 


1 


252 


48 


(i. H. Howell 


20 





218 


47 


E. H. Kooke 


12 


3 


109 


40* 


A. Disney-Boebuek 


14 


1 


118 


26 


A.M. Birch 


10 





80 


22 


F. D. Logan 


10 


2 


73 


15* 


L. K. Stanborough 


22 





149 


40 


K. St. (J. Kirke v 


15 

* Not out 


f> 


83 


20 



Average. 

33-3 

19-8 

14-4 

140 

10-9 

908 

8-4 

8-0 

73 

6-7 

5-5 



C. B. (). Symons also received his first eleven colours. 

A poor team compared with that of 1 893. Foster again made some 
fine scores, including 79, r>6, 70, 82, and 92*. The "Shop" had some 
leather-hunting on May 20th, when the Sappers ran up the highest score 
ever made in the enclosure. After getting the R. M. A. out for 50 



A BIG 8U0HE BY THE SAPPERS. 



245 



(Corporal Bayfield obtaining eight wickets for 18 runs), the R.E. 
made r>30 for eight wickets, E. M. Blair (126), J. E. Hamilton (105), 
M. O'C Tandy (last year's cadet) (80), and Robertson (89) being the 
chief contributors. 

TWENTY-SEVENTH MATCH. 

Sandhurst iron by an innings and 47 rttns f at M'oolicich, June 29th, 1894. 



W 

L. 
B. 
A. 

S. 

(t. 

F. 
E. 
E. 
K. 
E. 



First Innings. 
. L. Eoster, b Healing ... 
K. Stanborough, b Byng 
II. Bignell, c Jones, b Byng ... 
\V. Disney- Roebuck, c Druce, 

hByng 

I). Barrow, b Byng 
L. H. Howell, c Druce, b Byng 

M. Birch, run out 

H. Rooke, c Druce, b Healing 

1). Logan, not out 

St. Ct. Kirke, b Healing 

E. B. Wilson, b Byng 

Extras 



VOOl 


/\VICH. 






Second Innings. 




82 


e Champain, b Browne 


... 38 


3 


c Jones, b Byng 


... 2 





c Druce, b Byng ... 


... 


6 


c and b Byng 


... 4 


10 


c Jones, b Rome 


... 30 


4 


b Browne 


... 47 


22 


b Rome ... 


... 10 





not out 


... 40 


11 


b Browne 


... 2 


1 


c Bircham, b Healing 


... 5 


3 


b Champain 


... 22 


1 


Extras 


... 5 



Total 



...143 



Total 



205 



Sandhurst. 
('. S. Rome, c Logan, b Stanborough ...139 

C. E. Bateman-Champain, c Foster, b Wilson 7 

II. W. Bircham, b Kirke 

A. M. Byng, c Disney-Roebuck, b Kirke 

A. J. Paine, 1 b w, b Howell 

C. Druce, c Logan, b Paine 

F. A. Jones, b Rooko 

R. B. Hope, not out ... 

J. Stewart, b Kirke ... 

H. E. Browne, b Stanborough 
R. K. Healing, <• Howell, b Stanborough 
Extras ... 



Total ... 



12 
... 10 
... 39 
... 16 
... 17 
... 88 
... 16 
... 15 
... 13 
... 23 

...395 



R. M. A., 1895. 
Matches played, 12; won, 4; lost, 6; drawn, 





Batting 


AVBKAQES. 
Timet* 




Highest 






Iiiii. 


not out. 


Kims. 


Hcore. 


Average. 


(i. Howell 


11 


1 


330 


70* 


330 


B. II. I%nell (('apt.) ... 


13 


2 


348 


113* 


31-7 


(J. F. ( 'lav ton 


13 


1 


295 


109* 


246 


II. F. S. Stopford 


13 


1 


252 


76 


21 


J. II. M. HruHk-y 


11 


2 


18S 


48* 


20*9 


O. Tritton 


12 





202 


72 


16-8 


S. I). Ifcurow 


9 





145 


74 


161 


F. I). Logan 


11 


3 


86 


28 


10-7 


11. L. Nevill 


8 


2 


48 


25* 


80 


A. Hindu 


9 


3 


41 


17 


69 


F. F. H.Wilson 


10 





49 


24 


4-9 




' Not out. 









246 



'SHOP" GAMES. 



Bowling Averages. 

A. Hinde .. 

H. L. Nevill 

G. Howell 

E. B. Wilson 

G.F.Clayton 

J. M. Beasley 

The 1895 team did badly on the whole, but there was one exception. 
In the M.C.C. match on July 3rd the visitors ran up 150. With 
Pougher and Needham bowling their best, the " Shop " lost six wickets 
for 8 runs. Then Barrow came in, and, with Tritton, played the 
most brilliant and finished cricket. The runs were knocked off amidst 
great applause, and the " Shop " eventually won by 30 runs. Barrow, 
a left-handed batsman, made 74, and Tritton 72. 



Overs. 


Runs. 


Wickets. 


Average. 


271 


738 


45 


16-4 


78.2 


181 


10 


18-1 


86.4 


262 


12 


21-8 


222.4 


712 


28 


264 


12 


35 


I 


350 


35 


113 


3 


37-6 



TWENTY-EIGHTH MATCH. 



fin 


ndh urst 


won 


by an innings and 195 rvns, 


at Sandhurst, June 28th, 


1895 








Sandhurst. 












C. 


S. Rome, run out ... 




.. 29 








J. 


T. Ferris, run out ... 




.. 








R. 


O'H. Livesay, b Beasley .. 




..169 








K 


Wigram, c and b Hinde 




.. 43 








A. 


M. Byng, not out ... 




.. 87 








H 


W. Bireham, c Stopford, b Wilson 


.. 13 








F. 


A. Jones, not out ... 

Extras 




.. 89 
.. 7 





Total (5 wickets)* 437 

* Innings declared closed. 
G. Ames, W. W. Van Someren, F. L. Festing, K. E. Money did not bat. 



First Innings. 
B. H. Bignell, c Ferris, b Byng .. 
G. F. Clayton, c Festing, b Byng 
H. F. Stopford, c Ferris, b Byng 
O. Tritton. c Bireham, b Byng 
G. L. Howell, c Ferris, b Rome 
J. H. Beasley, run out 
F. D. Logan, c Byng, b Rome 
S. D. Barrow, b Byng 
H. L. Nevill, bBycg 

A. Hinde, not out 

E. B. Wilson, b Byng 

Extras 

Total 



Wool 


WICH. 






Second Innings. 




. 1 


c Livesay, b Rome ... 


.. 13 





c Bireham, b Byng .. . 


.. 5 





c Jones, b Rome 


.. 


. 8 


b Wigram .. 


.. 32 


1 


c Byng, b Rome 


.. 


. 


c Bireham, b Byng 


.. 29 


. 2 


c and b Rome 


.. 28 


. 12 


c Festing, b Wigram 


.. 34 


. 12 


c Ames, b Wigram 


.. 4 


. 


not out ... 


.. 16 


. 24 


e Livesay, b Rome 


.. 7 


. 


Extras 


.. 14 



60 



Total 



.182 



The most complete victory ever won by Sandhurst. As will be seen 
by a glance at the 1896 score, R. O'H. Livesay (afterwards the Kent 
cricketer and International Kugby player) made a century in both 
R. M. A. and R. M. C. matches that he played in. The victory was, 
however, well merited, as the College team was particularly strong 
with such fine Public School batsmen as Rome, Byng, and Livesay. 



"JOHN" TURNER BEGINS. 



247 



R. M. A., 1896. 
Matches played, 15; icon, 7; /osf, 5; drawn, 3. 



Batting Averages. 





Times 




Highest 




fnn. 


not out. 


Runs. 


score. 


Average. 


19 


4 


847 


78 


567 


19 


3 


323 


61 


203 


13 





231 


76 


17-1 


9 





141 


47 


156 


17 


1 


242 


49 


15-2 


9 


2 


78 


22* 


111 


6 





56 


22 


92 


12 





108 


29 


9-0 


10 


3 


60 


22* 


8-4 


11 





47 


22 


61 


r 


:* 


'r 


•r 


52 


* Not out. 









A. J. Turner 

H. F. Stopford (Capt.)... 

(i. X. Wyatt 

K. (t. Campbell 

A. H. Harrison ... 
\V. (\ K. Twidale 
1\ S. Greig 

J. A. Garstin 

II. C Szczepanski 
(J. H. F. Tailyour 
H. L Xevill 



Also hutted:— M. H. Mahon, 12 inn., 14*4 av. ; J. E. S. Brind, 3 inn., 13 av. 
K. X. Tandy, 8 inn., 9 av. ; C. W. Dalyell, 8 inn., 7*1 a v. 



Bowling Averages. 



Turner 
Dalyell ... 
Tailvour ... 
Xevill ... 
Szczepanski 
Bed well ... 



Overs. 


Maidens. 


Runs. 


Wickets. 


Average. 


355 


79 


827 


67 


12-23 


34 


11 


124 


8 


15-4 


50 


5 


252 


14 


18-0 


240 


46 


657 


26 


25-7 


50 


5 


204 


5 


40-4 


16 


3 


47 


5 


92 



The " Shop " now entered on the Turner epoch. '• F. (i.," the eldest, 
had already passed out (in 1894), but, although a remarkably fine bat, 
had not received his colours. The Turners come of a fine cricketing 
stock ; indeed, their father practically lost his 
lite through the game, lor he was one of the 
team which met such a melancholy fate when the 
P. and (). steamer Bokhara was wrecked on her 
return voyage from Shanghai to Hong Kong. 

"A. J." joined the "Shop" this year, and 
soon established his reputation as a fearless 
batsman with, if necessary, unlimited patience. 
Otherwise the 1*1)0 team was weak, and it was 
rhiefly through 4 * John's" fine j>erformances that 
they won so many matches. The following was 
his record, match by match : 38, and five wickets ; 
•4x, and four wickets ; 53 not out, and six wickets ; 
7h, and five wickets ; 03, and seven wickets ; 50, 
and three wickets ; 58, and two wickets ; 74 and 
-2U, and six wickets; 27 and 1, and no wickets; -21 and 30 not out, 
and 15 wickets. 




A. J. TURN Bit. 



248 



"SHOP" GAM VS. 



TWENTY-NINTH MATCH. 

Sandhurst won by an innings and 14 runs, at Woolwich, June 5th and 6th, 1896. 



First Innings. 

H. F. Stopford, b Gordon 

P. S. Greig, 1 b w, h Grossman . . . 
A. J. Turner, c Festing, b Smith... 
K. G. Campbell, c and b Gordon ... 

G. N. Wyatt, b (Gordon 

A. H. Harrison, c Van Someren, b 

Gordon 

J. A. Garstin, b Smith 

II . C. Szczepanski, b Van Someren 
W. C. Twidale, c Cordon, b Smith. 
H. L. Nevill, c Wilson, b Smith ... 
G. H. F. Tailyour, not out 
Extras 



Woolwich. 

Second Innings. 
..4 b Gordon 

4 c Van Someren. b Gordon.. 
. . 74 st Festing, b Grossman 
.. 11 c Baird, b Crossman 

..7 b Smith 

b 

..Ob Gordon 

5 1 b w, b Crossman 

5 not out 

6 c Wethered, b Crossman .. 

7 b Gordon 
b Gordon 

24 Extras 



12 
7 
29 
14 
15 

6 
2 
3 
3 



1 

20 



Total 



..147 
Sandhurst. 



G. L. Crossman, b Tailyour ... 
M. E. McConaghey, b Tailyour 
R. O'H. Livesay, b Tailyour ... 
C. G. Agnes, st Harrison, b Turner . 
H. L. Wethered, b Turner . . . 
H. H. C. Baird, c Harrison, b Tailyour 
W. W. Van Someren, 1 b w, b Turner 
F. T. D. Wilson, b Turner ... 
F. L. Festing, c Tailyour, b Turner.. 
R. S. Gordon, not out ... 
L. K. Smith, b Turner 
Extras... 



Total 

R. M. A., 1897. 
Matches played, 14 ; icon, 4 ; lost, 2; 
Batting Averages. 



Total 

... 10 

... 3 
...128 

... 5 

... 56 

... 13 

... 15 

... 11 

... 6 

... 11 

... 13 

... 2 

...273 



...112 



drawn, 8. 







Times 




Highest 






Inn. 


not out. 


Runs. 


score. 


Average. 


A. J. Turner 


14 


2 


829 


138* 


69-08 


W. C. E. Twidale 


9 


1 


211 


75* 


26-38 


E N.Tandy 


12 


3 


218 


50* 


24 23 


F. L. Giles 


15 





343 


54 


22-87 


J. A. Garstin (Capt.) ... 


9 


1 


165 


54 


20-63 


A. H. Harrison 


11 


1 


156 


33 


15*6 


P. Sheppard 


7 


1 


92 


36 


15*34 


E. P. Bedwell 


7 


1 


85 


31 


14-17 


J. P. Benn 


8 





100 


45 


12-5 


H. L. Nevill 


5 


3 


19 


11 


9-5 


J. A. D. Langhorne 


10 


1 


79 


21 


8-78 


H. C. Szczepanski 


4 





13 


6 


3-25 



f Not out. 

The cricket book for this year was very badly kept up ; a great 
pity, as Turner performed brilliantly, beat Douglas's average of 663 
made in 1885, and made several centuries. The team did well, though 
rain and high scoring prevented many matches being finished. The 




"JOHN" TURNER CONTINUES. 



249 



M.C.C. were decisively beaten, "A. J." making 121 not out. against 
Pickett, Burns, and other good bowlers. He also won the match against 
Blackheath by playing a fine innings of 88. In the summer vacation 
he played for Essex, came out top of the average list for that county 
with 42' 14 for seventeen innings, and took the eighth place in the All 
England list! He was the first Woolwich Cadet to play in county 
cricket while actually at the Academy. In the following year he played 
for the Gentlemen at the Oval. 

THIKTIETH MATCH. 

Drawn, at Sandhurst, June 18th and 19th, 1897. 

Woolwich. 

First Innings. Second Innings. 

W. C. E. Twidale, c Nisbet, 

1) Shawe ... ... ... 37 

E. V. Bed well, b Baird 16 

A. J. Turner, c and b Shawe ... 14 

F. L. Giles, c Shawe, b Baird ... 
.1. A. Garstin, c McConaghey, 

b Gibb 21 

A. H. Harrison, c Matthews, b Gibb 24 

E. X. Tandy, b Nisbet 33 

P. Shepparu, b Gibb 36 

.1. A. D. Langhorn, b Gibb ... 21 b Baird 

J. 1\ Benn, b Gibb 10 

II. L. Nevill, not out 11 

Extras 18 



not out 
not out 
b Gibb 
b Baird 



c Shawe, b Baird . . 
c Maunsell, b Gibb.. 
c Matthews, b Gibb 



Extras 



75 

21 



29 

4 
9 




13 



Total 



...241 



Sandhurst. 
M. E. McConaghey, b Turner 

H. L. Matthews, b Turner 

H. L. Wethered, run out 

B. C. Gordon Lennox, I) Nevill 

C. B. Maunsell, e Twidal, b Turner ... 

II. H. C. Baird, b Nevill 

G. O. Turnbull, st Garstin, b Turner 
F. L. Nishet, not out 

L\ Shawe, not out 

Extras ... 



Total 



74 
74 
59 
80 

5 
23 

6 
28 
21 
15 



...152 



Total 



...385 



A. H. Dii Boulav 

(i.C. Wheeler "... 

.1. M. Sealv 

\i. C K. I fill ... 

G. K. Yenning ... 

F. L. Giles 

.1. V. Benn 

I 1 . ShepjMtid (Capt.) 

W.S.Luce 

•I. A. I), l^inghorne 

II. Leny 



K. M. 


A., 1898. 








Batting 


AVEKAGIS 

Times 




Highest 




Inn. 


not out. 


Runs. 


score. 


Average 


16 


4 


376 


103 


313 


9 


2 


172 


102 


24-5 


12 


2 


232 


41 


232 


11 





188 


48 


170 


14 


1 


169 


36 


130 


13 





169 


30 


130 


7 





72 


22 


102 


8 





57 


17 


7-1 


12 


1 


69 


42 


72 


7 





42 


35 


6-0 


15 


I 


84 


30 


6*0 



250 



"SHOP" GAMES. 



Bowling Averages. 

Overs. Maidens. 



Runs. 
122 
123 
303 
83 
479 



Wickets. 
15 
14 
30 
5 
20 



Average. 

81 

8-8 
10-1 
166 
239 



Du Boiilay, a fine 



Benn ... 54 11 

Wheeler 76 24 

DuBoulay 121 31 

Luce ... 24 1 

Venning 192 47 

No record has been kept of the 1898 matches, 
all-round athlete, afterwards played for Kent, coming out top of the 
batting averages of that county with 45 runs per innings in 1899, while 
still a Cadet. The thirty-first match was won by Sandhurst at Wool- 
wich, on June 3rd and 4th, 1898, by seven wickets : R. M. A., 88 and 
97 ; li. M. C, 123 and 63 for three wickets. The details have been lost. 

1899. 

THIRTY-SECOND MATCH. 

Sandhurst won by 159 runs, at Sandhurst, June 2nd and 3rd, 1899. 

Woolwich. 



First Innings. 




Second Innings. 




W. M. Turner, c Fisher- Ro we 








b Bailey 


9 


b Stevens 


... 6 


H. W. Atchison, b Wheeler 


37 


runout ... 


... 2 


A. H. Saner, b Poetlethwaite 


45 


b Stevens 


... 11 


A. H. Du Boulay, b Bailey 


74 


c Luther, b Stevens 


... 2 


R. C. R. Hill, b Wheeler 


14 


b Steven 8 ... ... ... 


... 


W. S. Luce, c Yeats- Brown, 








b Postlethwaite 


14 


b Stevens 


... 6 


W. W. Jeli, not out 


30 


b Stevens 


... 9 


J. Curlinir, c Luther, b Bailey 





c and b Bailey 


... 2 


W. H. M. Leny, b Keppel 


3 


b Bailey 


... 8 


M. G. Pollock, b Bailey 


10 


not out 


... 5 


R. Marryat, 1 b w, b Bailey 





c Keppel, b Stevens 


... 2 


Extras 


28 


Extras 


... 3 


Total 


264 


Total 


... 56 


Sandhurst. 




A. C. G. Luther, b Pollock 


10 


c Atchison, b Curling 


... 26 


V. Yeats- Brown, run out 


18 


c Turner, b Atchison 


... 1 


W. B. Bailey, c Marryat, b Pollock 


29 


b Du Boulay 


... 22 


R. A. Bulloch, c Du Boulay, b Atchi- 








son 


35 


c and b Marryat 


... 91 


G. T. Lee, c Turner, b Marryat ... 


23 


c Saner, b Du Boulay 


... 81 


C. V. Fisher-Rowe, lbw/b Du 








Boulay 


17 


c Marryat, b Curling 


... ib 


M. Magniac, b Marryat ... 


10 


b Atchison 


... 21 


F. J. M. Postlethwaite, b Atchison 


11 


c Turner, b Du Boulay . ... 


... 2 


G. C. Wheeler, b Pollock 


3 


c Turner, b Atchison 


... 16 


A. R. Keppel, not out 


5 


not out 


... 


L. M. Stevens, c Turner, b Atchison 


2 


b Du Boulay 


... 


Extras 


12 


Extras 


... 29 



Total 



...175 



Total 



.304 



The " Shop" threw this match away by the most wretched fielding. 
Wheeler is the only man who has ever obtained his cricket and Rugby 
colours both at the 11. M. A. and R. M. C. 




''SHOP 1 ' CRICKET IN '99. 251 

" W. M."— a brother of " A. J." — Turner came into the team this 
year, played some very fine innings, fielded brilliantly throughout 
the season, and made some scores for Essex in the vacation. The team, 
on the whole, was very strong both in batting and bowling, and 
.therefore it is all the greater pity that the score book was lost before 
its records were transferred to the cricket book. Turner and Du 
Boulay were almost dead level in the averages with regard to batting, 
a decimal separating them (the exact figures are not known — about 
38), but Du Boulay was easily at the head of the bowling list. Hill 
captained the team. 



1900. 

THIRTY-THIRD MATCH. 
Drawn, at Woolwich, June 1st and 2nd, 1900. 

Woolwich. 

H. Denison, c Skelton, b Maclear ... ... 5 

S. L. Wace, b Airy 24 

\V. Chambers, b Airy 26 

V. Purcell, c Harris, b Airy ... ... 5 

J. F. P. Thorburn, c Maclear, b Airy .. 37 

G. Cotter, b Harris ... 4 

J. S. S. Clarke, c and b Airy ... ... ... 6 

A. J. G. Bird, c Gilliatt, b Airy 10 

F. Wyatt, not out 21 

G. Master, c Skelton, b Airy 1 

F. Cogan, b Airy 5 

Extras... ... ... 9 

Total ;153 





Sandhikst. 






Firnt Innings. 




Second Innings. 




Ross, c Wyatt, b Purcell ... 


... 6 


c Wace, b Wyatt ... 




... 16 


Underwood, 1 b w, 1) Wyatt 


... 7 


b Denison 




... 26 


Gilliatt, c Master, b Wyatt 


... o 


c Wyatt, b Purcell... 




... 8 


Mallear, b Purcell ... 


... o 


b Denison 




... 46 


Slo^gett, c and b Wyatt ... 


... 40 


not out 




... 42 


Harris, c Cotter, b Purcell 


... 17 


c Master, b Purcell 




... 


Airy, 1) Purcell 


... 16 








Robertson, c (.'numbers, b Purcell . 2 


b Purcell 




... 4 


Wynne Kim b, not out 


... 18 


not out 




... 4 


S. Ri< bardson, st Master, 1) W 


yatt 11 








Skelton, b Denison... 


... 15 


c and b Denison 




... 4 


Kxtras 


... 9 


Extras 




... 13 


Total 


...141 


Total (7 


wickets) 


...163 



•Simp" tSAMKS. 



UriiBY FOOTBALL. 

It has been found impossible to place on record the doings of 
tin* KugLy teams, owing to no record having been kept of their 

achievements. No details have come to 
light of any match with the It. M. C. 
before 1 871)* ; but it is certain that such 
matches were played— and probably won, 
for the u Shop " teams were exceptionally 
strong in the seventies. These encounters 
have, indeed, resulted in many defeats, 
but not in dishonour, for all nave been 
keenly fought. Excuses would avail 
naught— no iwrd* could prove that Sand- 
hurst is not sujierior at " rugger " — but 
prr/iaps a year more in the average age 
does make a difference in the "scrum" ! 

The ''Shop" played on the Barrack 
Field, opposite the It. A. Barracks, until 
188(> (inclusive), and attracted very large 
crowds, as many as three or four thousand 
people often looking on. For many years 
afterwards (until 1897) most of the 
matches were played in Charlton Park, 
but now they take place in the Enclosure 
term uvGHY in*, or on the new "Back Oround." 




It. MA v. 1U.C. 
ItrGBY FOOTBALL. 

ScOKKS. 

Ykak. (Jrocnu. Won hy Woolwich. Sandhurst. 

(iitALS. TRIKS. (jOALN. TRIKH. 



1871) 


Oval 


Draw 














1880 


S 


Sandhurst 





1 


1 


3 


1881 


W 


Draw 














1882 


s 


Sandhurst 








2 


1 


1883 


\v 


Woolwich 





1 








1884 


s 


Sandhurst 





1 


3 


1 


188.3 


w 


Sandhurst 








2 


1 


1886 


s 


Sandhurst 








1 


2 


1887 


w 


Sandhurst 








1 


4 


1888 


s 


Sandhurst 








t 


4 


1 88!) 


w 


Sand hurst 





1 


4 


1 


1S90 


s 


Sandhurst 








3 


4 



* Since writing the above I find that the K. M. A. beat the It. M. C. in '76 
and '78, the '77 match resulting in a draw. The information is on excellent 
authority, but the exact scores are not vouched for, so they arc not given. 



FOOTBALL. 



253 



R.M.A. r. R.M.C. 
RUGBY FOOTBALL. 



Scores. 



Year. 


Ground. 
W 


Won by 
Draw 


Woolwich. 


Sandhurst. 




Goals. 


Tries. 


Goals. 


Tries. 


1891 


i 












1892 


■ s 


Sandhurst 





1 


1 


o 


1893 


AV 


Draw 





o 








1894 


! 8 


Sandhurst 








1 


2 


1895 


W 


Woolwich 





1 








1896 


s 


Sandhurst 


« o 





1 


1 


1897 


w 


Sandhurst 


■ 


1 


2 





1898 


s 


Sandhurst 


1 1 





2 





1899 


w 

1 


Woolwich 


1 


1 










2 


8 


25 


24 



Woolwich won 3, Sandhurst won 14, drawn games 4. 



ASSOCIATION FOOTBALL. 

The history of "soccer" as played at the " Shop " is interesting in 
view of the determined resistance offered to the introduction of the 
game. 

By the " Records of the R. M. A. A.F.C.," 
a book started by C. G. Vereker, one of the 
company officers in 1897, it is found that "the 
pioneers of Association football at the R. M. A. 
were C. M. W. Knight and L. H. Parry, who 
started the game in 1880 in the face of great 
opposition, and in spite of the sarcasms and 
jeers with which it was received." 

The Recreation Committee graciously decided 
on November 18th, 1881, that " there would be 
no objection to the Association team, provided 
the following suggestions were carried out :— 

" 1. The Association team not to be entitled 
to wear the Academy colours. 

" 2. Not to play Sandhurst 

" 3. Not to be called the R. M. A. Association 
Team, but by the name of the gentleman who 
manages or gets it up, such as " Mr. Parry's team.' 1 

" 4. The Rugby team always to have choice 
of days and grounds. 

• 4 5. The Association team not to arrange 
a match with the R.E. until after the Rugby 
game with the R.E. is fixed. 

" 6. That the Rugby card of matches be completed before any Asso- 
ciation games are arranged." 




TIBM ASSOCIATION 
FOOTBALL CUP. 



254 



"SHOP" GAMES. 



A goodly list of conditions indeed ! But, nothing daunted, the 
"soccer" players stuck to their guns. In the following year they 
succeeded in obtaining the title u R. M. A." for their team, and 
introduced the following colours : Harlequin shirt, chocolate and pink, 
with polo cap of same colours. In 1884, 1885, and 1886 attempts were 
made to get a match with Sandhurst, but the committee were inexor- 
able. In 1887, however, the continual "dripping" gave signs of 
wearing away the "stone," and when the now customary proposal 
was put at the meeting of the Recreation Committee the votes were 
equally divided. The Governor, however, decided against the match 
being played. 

The end of the struggle was now near. In 1888 Sandhurst proposed 
a match. The Governor of the " Shop " deferred his decision for some 
time, finally gave way, and the Association team beat Sandhurst 
by a goal to nothing. In the following year the match became a 
recognised institution, and the pink and chocolate gave place to 
the blue, black, and yellow. 

In the seasons of 1892-93 and 1893-94 the "Shop" had magnificent 
teams. In the former season nine matches were won, one lost, and one 
drawn ; 32 goals being scored against 9. The team consisted of R. M. 
Johnson (captain), W. L. Foster, C. C. Barnes, G. P. C. Blount, R. D. 
Grayson, C. Wigram, D. Deane, L. K. Stanborough, H. W. Ravenhill, 
H. M. Cowie, C. St. M. Ingham, B. J. M. Locke, and C. B. O. Symons. 
In 1893-94 ten matches were won and three lost, the team being slightly 
altered. 





R. M. A. r. R. M. C. 






ASSOCIATION FOOTBALL. 






1 Goals. 


Year. 


1 Ground. Won by 






■ r.m.a. 


R.M.C. 


1888 


S Woolwich 1 





1889 


1 S 


Sandhurst 


1 


7 


1890 


i W 


Sandhurst 


1 


3 


1891 


1 s 


Woolwich 


4 


1 


1892 


! w 


Woolwich 4 


1 


1893 


! s 


Woolwich 3 





1894 


w 


Sandhurst , 2 


7 


1895 


S Drawn 1 


1 


1896 


W 


Woolwich j 2 


1 


1897 


1 s 


Sandhurst ' 1 


5 


1898 


1 w 


Woolwich 


5 


1 


1899 


s 


Sandhurst 


1 


5 


Woolwich won 6. Sandhurst won 5. 




Drawn game, 1. 





'SHOP" RACQUETS. 
RACQUETS. 



255 







R. M. A. v. It. M. C. 


RACQUETS. 


Ykar. 

1H79 


1 
Won 

1 BY 

s 


SlNCLES. 


Doubles. 


R.M.A. Representatives. 
A. Cooper-Key. 


Won 

BY 

W 


R. M. A. Representatives. 


A. Cooper-Key, H. Chance. 


1880 


w 


A. Cooper-Key. 


w 


A. Cooper-Key, C. D. King. 


1881 


s 


A. Handley. 


s 


A. Handley, C. Rawnsley. 


1882 


s 


H. Kennedy. 


s 


H. Kennedy, A. d'A. King. 


1883 


s 


II. Bonham-Carter. 


s 


H. Bonham-Carter, M. S. Eyre. 


1884 


s 


W. C. HtMlley. 


s 


W. C. Hedley, F. W. D. Quinton. 


188o 


1 s 


E. McL. Blair. 


w 


E. McL. Blair, F.W.D.Quinton. 


1886 


s 


C. Ainslie. 


s 


C. Ainslie, A. E. S. Griffin. 


1887 


s 


G. V. Davidson. 


s 


G. V. Davidson, A. D. Kirby. 


1888 


i w 


S. H. Sheppard. 


w 


S. H. Sheppard, F. L. Galloway. 


1889 


w 


8. H. Sheppard. 


w 


S. H. Sheppard, P. Maud. 


1890 


! S 


S. F. Gosling. 


w 


S. F. Gosling, J. C. Hankey. 


1891 


8 


J. E. Cairnes. 


s 


S. F. Gosling, J. E. Cairnes. 


1892 


1 s 


C Wigram. 


s 


C. Wigram, J. E. Cairnes. 


1893 


w 


W. L. Foster. 


w 


W. L. Foster, C. Wigram. 


1894 


\v 


W. L. Foster. 


w 


W. L. Foster, H. H. Bignell. 


1895 


s 


R. Oakes. 


s 


K. Oakes, R. Walker. 


189(5 


s 


W. C. E. Twidale. 


s 


W. C. E. Twidale, G. N. Wyatt. 


1897 


w 


W. C. E. Twidale. 


w 


W. C. E. Twidale, J. A. Garstin. 


1898 


s 


J. P. Benn. 


s 


J. P. Benn, J. McQ. Sealey. 


1899 


s 


J. Curling. 


s 


J. Curling, E. E. B. Mackintosh. 


1900 


Nil. 
l.j 


L. B. M. Poller. 
Saxdhi UST. 


Nil. 


L. B. M. Porter, A. J. Ross. 
Sandhurst. 


12 




6 


WoOMYK H. 


9 


Woolwich. 





\. (OOl'EK-KEY. 

I'hutu: \mi.i;,i. lliijh Stmt, Kiu^hxjto 



TERM RACQUETS CT1 



i>5« 



•SIWI'" GAM VS. 



GYMNASTICS. 
The first competition with Sandhurst for the shield presented by the 
National Physical Association took place in 1888. The "Shop" won 
it for the first threw years, hi 1891 the 11. M. C. won, in 1892 the 
R. M. A., and in 1893 the \l. M. C. started a series of four consecutive 
victories. There were no competitions in 1897, 1898, and 1899, and win- 
ning in 19no the "Shop" brought the record tor these events to f> all. 





K.M.A. /*. ll.M.C. GYMNASTICS SHIELD. 



TERM (JYMNAST1CS SHIELD. 



18G< 

1807 
1808 
1861) 



Mi « 
I 
\ 
/ 
\ 
I 
\ 



1870 
1871 



187:1 



1873 



1874 



I 

7«f 



1876 



1877 



June. 

lW. 

.hiuc. 

D«c. 

June. 

1W. 

June. 

Dec. 

June. 

D.c. 

June. 

Feb. 

June. 

Oct. 

Feb. 

June. 

Oct. 

Feb. 

July. 

Fel). 

.July. 

Feb. 

July. 

Fob. 

July. 

I)ec\ 



WIXXERS OF THE 
1). A. Johnston. 
1). St. L. Hill. 
J. P. lingers. 
C. II. Johnston. 
('. II. .Johnston. 
H. Done. 
C. 11. Johnston. 
W. L. Alves. 
\\\ L. Alves. 
It. D'A. Breton. 
H. D'A. Breton. 
J. E. Blaekburn. 
(J. C. Spilsburv. 
C. F. II. Bagot. 
E. (runner. 
G. (\ Spilsburv. 
E. Gunner. 
E. J. G. Boyce. 
E. A. Smith. 
E. J. G. Boyce. 
K. S. Dunsterville. 
K. S. Dunsterville. 
C. T. Robinson. 
C. T. Robinson. 
S. G. D. Smith. 
C T. Robinson. 



GYMNASTICS PRIZE. 



1878 -' 

1879 J 

I 

I 

i 
I 

1882 { 



1880 



1881 



1883 



1881 J 
1885 | 



( 
\ 
I 
\ 

\ 

I 

188.) | 



1880 



is«; 



1888 



April. S. G. D. Smith. 

July. W. E. Kerrich. 

Dee. W. E. Kerrich. 

April, G. 1). Chamier. 

Julv. E. A. Gartside-Tippinge. 

Feb. L 1\ Garden. 

July. T. T. Rowan. 

Feb. C. II. Cowie. 

July. C. E. Salvesen. 

Feb. G. A. S. Stone. 

Julv. 11. Corbvn. 

Feb. X. S. Bertie-Clav. 

July. A. W. Chaldecott. 

Feb. F. Playfair. 

Julv. D. Il.Colnaghi. 

Dec. F. L. Sharp. 

April. M. C. Maunsell. 

Sept. J. G. Baldwin. 

Fel). E. McL. Blair. 

Aug. II. T. Kelsall. 

Feb. E. C. Valient in. 

July. G. F. B. Pike. 

Feb. St. L. M. Moore. 

Feb. II. D. L. Walters. 

July. H. W. Kelsall. 

Feb. G. F. R. Thompson. 

Julv. B. M. Tod-Mercer. 



REVOLVER SHOOTING. 



257 



1890 



1891 



1892 



1893 



1894 



| Feb. 
\ July. 


Hon. H. DO. Gibson. 
H. A. Bovce. 


I Feb. 
( July. 


E. Barnardiston. 
A. C. Kenaedy. 


}Feb. 
\ July. 


G. R. Pridham. 
F. M. Rickird. 


f Feb. 
1 July. 


T. E. Kelsall. 
C. E. Blanford. 


j Feb. 
i Aug. 


F. B. Tillard. 
R. E. Meyricke. 



(Feb. 

1895 \ July. 

( Dec. 

""{ST 

""{IT 

1898 {££• 

I June. 
1899^ Nov. 
! Dec. 



L. St. A. Rose. 

C. O. Place. 
G. H. Rickard. 
H. G. Campbell. 
G. F. Evans. 

D. W. Spiller. 
R. F. A. Hobbs. 
T. E. P. Wickhrfm. 
L. N. F. J. King. 
R. C. Williams. 

E. F. Reinhold. 
J. D. Crowdy. 





R.M.A. v. R.M.C. 




REVOLVER SHOOTING. 




1 j • 


Scores. 


Ykab. 


Rasoe. Won by 

1 




1 
K. M. A. | R. M. C. 


1892 


| W Woolwich 


226 ' 194 


1893 


S Sandhurst 


151 ' 181 


1894 


! W Sandhurst 


158 ! 177 


1895 


S ' Sandhurst 


166 1 167 


1896 


W j Woolwich 


166 150 


1897 


S i Sandhurst 


264 j 294 


1898 


W Woolwich 


355 ! 325 


1899 


S Woolwich 


283 271 


1900 


W Woolwich 


336 ; 295 

1 


Woolwich won 5. Sandhurst won 4. 



1890 
1891 



1892 



1893 



1 89 1 



189.') 



1896 
1897 



1898 



1899 
1900 



BEST 

Julv. 

Feb. 

.July. 

Feb. 

Julv. 

Feb. 

Julv. 

Feb. 

Auk. 

Mar. 

.Julv. 

Dim*. 

June. 

Dee. 

Dim-. 

.June. 

Dec. 

June. 

Der. 

April 

K 



SHOT WITH THE REVOLVER. 
II. Ramsden. 
G. F. Slator. 
A. A. Montgomery. 
W. C. Svinon. 
W. C. S'ymon. 
W. C. Svinon. 
II. T. Russell. 
S. R. Norniand. 
II. (). Mann-. 
A. ('. Rus^el. 
K. E. B. Wilson. 
J. Charteris. 
J. Hayes-Sadler. 
W. K. Harvey. 
R. K. M. Russell. 
C F. Birney. 
(r. A. Fursu. 
F. W. Barron. 
R. M. Powell. 
J. de B. Cowun. K. M 




U. M. 0. 11EVOLVEB 8HIKLD. 



•258 



APPENDIX. 



APPENDIX I. 

MASTER-GENERALS OE THE ORDNANCE, 1741 — 18oo, 

Who Acted as Governors of the Royal Militaby Acadeicy and Captains of 
}The Company of Gentlemen Cadets. 

17-10- 1*2. John, Duke of Montague. 
1742. John, Duke of Argvlo. 
1742 41). John, Duke of Montague. 
1749-55. (Vacant). 

1755 59. Charles*, Duke of Marlborough. 
1759-63. John, Viscount Li gonier. 
1763 72. John, Marquis of Gran by. 
1772-82. George, Viscount Townshend. 
1782-83. Charles, Duke of Richmond, 

K.G. 
1783-84. George, Viscount Townshend. 
1784-95. Charles, Duke of Richmond, 

K.G. 
1795-01. Charles, Marquis Cornwallis, 

K.G. 
1801-06. John, Earl of Chatham, K.G. 
1800-07. Francis, Earl of Moira. 
1807-10. John, Earl of Chatham, K.G. 



1810 19. Henry, Earl Mulgrave. 
1819-27. Arthur, Duke of Wellington, 

K.G., &c. 
1827 28. Henry, Marquis of Anglesea, 

K.G., kc. 
1828-30. W. C, Viscount Beresford, 

K.G., &c. 
1830-34. Sir James Kemp, G.C.B., 

G.C.H. 
1834-35. Sir G. Murray, G.C.B., G.C.H. 
1835 41. R. H., Lord Vivian, G.C.B., 

G.C.H. 
1841 46. Sir G. Murray, G.C.B., G.C.H. 
1 840-52. Henry, Marquis of Anglesea, 

K.G., «S:c. 
1852. Henry, Viscount Hardinge, 

G.C.B. 
1852-55. Fitzroy, Lord Raglan, G.C.B. 



APPENDIX II. 

LIEUTENANT-GOVERNORS OE THE It. M. A. AND GOVERNORS. 



1704 77. Lt.-Col. J. B. Fattison, R.A. 
1777-81. Lt.-Col. Bramham, R.E. 
1781-95. Maj. B. Stehelin, R.A. 
1795-09. Lt.-Col. W. Twiss, R.E. 
1809-20. Lt.-Col. W. Mudge, R.A. 
1820-29. Capt. W. H. Ford, R.E. 
1829 40. Col. T. Drummond, C.B..R.A. 
1840-40. Maj. -Gen. Sir G. Wliitmore, 
K.C.B., R.E. 



1846-51. Col. J. B. Parker, C.B., 

R.A. 
1851-50. Col. G. G. Lewis, C.B., R.E. 
1850 02. Col. E. X. Wilford, R.A. 
1862-07. Maj. -Gen. H. Sandham, R.E. 
1867-09. Maj. -Gen. J. W. Ormsby, 

R.A. 
1869-70. Maj. - Gen. Sir J. Liiitorn 

Simmons, K.C.B., R.E. 



Till" rh'Htjvd to GOVERNORS OE THE R. M. A. 



1870-75. Maj. -Gen. Sir J. Liutoru 

Simmons, K.C.B., R.E. 
1875-80. Maj. -Gen. Sir John M. Adve, 

K.C.B., R.A. 
1880-87. Maj. -Gen. J. F. M. Browne, 

C.B., R.E. 
1887 89. Maj. -Gen. R. Hav, C.B., 

R.A. 



1889-90. Maj. -Gen. Sir Richard Harri- 
son, K.C.B., C.M.G., R.K. 

1890-95. Maj. -Gen. W. Stirling, C.B., 
R.A. 

1895 97. Maj. -Gen. E. O. Hewett, 
C.M.G., R.E. 

1897. Maj. -Gen. F. T. Lloyd, C.B., 
R.A. 



APPENDIX III. 

INSPECTORS OE THE ROYAL MILITARY ACADEMY, 
AND ASSISTANT INSPECTORS (A.I.). 



1772-S3. Capt. G. Smith. 
1782-92. Capt. M. Dorset, 
1792-28. Lt. G. W. Phipps, R.E. 
180C-14. Capt. W. Hall, R.A. (A.I.). 
1814-28. Lt.-Col. (iravatt (A.I.). 
1828-40. Lt.-Col. Gravatt. 
1840-51. Lt.-Col. W. D. Jones. 
1810-52. Capt. .1. Savage (A. I.). 
1851-50. Col. Portlock, R.E. 



1852-54. Capt. Beresford, R.A. (A. I.). 

1854. Capt. P. Maclean, R.A. (A. I.). 

1854-56. Brvt.-Maj.Elwyn,R.A. (A.I.). 

1856-58. Lt.-Col. Elwyn, R.A. 

1856-64. Capt. C. J. Gibb, R.E. (A.I.). 

1858-66. Brvt.-Col. F. A. Yorke, R.E. 

1864-70. Capt. E. J. Bruce, R.A. (A.I.). 

1860 70. Lt.-Col. G. T. Field, R.A. 



CAPTAINS AND LIEUTENANTS. 



259 



Title changed to SECRETARY AND TREASURER. 

1870-77. Brvt.-Maj. E. J. Bruce, R.A. 
1877-84. Lt.-Col. W. D. Marsh, R.E. 
1884-87. Col. A. Harness, C.B., R.A. 

Title changed to ASSISTANT COMMANDANT AND SECRETARY. 



1887-1891. Col. A. Harness, C.B., R.A. 
1891-1895. Col. J. M. Murray, R.A. 



1895-1900. Lt.-Col. F. A. Yorke, R.A, 
1900. Lt.-CoL L. E. Coker, R.A. 



APPENDIX IV. 

Captains, Captain-Lieutenants, and Second -Captains. 



1753 55. Capt. C. Farrington. 1853-55. 

1755-59. Lt.-Col. B. Michelson. 1854-55. 

1759-77. Maj. J. B. Pattison. 1855-58. 

1777-81. Capt. B. Stehelin. 1855. 

1781-83. Capt. VV. Teffer. 1855-56. 

1783 88. Capt. C. F. Scott. , 1856-63. 

1788 94. Capt. M. W. Burslem. 1858-62. 

1794-97. Capt. J. Godfrey. ' 1862-67. 

1797-01. Capt. J. Harris. ; 1862-63. 

1801 06. Capt. J. West. 1863-70. 

1S06-22. Capt. J. West. • 1863-68. 

1806 09. Capt. G. Thomson. ! 1867-73. 

1809 10. 2nd Capt. G. Gomin. > 1868-70. 

1816 17. 2nd Capt. R. H. Ord. , 1873-75. 

1817. 2nd Capt. O. H. Baynes. ' 1875-79. 
1822-37. Brvt. -Lt.-Col. J. B. Parker. 

1837-47. 2nd Capt. R. Buruaby. 1879-81. 

1843-48. 2nd Capt. N. Harrison. 1881-84. 
1847-54. Capt. F. M. Eardley-Wilmot. 

1818 53. 2nd Capt. R. Talbot. 1884-87. 

17">3-lsO<'», t'ojit.-Lifuts. 180«"»-5. r », Seroml-Capta 



Capt. G. Shaw. 

Capt. G. B. Shakespear. 

Capt. G. B. Shakespear. 

Capt. H. Bent. 

Capt. P. D. Margesson.- 

Capt. H. T. Fitz-Hugh. 

Capt. A. W. Williams. 

Brvt. -Maj. E. J. Thring. 

Capt. C. Hunter. 

Capt. O. R. Stokes. 

2nd Capt. C. W. Arbuckle. 

Brvt. -Major G. A. Milman. 

2nd Capt. W. H. McCausland 

Maj. W. A. Fox-Strangway8. 

Brvt.-Lt.-Col. H. T. Arbuth- 
not. 

Maj. T. Van Straubenzee. 

Maj. and Brvt. -Col. A. Har- 
ness, C.B. 

Maj. H. J. O. Walker. 

In*. 1855-87, Captains. 



APPENDIX V. 

ADJUTANTS OF THE R. M. A. 



1802 70. Maj. C. South, R.A. 

1870 71. Lt. O. J. Burgmann, R.A. 

1871 77. Lt. F. Johnson, R.A. 
1877 si. Capt. F. W. Nind, R.A. 



1881 86. Capt. W. E. Hardy, R.A. 
188(>-94. Capt. G. G. Simpson, R.A. 
1894 -99. Capt. A. Handley, R.A. 
1899. Capt. A. E. J. Perkins, R.A. 



APPENDIX VI. 

LIEUTENANTS OF THE CADET COMPANY. 



1753. 


2nd Lt. T. lMko. 


1851 54. 




Lt . -Fireworker J 


1851 53. 




L. Jones. 


1853-54. 
1854 55. 


1783. 


J. l)<!s Ruvynes. 


1854-55. 




J. Barton. 


1855. 




I). Meredith. 


1855 58. 


l8-)5 11. 


('. Crutteiideii. 


1855 58. 


1S08 12. 


J. Walsh. 


, 1855-58. 


1808 11. 


(J. F<*<»t. 


1855 59. 


1808 M. 


S. Wyatt. 
Lt. liardiuge. 


■1858. 


1821. 


• 1858. 


1SJ2. 


H. Ord. 


'1858 60. 
1858 61. 


1819 51. 


Teller. 


1859-61. 


1850 51. 


Biddulph. 


1859. 



H. T. Fitz-Hugh. 


1860-62. 


J. E. Thring. 


1860-61. 


S. Freeling. 


1861 65. 


G. A. Milman. 


1861 62. 


A. H. Murray. 


1861 67. 


G. K. Taylor. 
E. B. P. Turner. 


1861. 


1861. 


W. L. Yonge. 


1861-65. 


T. A. J. Harrison. 


1862. 


J. L. Clarke. 


1862 64. 


A. H. Hutchinson. 


1862-66. 


M. F. Downes. 


1862 64. 


J. Han well. 


18W-65. 


('. I). Gilmour. 


1864-67. 


G. E. Blackwell. 


1865 67. 


L. Griffiths. 


1866 71. 



H. C. Farrell. 
G. A. Crawford. 
H. C. Lewes. 
O. H. Goodenough. 

E. W. Sandys. 
(.-. Hunter. 

R. Pope. 
H. Munro. 
T. P. Berthou. 
J. C. Taylor. 
S. Dunlop. 
H. Brackenbury. 
A. S. Macartney. 
J. A. Tillard; 
P. R. Lempriere. 

F. Johnson. 



260 



APPENDIX. 



18(57-71. 

1807 68. 
1867-70. 

1808 72. 
1871 72. 
1871-7-"). 
1872-73. 
1872-70. 
1873-7-). 

187')- 70. 
1875-79. 
1875-80. 



1867-72. 
1872-7.). 
1875-80. 
1880 86. 



A. B. Cunningham. 

A. J. La vie. 

G. J. Burgoyne. 
C. Greer. 

B. V. Arlmokle. 
C Souper. 

F. Roberts. 

G. T. Pretyman. 
F. A. G. Cruick- 

shank. 
H. S. Murray. 
8. P. F. Freeth. 
E.G. H. Bingham. 



1870-81. 
1870 81. 
1880-81. 
1881 83. 
1881-83. 
1881-84. 
1883-8."). 
1883-80. 
1884-80. 
188.) 88. 

1888-00. 
1880-01. 



A. H. Callwell. 
H. C. C. Walker. 
W. E. Hanlv. 
It. Wvnyard. 
H. (V'B. Owen. 
R. A. M. Henn. 
J. C. Murston. 
C. D. King. 
W. M. T. Synge. 
A.McN.C. Cooper- 
Key. 
A. J. Breakey. 
A. C. Currie. 



1880. 

1800-02. 

1800-02. 

1801-05. 

1802-06. 

1802-00. 

1805-08. 

1896-99. 

1808-00. 

1800. 

1800. 

1000. 



H. E. Stanton. 
R. P. Benson. 
H. St G. Ross. 

F. H. Young. 

A. E. J. Perkins. 
H. Coningham. 
H. B. Roberts. 
C. G. Vereker. 
J. G. Austin. 
W. Ellershaw. 

G. P. C. Blount. 
K. D. Hutchison. 



APPENDIX VII. 

sriWEOXS OF THE It. M. A. 

Surg.-Maj. E. S. Protheroe. ■ 1886-80. Surg.-Maj. J. W. Maxham, 
Surg. -Maj. S. H. Fasson, M.D. j 
Surg.-Maj. E. H. Roberts. 
Surg.-Maj. G. J. H. Evatt 
M.D. 



rg.-Ma 

kD. 

1880 00. Surg.-Maj. Walker (h.p.). 
1800 (to date). Surg. -Lt. -Col. G-asteen 
(h.p.). 



APPENDIX VIII. 

CUAVLAIXS AXI) IXSTltrCTORS IX CLASSICS. 



1764-00. 
1806-30 
1847-70. 



Rev. W. Greeu. 
(r). Rev. Dr. Watson. 
Rev. A. I). Fraser. 



1870-75. Rev. W. F. Short, M.A. 
1875 87. Rev. J. Bond, M.A. 

(Office alK)lished 1887.) 



APPENDIX IX. 



THE MATHEMATICS ST. 

; 1847- 
\ 1848 
| 1855- 



1741-43. — Derham, Esq. (P.). 
1743 61. T. Simpson, Esq. (r.). 
1761 73. J. L. Cowley, Esq. (P.). 
1764-00. Rev. W. Green. 
1773 07. C. Ilutton, Esq. (P.). 
1782-07. .T. Bonnvcastle, I^sq. 
1700-02. Rev. L. Evans. 
1802. T. Evans, Esq. 
1803-21. O. Gregorv, Esq. 
1806-38. S. II. Christie, Esq. 
1806-23. T. Myers, Esq. 
1800-47. T. Barlow, Esq. 
1800-12 (V). W. Moore, Esq. 
1807-21. J. Bonnvcastle, Esq. (P.). 
1807-00 (*r). W. Saint, Esq. 
1807-12 ('r). Rev. L. Evans. 
1821-38. Dr. (). Gregoiy (P.). 
1830-(r). Lt. Pickering, R.A. 
1831-31. T. Myers, Esq. 
1834. G. Harvey, Esq. 
1834-55. T. S. Da vies, Esq. 
1837-65. J. R. Christie, Esq. 
1838-04. — Rutherford, Esq. 
1838-55. S. H. Christie, Esq. (P.). 
1838. — Jeans, Esq. 
1830. J. Xewmarsh, Esq. 
1840-60. J. F. Heather, Esq. 
1841. S. Fenwick, Esq. 
1841-71. Rev. G. Y. Boddy. 



1855- 
I 1861. 

1864- 

I 1870- 

1 1870- 

i 1871- 

' 1872- 

1 1873- 

I 1873- 

■ 1876- 

i 1882- 

I 1884 

I 1884 
i 1886 

; 1888. 
1889 

1801 

1806- 
1808- 
1800 
! 1000. 
\) Professor. 



IFF, It. M. A. 

72. W. Racster, Esq. 

01. ,T. Anderson, Esq. 

70. J. Svlvester, Esq. (P.). 

58. Rev" F. W. Vinter, M.A. 

T. M. Goodeve, Esq., M.A. 
(P. Mechanics). 
70. M. W. Crofton, Esq., M.A. 
-73. Capt. W. H. Wardell, R.A. 
-84. M.W.Crofton,Esq.,M.A. (P.). 
-73. J. McLeod, Esq. 
-76. Lt. E. Kensington, R.A. 
-06. E. F. S. Tylecotc, Esq., M.A. 
84. H. Hart, Esq., M.A. 
-82. Lt. G. C. Wynne, R.A. 
-80. Capt. P. A. MacMahon, K.A. 
(to present time). H. Hart, Esq., 

M.A. (P.). 
01. Capt. F. W. Boteler, R.A. 
(to present time) . W. Foord-Kelce y, 
Esq., B.A. 
W. E. Davey, Esq. 
(to present time). E. Brooksmith, 

Esq., B.A., LL.M. 
(to present time). C. S. Jackson, 

Esq., B.A. 
98. W. E. Brunyate, Esq^ M.A. 
00. E. W. Barnes, Esq., B.A. 
00. G. R. Routh, Esq., M.A. 
R. M. Milne, Esq., M.A. 



FORTIFICATION AND ARTILLERY. 



261 



APPENDIX X. 

THE FORTIFICATION A XI) GEOMETRICAL DRAWING STAFF. 



1741 


()(). 


1766 


1 7. 
1 ■; 


1777 
1 789 


It). 

92. 


1792 


16. 


181)6- 


10. 


1N16 


•>-, 


1S16- 


41. 


1817. 




1S25- 


28. 


1S2S. 




1S2S 


3.'). 


IS 29- 


-35. 


188.') 


44. 


is: J.') 


3S. 


1SI5S 


41. 


lsio. 




1841. 




1841 


-4."). 


1841- 


4(1. 


1844. 




1S4-1 


70. 


1814 


55. 


184.') 


55. 


184(1 


47. 


1817. 




1 8 50 


55. 


1S52 


.-).-). 


ls.52 


55. 


1 855 


62. 


IS.*)/) 


;>(;. 


18.V). 




ls.'x; 


62. 


1S56 


67. 


Is.Vi. 




1*56 


."iS. 


is:.s 


67. 


1 S.-)S 


• •7. 


1S61 


7<>. 


lsr.i. 




IStil. 




ls.,1 


(>'). 


is»;i 


7<». 


istil 


•12. 


IStil 


.;" 



J. Muller, Esq. 1 1862-67. 

A. Pollock, Esq. J 

Mons. I. Laudmauu (P.). j 1862-6.). 

Mons. Rouviere. ( 1867-70. 

Herr C. Bluraeuheben. : 1867. 

Mons. C. M. de Malortie. j 1867-73. 

Mons. C. M. de Malortie (P.). 1867-70. 

D. Robinson, Esq.* j 1867. 

J. Ritso, Esq. 1867-73. 

Capt. Michell, R.E. (P.) 1870-76. 

Capt. Dubourdieu, Hanoverian I 

Engineers (P.). 1870-71. 

Capt. Macaulay, R.E. (P.) 1872-76. 

Lt. H. O'Brien, RvA. 1873-80. 

Lt. H. O'Brien, R.A. (P.). j 1873-81. 

Lt. Harness, R.E. ! 1876-83. 

Lt. R. C. Moody, R.E. 1876-83. 

Capt. Wilford, R.A. 1876-82. 

T. Bradley, Esq.* 1880-8.'). 

2nd Capt. J. Gore, R.A. 1881-84. 
Lt. H. Stace, R.A. 

Capt. Harness, R.E. (P.) 1882-85. 

G. S. Pritchard, Esq.* | 1883-90. 

Capt. J. Williams, RE. (P.). 1883-88. 

Lt. Bainbrigge, R.E. 1884-92. 

Lt. J. L. A. Simmons, R.E. 1885-89. 

Lt. Boxer, R.A. 1885. 

\V. Grain, Esq. * i 1885-92. 

Capt. H. Y. D. Scott, R.E. 1888-90. 

Capt. .7. Stokes, R.E. 1889-93. 

Capt. Bainbrigge, R.E. (P.). 1890-93. 

Capt. C R. Bi:mey, R.E.* 1890-96. 

( 'apt. E. Palmer, R.E. 1892-98. 

( apt. C. H. Hutchinson, R.E. 1892-97. 
Capt. .1. Wilson. R.E. 

Lt. T. A. H. Pitt, R.A.* 1893-00. 

Lt. C. J. Darrah, R.E.* 18M-97. 

Capt. J. G. Jcrvois, R.E. 1896-99. 
Capt. A. W. DruVHon, R.A. 

Brvt.-Ma j., W.J. Stewart, R.E. 1897. 

Capt. J. E. Comes, R.E. 1897 00. 

Capt. G. A. Crawford, R.A. 1898. 

G. B. Moore. Esq.* 1899. 

T. Bradley, Esq.* 1900. 

Capt. *:. ('). Hewett, R.E. 1900. 
Capt. C. E. Webber, R.E. 

* (»«•<> trical thawing only. (1\ 



(P-). 



Capt. C. H. Hutchinson, R.E. 

(P.). 
Capt. J. H. Smith, R.E. 
Capt. J. Wilson, R.E. (P.). 
Capt. C. N. Martin, R.E. 
Capt. E. L. Bland, R.E. 
Capt. F.E.Pratt, R.E. 
Lt. W. H.Collins, R.E. 
2nd Capt. H. C. F. Lewin, R.E. 
Brvt.-maj. W. J. Stewart, 

R.E. (P.). 
F. Bradley, Esq. 
Lt. E. M. Lloyd, R.E. 
Lt, J. Gore- Booth, R.E. 
Lt. J. W. Savage, R.E. 
Capt. E. M. Lloyd, R.E. 
Capt. W. G. Ross, R.E. 
Capt. A. C. Ward, R.E. 
Capt. J. Matheson, R.E. 
Capt. H. W. Renny-Tailyour, 

R F 
Maj.J.T. Marsh, R.E. 
Maj. W. G. Ross, R.E. (r.). 
Lt. C. W. Sherrard, R.E. 
Lt. S. D. Cleeve, R.E. 
Lt. L. C. Jackson, R.E. 
Lt. J. H. Cowan, R.E. 
Capt. R. P. Leach, R.A. 
Capt. W. H. Chippindall, R.E. 
Capt. W. D. Conner, R.E. 
Maj. M. H. Purcell, R.E. (P.). 
Capt. J. E. Edmonds, R.E. 
Capt. A. Grant, R.E. 
Capt. H. L. C. H. Stafford, 

R.E. 
Maj. W. I). Conner, R.E. (P.). 
Maj. H. J. Brownrigg, R.E. 
Capt. E. II . de V. Atkinson, 

R.E. 
Lt. F. G. Guggisberg, R.E. 
('apt. B. R. Ward, R.E. 
Capt. E. McL. Blair, R.E. 
('apt. A. J. Pilcher, R.E. 
Maj. B. R. Ward, R.E. (P.). 
Capt. E. H. W. H. Stafford, 

R.E. 



APPKNDIX XI. 

THE ARTILLERY STAFF OF THE R. M. A. 



1711 


66. J. Muller, Esq. (P.). 


1847-51. 


Capt. J. Travers. 


1766 


77. A. Pollock, Esq. (p.). 


1851-52. 


Capt. J. Travers (P.). 


1777 


16. Mons. I. Landmanu (p.). 


1851 52. 


Capt. E. M. Boxer. 






1852 .54. 


Capt. E. M. Boxer (P.). 


1S_'] 


22. lit. Hardinge. 


1852-54. 


('apt. E. M. Bent. 


1VJ2 


11. Capt. H. Ord. 


1854 58. 


Lt. C. F. Young. 


IMi 


13. Capt. Wilford. 


1854-56. 


Lt. R. W. Haig. 


1M.J 


1 1. Capt. Townseud. 


1856-58. 


Brvt.-Maj. C. H. Owen. 


is II 


16. 2nd Capt. St. George. 
51. Capt. W. M. Dixon (P.). 


18.57. 


Lt. W. L. Yonge. 
Brvt.-Mai. C. ft. Owen (P.) 


1M6 


1858-73. 



1858. 
1800-03. 
18(50 01. 
18(53 73. 

1803 70. 

1804 (IS. 
18(54. 
1868 70. 
1873-80. 
1873 7!». 
1873 -75. 
1875 81. 
1879-80. 

1880 87. 
1880-88. 
1881-81. 

1881 91. 



( 'apt. T 
(apt. T 
Capt. C. 
Capt. ( ). 
( 'apt. H 
Capt. H. 
<'apt. T. 
( 'apt. W 
('apt. K. 
Lt. H. ( 
Lt.-Col. 
('apt. J. 
( 'apt. C. 
('apt. fi. 
('apt. K, 
Maj. ir. 
Maj. E. 



APPKKDIX. 


. L. Da vies. 


1S87 91. 


. C. Molony. 


1887 03. 


. B. Brackcnburv. 


1888 95. 


. H. Goodmougli. 


1801-0."). 


. W. Briscoe. 


1801-03. 


. Brarkenbury. 


1803-08. 


. L. Dames. 


1803 00. 


'. H. Wardell. 


180.") -08. 


. Walkey. 


180;") 00. 


ioarv. 


1808-00. 


F. Close (1».). 


180S. 


Sladen (P.). 


1800. 


. J onos. 


1800. 


. Mackinlav. 


1800. 


. S. Watson. 


1000. 


W. Kemuiis (P.). 


1000. 


Kensington (P.). 





Capt. J. Shiffner. 
Capt. F. A. Curteis. 
Capt. G.J. F.Talbot. 
Capt. A. M. C. Dale. 
Maj. G. H. Palmer (P.). 
Maj. F. A. Curteis (P.). 
Capt. F. H. Crampton. 
Capt. S. B. Von Doiiop. 
Capt. C. C. Sankey. 
Maj. S. B. Von Donop (P.). 
Capt. R. P. Benson. 
Lieut. W. E. Mauley. 
Capt. A. M. Tyler. 
Capt. A. C. Williams. 
Maj. F. H. Crampton (P.). 
Capt. G. S. B. Lvle. 



APPENDIX XII. 

THE MILITARY TOPOGRAPHY STAFF OF THE R. M. A. 



183(5-43. Lt. Robe, R.A. (P.). 1883-80. 

1836 -30. Lt. W. M. Smith, R.A. 

1839-11. J. Bri^s, Esq. 

1840-43. Capt. Wilford, R.A. 

1843 52. Capt. Stotherd, R.E. (P.). 

1844-48. C. Dawson, Esq. 

1847 40. Lt. F. Travels, R.A. 

1848-65. Capt. J. Gore, R.A. 

1849 52. Lt. H. Y. D. Scott, R.E. 

1852 55. Capt. H. Y. D. Scott, R.E. (P.). 

1852 5.). Lt. J. Stokes, R.E. 

180;"). ('apt. E. Palmer, R.E. 

1855-67. Capt. C. R. Binney, R.E. (P.). 

1858-67. Capt. A. W. Drayson, R.A. 

1801-73. Lt. G. A. Crawford, R.A. 

1861-02. Capt. E. O. Hewett, R.E. 

1861 07. Captain C. E. Webber, R.E. 

1863-70. 2nd Capt. A. H. Hutchinson, 

R.A. 
1867-70. Lt. E. Pratt, R.E. 
1867-73. Capt, AW. Drayson, R A. (P.). 
1867- 71. Lt. W. H. Collins, R.E. 
1870-76. Lt. W. Everett, 33rd Foot. 
1871-74. Lt. M. F. Omnianney, R.E. 
1873-77. Lt. F. Roberts, R.A. 
1873-77. Maj. W. D. Marsh, R.E. (P.) 
1874-75. Capt. T. Fraser, R.E. 
1875 79. Lt. R. C. T. Hildvard, R.E. 
187(5-83. Lt. A. G. Walker, R.A. 
1877 85. Capt. F. Roberts, R.A. (P.). 
1877 83. Capt. V. F. Rowe, R.E. i 

1879 83. Capt. W. St. G. Burke, R.E. ■ 1900. 



1883 


85. 


1883- 


90. 


1885 


91. 


1885. 




1885- 


-91. 


1886- 


-92. 


1886- 


88. 


1888 01. 


1800 98. 


1801 


95. 


1801. 




1891-94. 


1892- 


-97. 


1892 


99. 


1894- 


-99. 


1895- 


-00. 


1807- 


99. 


1898-00. 


1899. 




1899. 




1899. 




1899. 




1900 





Capt. H. H. Crookenden, 

R.A. 
Lt. C. Penrose, R.E. 
Lt. R. C. Foster, R.E. 
Maj. F. Maseall, R.E. (P.). 
Capt. M. W. P. Block, R.A. 
Capt. E. S. May, R.A. 
Lt. E. A. Gartside-Tippinge, 

R.A. 
Capt. A. H. W. Brett, R.A. 
Capt. C. E. H. Heyman, R.A. 
Capt. W. P. St. B. Bunbury, 

Capt.E'. S. May, R.A. (P.). 
Capt. J. W. Dawkins, R.A. 
Capt. C. P. Triscott, D.S.O., 

R.A. 
Capt. A. Crawford, R.A. 
Capt. A. B. Denne, R.A. 
Maj. J. W. Sill, R.E. 
Lt.-Col. L. G. Fawkes, R.A. 

(r.). 

Capt. E. M. Perceval, R.A. 
Maj. J. F. Dnniells, R.M.L.I. 
Capt. F. H. Young, R.A. 
Capt. R. S. Stewart, 2nd 

King's Regt. 
Capt, J. M. Rose, R.M.A. 
Lt. R. F. Jelley, R.E. 
Maj. J. F. Daniells, R. M.L.I. 

(P.). 
Capt. H. Couingham, R.A. 



APPENDIX XIII. 

THE MILITARY HISTORY AND TACTICS STAFFS OF THE R. M.A. 



1867-70. Brvt.-Col. J. Miller, V.C., 

R.A. (P.). 
1870-74. Capt.H.Brackenbury,R.A.(P.). 
1874 79. Lt. E. Clayton, R.A. (P.). 
1879-89. Capt. S. C. Pratt, R.A. (P.). 
1889. Capt. E. S. Mav, R.A. 



1889. Capt. R. P. Leach, R.A. 
1889-97. Lt.-Col.H.D.Dunlop,R.A.(P.V 
1892-93. Capt.W.P.St.B.Bimbury, R.A. 
1892-93. Capt. A. M. C. Dale, R.A. 
1897. Maj. B. St. J. Barter, p.s.c. 
2nd Lincoln Regt. (P.). 



LANGUAGES AND DRAWING. 



263 



174:$ 


58. 


17')S 


91. 


1791- 


24. 


170:i- 


94. 


1794- 


-9.'). 


1795- 


CD 


1800-12 


1821- 


29. 


1829- 


-55. 


18W- 


-02 


1S40 


70. 


1841- 


70 


1855 


(V.) 


1855 


70 


18.V) 


58. 


18.V) 


50 


1855 


00 



APPENDIX XIV. 

THE FOREIGN LANGUAGES STAFF OF THE R. M. A. 

Moiis. Abel Cassel (F., P.). 

Mons. F. Hugonin (F., P.). 

Mons. L. Catty (F., P.). 

Mons. De Can (F.). 

Mons. D. Jolly (F.Y 
, Mons. C. Fabrier (F.). 
Or). Mons. C. Wharin (F.). 

Mons. S. Pasquier (F., P.). 

Mons. Tasche (F., P.). 

Herr Troppaneger (G., P.). 

Mons. A. Lovev (F.). 

Herr C. A. Feiliug (G.). 

Herr G. Soiling (G.). 

Herr F. Schlutter (G.). 

Mons. A. D. Charente (F.,P.). 

Mons. L. Stievenard (F.). 

Mons. P. Banvre (F.). 

(P.) Professor. (G.) German. 



1 1856. Mons. E. Benoit (FA 

! 1858-79. Mons. T. Karcher (F., P.). 

i 1860-70. Mons. E. Valentin. 

1861-69. Maj. K. Robertson (H., P.). 
' 1861-65. Cotton Mather, Esq. (H.). 

1862-83. Herr C. H. Schaible (G., P.). 

1863-65. Dr. Althaus (G.). 

1879. Mons. A. Banvre (F., P.). 

1879. Capt. H. Frauce (F.). 

188H-94. Dr. F. Lange, Ph.D. (G., P.). 

1883-94. Dr. A. Weiss (G.). 
j 1886-87. Mons. E. Vassellier (F.). 
I 1887. Capt. R. De Villiers (F.). 
I 1889. Dr. K. Neuhaus (G.). 
i 1894. Dr. A. Weiss (G., P.). 
! 1897. Mons. H. Testard (F.). 

(F.) French. (H.) Hindustani. 



APPENDIX XV. 

THE LANDSCAPE DRAWING STAFF OF THE R. M. A. 



17*1 
1708 
17S2 
1793 
(r 
1797 
1804, 
1806 
1811 
1828 



08. G. Massiot, Esq. (P.). 
97. Paul Sandbv, Esq. (P.). 
93. R. Davey, Esq. 
15 (r) J. Barney, Esq. 
) T. Peckham, Sen., Esq. 
2S. T. Sanby, Esq. (P.). 

R. Shipster, Esq. 
-14 (:)T. Compton, Esq. 

T. Peckham, Jun., Esq. 
38. T. Fielding, Esq. (P.). 



1838-64. J. Bridges, Esq. (P.). 

1841-70. G. B. Campion, Esq. 

1861-70. A. Penley, Esq. 

1861-65. J. Callow, Esq. 
' 1870-87. W. Clifton, Esq. (P.). 

1886. J. B. Jumeson, Esq. 
j 1887-90. W. Paris, Esq. (P.). 

1889. G. E. Corner, Esq. 

1890. Lt.-Col. D. T. C. Belgrave, 

R.W.K. Regt. (P.). 



90. 



17ss- 
17*!- 
1790-91. 
1801 29. 
1S29->S. 
1829 10. 
1S40 IS. 



APPENDIX XVI. 

THE CHEMISTRY STAFF OF THE R. M. A. 



Dr. A. Crawford (P.) 
Cruickshanks, Esq. 
- Cruickshanks, Esq. (P.) 
Dr. M'CulIoch (P.). 
Prof. M.Faraday (P.). 

— Marsh, Esq. 

— Tozer, Esq. 



1848-68. J. Tennant, Esq. 
1858-82. Prof. C. F. Bloxam (P.). 
1882-00. Dr. W. R. E. Hodgkinson, 

Ph.D. (P.) 
1889. J. Young, Esq. 
1900. T. M. Wyatt, Esq. 



APPENDIX XVII. 



189:: 00. ( 
is u. Lt 



THE ELECTRICITY 
tpt. W. P. Brett, R.E.* 



STAFF OF 'THE R. M. A. 

I 1898. Capt. M. B. Lloyd, R.A. 
M. C. MuuiMell, U.A. j 1899. Lt. F. M. Close, R.E. 

' Appoint^! PniffMitor of Experimental Science, Woo. 



APPENDIX XVIII. 

HISTORY AND GEOGRAPHY STAFF. 



ls:n 11. Lt. Wilford, R.A. 

is 11 13. ('apt. W. Montague, R.A. 



1843-45. 2nd Capt. Gore, R.A. 
1845-56. Rev. G. Y. Boddy. 



264 



APPESDTX. 



APPENDIX XIX. 

THE COURSE IX 1741. 
Whereas, the Kind's Most Kxcellent Majesty, by His Warrants, bearing Date the 30th day 
of April, . mimI the 1Mb day of Novemlier, 1741, hath been graciously pleased to authorise and 
direct that an Academy or Sclionl shall lie instituted, endowed, and supported for instructing 
the jieople lielonging to the Military Branch of the Ordnance in the. several parts of Mathe- 
matics necessary to qualify them for the service of the Artillery and the business of the 
F.ngineers ; the said Academy or School to 1m- subject to such Rules, Orders, and Regulations, 
as the Master-General of the Ordnance shall think tit and expedient for the good Government 
thereof: and that the expellee for supporting the said Academy or School shall not exceed One 
Thousand Pounds per annum, ('minium Huts Ann is. 

IT IS ORDKRKD 
that the underwritten Rules and Orders be duly observed and obeyed by all ]>ersons whatso- 
ever whom they may concern : — 



I. That an Academy or School shall forth- 
with be established and ope mil at the Warren 
at. Woolwich in Kent, for instructing the 
people of the Military branch of the Ord- 
nance, wherein shall be taught, l>oth in 
Theory and Practice, whatever may be 
necessary or useful to form good Officers of 
Artillery and j>erfect. Engineers. 

II. That the said School or Academy shall 
l»e held every day in the Week, Sundays and 
Holidays excepted, and except all such times 
as the Master-General of the Ordnance, or, in 
his absence, the Lieutenant-! Jeneral and prin- 
cipal Officers of the same, shall think lit 
to direct the discontinuance of these daily 
Exercises. 

III. That there shall lie two Masters; a 

DIRECTIONS FOR TEA( 

V. That the Lectures of the Masters in 
Theory shall lie duly attended by the 

Practitioner Engineers, 

Officers, 

Serjeants, 

Corporals, and 

Cadets 
And also all such Bombardiers, Miners, Pon- 
toonmen, Mattrosses, and others of the said 
Rcgimei-t as have a Capacity and Inclination 
to the same. 

VI. That all Practitioner Engineers, 
officers, and others, who are to have the 
benefit of these Lectures shall be constant in 
their daily attendance, 

Shall behave decently and regularly during 
the same, 

And shall take down in writimr, for their 
further Improvement, such Instructions as 
shall be given to them by the several 
Masters. 

VII. That a Captain or Lieutenant of the 
Royal Regiment of Artillery shall constantly 
attend during the Lectures," to keep order anil 
see that the several Learners are regular and 
mindful of the Instructions given them. 

VIII. That the second Master shall teach 
the Science of Arithmetic, together with the 
principles of Algebra and the Elements of 



J of the Royal 
' Regiment of 
i' Artillerynot 
) upon Duty ; 



Chief Master, who shall be allowed a yearly 
Salary of Two Hundred Pounds ; and a second 
Master, who shall be allowed a yearly Salary 
of One Hundred Pounds ; both which shall 
be employed three days in the week in teach- 
ing the Practice of their Art. 

IV. The School of the Chief Master to 
open at Eight of the Clock in the Morning in 
Summer, 

At Nine in Winter, 

And to continue three hours each Day ; 

The School of the second Master to open at 
three in the afternoon, 

And to continue likewise three hours each 
Day. 

Both Masters shall hold their Schools for 
Theory on the same Days of the Week. 

fflXU THE THEORY. 

Geometry, under the direction of the Chief 
Master. 

IX. That the Chief Master- shall further 
instruct his hearers in Trigonometry and the 
Elements of the Conick Sections, 

To which he shall add the Principles of 
Practical Geometry and Mechanics, applied 
to raising and transporting great Burthens ; 

With the Knowledge of Mensuration, and 
Levelling, and its Application to the bringing 
of Water or the draining of Morasses ; 

And lastly, shall teach Fortification in all 
its parts, 

With the Manner of attacking and defending 
Places, 

The Use, Conduct, and Direction of Mines, 

With the Doctrine of Projectiles so as to 
apply them to Gunnery. 

He shall also teach his Hearers the Names 
of the several Pieces of ( >rdnance, 

1 heir Dimensions, 

As likewise the Dimensions and Names of 
their Carriages, and other Warlike Engines, 

The Composition of the Metal of which 
Ordnance is made ; 

The Composition of Gunpowder, 

And the several soits of Fireworks. 

In general he shall teach whatever is ■ 
necessary to make a com pleat Officer of 
Artillery, or a com pleat Engineer. 



DIRECTIONS FOR TEAC 
X. That on the other three Days of the 
Week, Lectures shall be read and instruc- 
tions given on the several Practical parts of 
Gunnery ; 

At which Lectures shall attend not only the 
Office] s, Serjeants, Corporals, and Cadets; 
but also the Bombardiers, Gunners, and 
others in general belonging to the Regiment 
of Artillery, and not otherwise employed on 



HING THE PRACTICE. 

1 )uty, under t he Direct ion of the Commanding- 
Officer of the Artillery at Woolwich, who shall 
see that every one performs such part of Duty 
as shall be assigned him. 

These Lectures to liegin at six of the Clock 
in the Morning in Summer, and at Eight in 
Winter, and to be continued at least fonx 
hours each Day. 

XI. That the Learners shall be taught, in 



THE ORIGINAL COURSE. 



265 



particular, the Manner of serving and firing 
all sorts of pieces of Artillery, whether de- 
signed for the throwing of Shells, Stones, 
Grenades, or Balls; 

Also shall be shewn the use and construc- 
tion of all the Instruments used for pointing 
or levelling of great Guns ; 

And be exercised in hitting of Marks, 
whether point Blank, or at any Degree of 
Elevation. 

XII. That the Learners shall also be in- 
structed and properly employed in raising 
and forming all sorts of Batteries, 

Id the mounting or dismounting the 
Mortars, or Guns designed for the same, and 
in serving them with their proper Ammunition 
and Stores ; 

All which they shall be taught and directed 
t'» perform with the same Care and Precau- 
tions as are use 1 in real War. 

XII I. That the Learners shall at other 
times be taught and exercised in the tracing, 
opening, and sinking of Trenches and Saps, 

Wherein those who begin the Work shall 
constantly be shewn and directed how to 
cover themselves with Fascines, Gabions, 
and Mantelets ; 

Shall be made to place the Gabions, and 
raise them handily, and execute all the parts 
of their work with the sime Diligence and 
Precautions as in a real Siege ; 

While those who follow shall also be taught 
and employed in the proper manner of widen- 
ing and perfecting the Work. 

XIV. That besides the particulars already 
mentioned, the learners shall also be in- 
structed and employed in the making of 
Mines, 

In the carrying on the Galleries, and placing 
their Forneaux or Cham tiers where they shall 
be directed ; 

Likewise how to sink Shafts, and to keep to 
the Mopes orTalus's that shall lie appointed ; 

How to prepare their Timliers, place their 
Fiames, and plank them to keep up the 
Karth ; 

How to stow the Quantities of Powder 

i es>ary, with convenient precautions 

again«.t Damps and other Accidents ; 

How to spring Mines ; 

And how to lwhave in Case of falling in 
wirli the Miners of the Knemy. 

XV. That they shall likewise 1h> shown the 
Application of the several Mechanical Powers 
to the raisingand transporting great Burthens, 

To the .hiving and drawing of Piles, ami 
oth-r woiks of that sort ; 

With the Construction ami Management of 
Pontoons and Floats, and the Manner of 
making Bridges for the passing and Convey- 
anie of Cannon and heavy Baggage over 
K:\fisand other great Waters. 

XVI. That the Learners rdiall also lie in- 
stiiicteil in the Choice of a proper place for 
the park of Artillery ; 

In th- Manner id' disposing it ; 

In the placing the Mortars and great (inns 
in it, with the Ammunition Waggons, and 
otliei Carriages, and Warlike Stores ; 

lu the drawing out or removing them in 
th- b-.st and most exj>editioiis Manner, as 
th>- Sei \ jee may require. 

XVII. That on sin-h of the Dnys set ajart 
lor the ScIiimiI of Practice, when, by reason 
of the Weather or otherwise, the foremen- 
ti iiued Ulcerations shall In* less projier, 

u* 



The Officers, and others attending this 
School, shall be instructed in the Nature 
and Composition of Gun Powder, and the 
Manner of making it ; shall be taught how to 
know and prove the same ; 

The precautions to be used about it ; 

And shall be further instructed and properly 
employed in making and preparing all sorts 
of Fireworks now in use, whether for the 
annoyance of the Enemy or for public 
Rejoicings. 

XVIII. That at such times the Officers and 
others shall also be taught the Names of all 
the several parts of a Piece of Ordnance, their 
Carriages, and proper appurtenances ; 

That they shall be instructed in the manner 
of casting and working the several Sorts of 
Ordnance and small Arms, and the ways of 
proving them ; 

And that the Officers and Cadets shall 
attend at all the Proofs that shall be made of 
great Guns, Mortars, and small Arms for his 
Majesty's use ; 

That they shall lie taught the Weights of 
the several Sorts of pieces, with the Weights 
and Diameters of the several Shells and Balls 
they are designed to throw ; 

The proper Charges of the different Pieces, 
according to the several Services in which 
they may be employed ; 

And that they shall be further tausrht the 
Names and Uses of the Tools and Engines 
ui»ed in a Train of Artillery, 

With the Manner of mounting the Guns on 
their proper Carriages, taking them off, and 
the like. 

XIX. That, the Officers and others shall 
also, at the like times, be shewn the several 
Magazines and Warlike Stores of all sorts ; 

That they shall lie instructed in the manner 
of disjiosing the same, as well for convenience 
of issuing them, as for their Preservation ; 

And they shall lie further taught how to 
estimate the Quantities of the Stores that are 
or may be contained in any Magazine, in 
order to their lieing able to direct what 
Koom will be necessary to dispose any 
Quantity of Stores they may have occasion 
to lodge. 

XX. The Officers and Others shall also, at 
these times, be taught the Detail of all that 
lielongs to a Train of Artillery ; 

How to form such a one proportionable to 
the Forces to be employed with it, whether 
in the Field, for a Siege, or the Defence of a 
place ; 

And how to compute and estimate the 
Quantities of Stores of all Sorts that are 
projier to lie provided and alloted for it, 
according to the particular Services for 
which they may lie designed. 

That on all the said days of Instruction in 
the several practical (lart-t of Gunnery, the 
Chief Master of the Academy, or his Assistant, 
under his Directions, shall assist the Com- 
manding-Officer in the Direction thereof, and 
in such parts relating to Practice which they 
may not have had opjiortunities to learn 
before the instituting of this Academy ; 

That whenever the Master of the Academy 
shall have occasion to make Experiments of 
any sort relating to the Art of War, the Com- 
manding-Omcer of the Artillery shall assist 
and provide him with Men, and the Store- 
Keeper of the On I nance at Woolwich with 
all other things necessary for the same. 



266 



APPENDIX. 



XXL That there shnll forthwith he pre- 
pared ami erected in some convenient place, 
in or near the Warren at Woolwich, the front 
of a Polygon of the largest Dimensions the 
(■round will admit : 

Which front shall he made of Earth and 
turfed; and to consist of two Demi-Bastions, 
two Flanks, and a Curtain U'tween them ; 
with a Ditch, Ravelin, Covert Way, Place of 
Arms, and a Glacis. 

XXII. That this front shall he attacked 
every other Hummer, under the direction of 
the Engineers belonging to the Military 
Branch of the Ordnance, with all the Form 
and regularity that is used in a real Siege ; 

That Parallels shall be drawn, and Trenches 
ojmned : 

That Batteries shall Ih? raised by the 
Resiegers, at proper Distances, and in proper 
Places ; 

That Mines shall be made by the Besieged 
to blow up the Batteries ; 

And that the Besiegers shall also carry on 
Mines to make breach ; 

The whole Attack to Ihj traced by the 
Engineers, assisted by the Chief- Master of the 
School, with the Approbation and by the 
Direction of the Master-General, or, in his 
Absence, with the Approbation and by the 
Direction of the Lieutenant-General and 
Principal Officers of the Ordnance, before 
whom shall be laid the intended plan ; 

And the Chief-Master of the School shall 
also during the Continuance of the Siege, 
give Lectures and instructions on the Reason 
of the several operations therein performed ; 
and shall assist the Engineers in such parts 
relating to Theory or Practice, which they 
may not have had opportunities to learn be- 
fore the instituting 1 of this Academy. 

XX I I I. That during the Summers when there 
is no Attack, the Polygon shall be repaired, 
and more Works added if thought pn>i>er ; 

That the Parallels, Trenches, and othc* 
Works of the besiegers, shall be tilled up and 
levelled. 

In all which works, the Engineers, 
Officers, and others ot the Royal Regiment 
of Artillery, shall be properly employed, as 
well as in the tirst tracing out, erecting, and 
preparing the front of the Polygon ; in order 
to their becoming expert and perfect in all 
Matters relating to the Practice both of Defen- 
sive and Offensive Fortification. 



XXIV. That there shall be a general Ex- 
amination once a year of the Engineers, 
and of the Officers, Cadets, Bombardiers, 
Gunners, Mattrosses, and others of the 
Military Branch of the Ordnance, before the 
Master-General, or. in his absence, before the 
Lieutenant-General and Principal Officers of 
the Ordnance ; 

And that an exact Account be kept of 
every one's proticiency, and the Time he has 
learnt ; 

In which Account they shall severally be 
ranged under three Classes : 

The First Class to consist of those who 
have most distinguished themselves by their 
Application ; 

The Second Class to consist of those who 
do their best to make themselves Masters of 
their Duty ; 

And the Last Class to consist of those from 
whose Proficiency but little is to be expected. 

Which accounts shall be signed by the 
Chief Engineer, the Cominanding-Ofttcer of 
the Royal Regiment of Artillery, and the 
Chief-Master ot the School ; and shall be laid 
l)efore the Master-General, or, in his absence, 
before the Lieutenant-General and Principal 
Officers of the Ordnance ; 

In order that at all times the State of the 
Military Branch of the Ordnance may be 
known, and how the Several Persons belong- 
ing to the same are qualified for the several 
Occasions then; may be to employ them. 

XXV. That a great and Solemn Exercise 
of Artillery shall be performed once a year 
before the Master-General, or, in his absence, 
before the Lieutenant-General and Principal 
Officers of the Ordnance. 

In which exercise those who are best ad- 
vanced in the several Classes shall either 
Shoot with different Pieces of Ordnance at 
several Marks, according to their different 
Proficiencies ; 

Or produce some other Specimen of their 
Diligence and Application in their Study of 
Fortification, Drawing, <fcc, 

When he who shall have best distinguished 
himself in each Class shall be presented by 
the Master-General of the Ordnance, or, in 
his Absence, by the Lieutenant-General and 
Principal Officers of the same, with some 
Prize of Honour, if an Engineer, Officer, or 
C*det ; or some pecuniary Premium, if a 
Private man, as an Eucouragement. 



APPENDIX XX. 



THE ESTABLISHMENTS 


OF THE R. J/. A. 


Table 1. 


1704. 


177(3. 
£ 


179(3. 
£ 


Lieutenant-Governor 


200 


250 


300 


Inspector 


— 


230 


300 


Professor of Fortification and Artillery 


200 


200 


300 


Assistant ditto 


— 


— 


150 


Professor of Mathematics 


200 


200 


300 


Assistaut ditto 


} 40 


150 | 


200 


Master for Classics and Writing 


200 


Chief Drawing Master 


55 


150 


150 


Second ditto 


— 


100 


100 


French Master 


40 


100 


100 


Fencing Master 


100 


100 


100 


Dancing Master 


— 


— 


100 



ESTABLISHMENTS. 



267 



Number. 



Table II. 



Pay. 



1810. 1856. 
1 1 Lieutenant-Governor 



1 — 



Military Staff. 

Senior 2nd Captain 

Junior 2nd Captain 

Subalterns 

Chaplain 

Surgeon 

Quartermaster 

Educational Staff. 

Inspector 

Assistan t Inspector 

Professor Fortification 

Instructors ditto 

Prof essor of Mathematics ... 

Masters for ditto 

Drawing Master (for ground) 

Assistant ditto 

Drawing Master (for figures) 
Drawing Master (for landscape) ... 
Instructor in Practical Artillery 

Assistant ditto 

Instructor in Surveyiug and Fieldworks . 

Assistant ditto 

Master for Military Plan Drawing 

French Masters 



(20i 
1 tc 
1 27' 



German Masters 

Master of History and Geography 

Chemistry Lecturer 

Assistant ditto 

Lecturer on Geology and Mineralogy 

Lecturer on Practical Mechanics, Machinery, and 

Metallurgy 

Lecturer on Astronomy, &c. 
Dancing Master 

Fencing Master 

Modellers 



1810. 


1856 


£ 


£ 


300f+ 


1160 


200+ 
91fl 


400 


330 


45f; 


197 


120+ 


— 


100ft. 


— 


200J 


225 


478+ 


686 


1951 


493 


494+ 


678 


300 


422 


540 


500 




(-200 


340 


< to 




(400 


258 





200 





200 





200 


300 


— 


406 


— 


384 


— 


467 


— 


367 


— 


570 


200 


100 


to 


to 


270 


200 




(100 


— 


{ to 




(200 


-- 


200 


10 J 


240 


— 


80 


— 


200 





500 


— 


200 


120 


— 


160 


— 


90 


140 



In I Mil t 1m- title was 



* Fort ideation ond Artillery." 
J Be«i«les quarters. 



t Ife'sides regimental pay. 



Tablk III.— l'.MK). 


Annual 
Pav. 

£ 
1,500 
646 
210 
303 
515 


Allow- 
ance, ktc. 


Militaby Branch. 

1 (lovenior and Commandant 

1 Assistant -Commandant and Secretary 

.5 Lieutenants of Cadet Companies (each) 

1 Adjutant and Quartermaster 

1 Mediral Officer 


Quarters. 
Quarters. 
Quarters. 
Quarters. 
Quarters. 



268 



APPENDIX. 



Table 111. (cant.).— 1900. 

Educational Branch. 
1 Prof essor of Mathematics 

4 Instructors in ditto (each) 

1 Professor of Fortification and Geometrical Drawing 

4 Instructors in ditto (each) 

1 Professor of Artillery 

4 Instructors in ditto (each) 

1 Professor of Military Topography 

5 Instructors in ditto (each) 

1 Professor of Tactics 

1 Professor of Landscape Drawing 

1 Instructor in ditto 

1 Temporary ditto 

1 Professor of French 

1 Temporary Instructor in ditto 

1 Prof essor of German 

1 Prof essor of Experimental Science 

1 Instructor in Chemistry 

1 Lecturer in Chemistry 

2 Iijstructors in Electricity (each) 

1 Instructor in Carpentry 





Annual 


Allow- 




Pay. 


ances, etc 




£ 






700 




( 


350 to 500 




\ 


by £50 




{ 


triennially 
550 
450 










500 


Quarters. 


.. 1 450 




550 




450 




550 




450 




.... 350 




150 




350 




.... 350 




350 




500 


Quarters. 




150 to 200 




by £5 




annually 
100 
450 










200 





APPENDIX XXI. 

A Return of the Number of Gentlemen Cadets Convicted during the 
Period 1835-1868 of the Offences Specified Below. 





*=" ^ -^ 


_; 






1 ^£i 


t* 


f= 






c 




^ - 








' — — q 




c 






if 1 1 i 

Si (£ & 

1 ! 


-3. ^ ^ 

^ "^ T 


"J' 


7^ 

f ! 

o 

M 


o 
B 

U 
1 
c 


5 




1 
1 

5 


5 e*g 

5 If? 


H 
1 


s 

I 

1 


1 

- 


§ 

1! 
-i 


1836 


8 — i 


9 


- 29 


3 - 


1 So 1 





5 


7 


7 ! 4 





_ 


1837 


4 1 1 1 


10 


— 


15 


8 


1855 


3 


7 ' 


8 


2 


2 


IS 





1838 


1 1 ~ 


12 


— - 


13 


1 


— 


1SS0 1 3 


— 


8 


10 


— 


20 


, 


1839 


G ' - 


14 


1 


35 ' 


4 


7 


1H57 


1 


— 


6 


6 


2 


14. 





1840 


10 - 


28 


1 


04 


9 


39 


1858 


4 


— 


3 


7 


3 


2 





mi 


— i — 


— . 


— 


12 


— 


— 


1869 


— 


2 


13 


9 


— 


2 





1842 


1 — 


— 


— 


14 


— 


.in 


18G0 


1 


2 


12 


4 


5 


— 





1843 1 1 


— 


2 


33 


— 


1G 


1861 2 


— 


7 


5 


2 


1 





1844 — 3 


— 


1 


9 


. 


— 


1H62 


2 


11 


17 


— 


4 





133 


1845 ii — 


3 


2 


11 


I 


— 


1863 


. — 


— 


11 


—~ 


— 







1846 ' 4 i — 


8 


2 


14 


— 


149 


im;i 


2 


— 


IS 


— 


— 


— 


u 


1B47 


8 1 9 


26 


— 


9 


14 


15 


1865 


— 


— 


11 


7 


2 


— 


2 


lsis 


2 .- 


J;> 


9 


8 





4 


1866 


1 


— 


5 


— 


2 





6 


1S1!> 


% | 3 


G 


I 


7 


21 - 


1K6T 


— 


— 


7 


I 


10 


2 




I860 


1 — - 


11 


3 


8 


a i — 


1868 1 


— 


5 


1 


1 


— 


_ 


1851 
1852 


— i * 

— 1 1 


4 




14 


i 
















17 


1 


! 


3| 12 


Total 


75 


m m 


82 Ji5G 


114 


16<» 


1853 


a is 


30 


— 


9 


3 


1 — 

















RECORD OF COMMISSIONS 1 . 



269 



APPENDIX XXII. 

The X umber of Cadets Admitted and Commissioned between 1st January, 
1820, and 31 st December, 1899, with the Average Age of Joining and 
Quitting for Each Year. 



Ykvk. 


i Vl 


i 


T « •— 


Xo of 
Commis- 
sions. 


§is!f 


Year. 


5)5 


■i 


l%1 


Xo. of 
Commis- 
sion s. 


Si.- ^ 


1820 


147 


< 
18 


14-0 


R.A. 




RE. 
2 


20-8 




II 

190 


< 
107 


<<* 
17-7 


R.A. 

70 


R.E. 
1.5 


18-11 


1800 


18-21 


14.') 


5 


1.V2 


.5 


I 


21-4 


1861 


232 


174 


18.3 


72 


29 


18-8 


1822 


140 


i 


1.V11 


4 


— 


221 


1862 


26.5 




17*6 


.56 


40 


19.11 


1823 


130 


8 


10-0 


2 


2 


22-8 


1863 


237 





17*6 


74 


34 


20-2 


1824 


124 


8 


1.V9 





5 


23-o 


1864 


189 





17*3 


64 


33 


20-0 


1825 


(i(i 


2 J 


14-8 


28 


26 


22-9 


186.5 


165 


72 


17*4 


47 


20 


201 


18-2* ; 


58 


45 


14 '5 


3 





10*7 


1866 


168 


75 




51 


12 


19-11 


1827 


8.") 


33 


141 


— 


2 


20-2 


1867 


183 


80 





43 


22 


20-0 


1828 


91 


30 


14-3 


10 


5 


18-1 


1868 


212 


96 





41 


39 




1829 


107 


34 


.1.5-0 


8 


2 


17-10 


1869 


220 






49 


35 





1830 


l-2(i 


14 


11-8 


13 


4 


18-11 


1870 




60 





35 


41 





1831 


132 


:>3 


14-0 


21 


7 


19-1 


1871 





44 





19 


20 


_ 


1832 


133 


30 


15 3 


21 


4 


18-2 


1872 


200 


133 





55 


44 





1833 


124 


29 


14-1 


19 


9 


18-4 


1873 


217 


124 





68 


46 





1831 


114 


39 


11-3 


17 





1711 


1874 


204 


102 





60 


18 





183.*) 


108 


39 


14-4 


18 


7 


18-4 


187o 


202 


101 


17-8 


53 


19 


1910 


1S30 


100 


14 


1.5-0 


17 


•5 


18-2 


1876 


201 


79 


17-8 


78 


14 


20-0 


1837 


87 


40 


1.5-7 


11 


17 


175 


1877 


198 


80 


17-7 


82 


26 


19-10 


1838 


111 


00 


1.5-9 


7 





17-7 


1878 


212 


12o 


17*7 


76 


37 


19-7 


1S39 


11') 


01 


1.5-0 


30 


10 


17-9 


1879 


217 


130 


17-6 


.52 


23 


19-2 


1810 


123 


55 


13-7 


9 


11 


18-7 


1880 


220 


121 


17*6 


109 


17 


19-4 


1811 


l.')3 


88 


1.5-8 


12 


6 


18-.5 


1881 


220 


80 


17-7 


69 


13 


19-6 


1812 


100 


73 


1.5-.5 


29 


11 


18-8 


18S2 


196 


KM) 


17-7 


88 


23 


19-7 


IS 13 


183 


70 


1.5-7 


4.5 


13 


18-0 


1883 


180 


110 


17-7 


67 


23 


19-8 


1811 


1S1 


00 


100 


29 


11 


18-8 


1884 


20.5 


94 


17-6 


89 


53 


19-4 


1M5 


18.') 


42 


10-0 


21 


14 


18-9 


188.5 


212 


183 


17-7 


64 


35 


19-2 


18 111 


187 


91 


10-0 


41 


23 


18-11 


1886 


231 


121 


17-7 


74 


37 


19-0 


1817 


201 


104 


1.5-0 


07 


31 


18-8 


1887 


235 


179 


17-6 


74 


40 


19-2 


18 IS 


19.') 


70 


11-7 


29 


12 


18-0 


1888 


264 


162 


177 


111 


44 


19-1 


1M9 


20.') 


50 


1 1-7 


3.5 


4 


18 -.5 


1889 


280 


121 


17-6 


102 


35 


19-1 


1S.')0 


200 


.').') 


11-11 


3.5 





18-7 


1890 


261) 


121 


177 


97 


34 


19-4 


1S.*)1 


183 


38 


11-11 


30 





18-3 


1891 


2.53 


no 


17-8 


90 


41 


19-7 


1S.V2 


109 


55 


n-9 


32 


7 


191 


1892 


230 


100 


17-7 


84 


36 


19-7 


is:,:; 


ISO 


03 


ii-ii 


21 


11 


18-11 


1893 


208 


KM) 


17-8 


80 


36 


19*6 


18.*,| 


lo:, 


78 


ll-io 


.50 


20 


18-5 


1894 


207 


9.5 


1710 


50 


41 


19-7 


Is.V) 


ISO 


90 


11-8 


.50 


27 


171 


189.5 


199 


81 


17-8 


108 


46 


19-8 


ls5o 


201 


o3 


10-7 


— 


— 




1896 


174 


81 


17-6 


58 


30 


19-6 


1 s:,7 


171 


17 


17-0 




— 




1897 


182 


141 


17-6 


54 


30 


19-6 


l s:,s 


137 


100 


17-8 


23 


29 


17*8 


1898 


224 


171 


17-6 


65 


38 


19-2 


1 s.V.i 


1!<7 


97 


17-1 


03 


32 


I'M) 


1899 


281 


190 


17-0 


110 


50 


18-11 



APPKXDIX XXIII.— (a). 

MARKS DISTRIBUTION IX 1848. 



o.ooo. Muthfiiiatif-8. 

1.500. Fortification. 

l,3i»o. Frrnch. 1,300. German. 

l.loo. Plan Drawing. 

1.300. L.-tihlHrajx' Drawing. 

' v 1 .300. History and Geography. 



_ . . 5.200. Artillery. 

S S \ 3.000. Surveying, etc. 

■•? S 400. Chemistry. 

) 400. Mechanics, etc. 

\ 400. Geology, etc. 



270 A ITEM* IX. 

i /'i A CnxrABisosr of thk SrnjKcrs and Marks in* thk Ixstructioxal Courses 

OF lHliN. 1H«>2 (l'XI)KR THK BIFURCATION SysTKM), AXD 18JH>. 





1 ■*.■*. 




I-1-2. 


' 




1-Mi 




Sl'lUKl I. 






Kimmecr 


Artillery 




Ukmarkk. 




All 
Oh. 


Kirbt Year. 


Divis 


nil. 


Division. 




















Miitlifinatii's 


>.1«M> 


Oh. Vol. 
M.IMIII MMI 


oh. 

_*.HIH» 


Vol. 


Oil. Vol. 


Oh. 

4, (HMi : 


Vol. 


»,."i(K)if Only one to be 


Fortification 


i».:«h» 


•_'.«'( K» 


_\OOU 




1,HU» 


•J.7O0 


taken up, 


Prnctir.il <I»>iiiui-ti'v 


•J. HMi 


- - 


— 




— 


SOO 


■ r »iM> choice allowed. 


Artilli'i-y . .. '.. 


1 »,■_'< Ml 


— 


1.1MMI 


— 


•_>,00o - 


J,40O 


— b One language ob- 


Military TnjHi-uijih> 


■I.Li Ml 


■_',«>< >0 -- 


UKjo 




1,U«0 — 


3.<KNJ 


ligatory, the 


Military History 


•J, HI Ml 








_ 


— 


other volun- 


Turtle. Mr. 


— 


— 


l>T."i 


— 


l,s7.-» 


l,~i*MI 


tary. 


FlVIH'll (/.) 




I.IMMI l.OINI 




— 


) 


•2,400 if 


- «• Models only. 


(Ji'iiii.in ('.) 


J- 1,. -»«*>' 


— 


— 


— 


— i 


— // Only one to be 
taken np. 


Hiii(iu>taiii 




— 


— 




— 


I«aii«lsiajic Drawing 


l..'i(Kl 


'MtQr 7< W 


U»'K) 




- - UMHJ 


t'»4IO 


— «• H i f n r c a t i o n 


Natural IMi i !»)>«•]. by 


iMMI 


— 


_ 


- 






touted from 


ClirlnistlV, etc. 


l.JIMI 


I.IMMI 


I.INXI 


— 


1.UO0 — 


l.«00 


is«i to June, 


Kli-ctrii'itv. etc . 






— 




— 


iMno 


:«K) lKlMt,iiiclu»ive. 


1 hills, fcc 




. . 


— 






1,700 





APPENDIX XXIV. 

Tam.k Showixo thk Value of the Subjects in the Entrance Examinations, 

1S.")7 to 1KW. 







y\j 


VXIMIM MAKKH. 




Sri'-iK.< t. 














1 s:>7. 


lwif,. 


1S7-J. 


1802. 


18W. 


Mathematics 


3,500 (r) 


3,500 (/■) 


2,000 (i) 
1,000 


3,000 (r) 
2.000 (-) 


5,000 (0 
2,000 


English : Composition, | 


1,250 










Hist< >ry and G« igmphy J 










English: ( 'oiupositiou ... 




1,000 


500(1) 


500 (») 


1,000 


English: History 




1,000 


500 


2,000(2) 


2,000 (5) 


Geography 




1,000 






500 


Geography and Geology 
Mineralogy and Geology 






"ism ' 


ib'eo(i) 




'750 '" 


1,000"' 






2J000 "(*) 


Moral and Political | 
Sciences J 


1,0(10 










riiiMKii-M I Latin | 


1,750 -[ 


1.500 
1 .500 


2.000 
2,000 


2,000 (c) 
2,010(2) 


2,000 
2,000 (*) 


Ex]>erimental Sciences ... 


1,000 


1,000 


2,000 







Clicmistry and Hen t 








2^)00(2) 


2,000 


Physics 









2,000 (2) 
2,000 (■») 


2,000 (5) 


Fmich 


lib'oo"' 


1,00()" 


2^000 


2,000 (■•) 


(icrman ... 


750 


1,000 


2,000 


2,000 (■») 


2,000 f>) 


Hindustani 




1,000 








Freehand Drawing 


'700'" 


1 ,000 


liboo" 


"500(») 
1,000 (3) 


"600"' 


Geometrical Drawing ... 


300 




300 (i) 


1,000 


Maximum Number ot~) 












Subjects that can be | 












taken up, including }- 


Fire. 


Fire. 


Fin; 


Sir. 


A7w<\ 


those compulsory — | 












marked (r) ' ! 













1 ("ompulsory examination held in the •' Preliminary." 

- Two df these may he taken. * >"* Three of these. * ( >ne compulsory," the other voluntary. 

5 Only nne of these may he taken up. 



THE SWORD AND POLLOCK. 
APPENDIX XXV. 

THE "SHOP'S" ROLL OF HONOUR. 



271 



The Sword. 



1S3(J 


C. A. Broke. 






1837 


F. W. Dutton. 






1838 


G. Bailie. 






1831) 


,T. Bayley. 






1840 


J. B. Luyken. 


H 


M. Barlow. 


1842 


V. J. Mains. 


C. 


R. Binney. 


1843 


F. R. Chesney. 


R. 


H. Martiiidalc 


184o 


C. B. Ewart. 


E. 


C. A. Gordon. 


IS Hi 


A. R. V. Crease. 


F. 


E. Cox. 


1847 


G. H. Gordon. 

Thk Hword 


H. 


R. Pelly. 



1818 A. Leahy. W. O. Lennox 

W. Grossman 

181!) C. CarjMJiiter 

18.')() \V. Stirling 

18")1 \Y. A. Fox-Strangways. R. C. Longley 
18.32 F. G. Ravenhill. F. G. E. Warren 

lS.-)3 A. Walsham 

18.',1 R. O'Hara. W. G. Martin ... 

A-], de V. Tup]>er. C. D. Bevan 
18.')") (). H. Goodenough. R. Sandham 

J. A. Pupil Ion. L. C. A. A. de Cetto 

1S.-)(J F. B. Mainguv 

18.')7 \V. S. Brown* H. Sitwell 

H. M. Moorsom ... 
I8.'),s R. H. B. Beaumont. S. Anderson 

L. Gve 

I8.')!i T. Howard 

L. Buckle 

ISO!) .1. H. Urqulmrt. J. M. Saunders 

18(11 G. E. Townsend. G. A. L. A. Whitmore 

1S02 T. Frascr. W. G. Ross 

1S(J3 F. Q. Edmoudes. J. M. Hunter 
ISol J.C.Mi'iizies. J. C. Curling ... 

lSOo S. L. Jarob. H. Jekyll 

ls<;«i S. Buckle. H. G. L. Turobull... 
18(17 F. R. De VVolski. R. Gardiner 
lSoS J. C. McGregor 

II. H. S. Cunynghame 

I8(i:» C. C. Lindsay 

C. H. Johnston 

ls;o M. K. Brady 

P. Cardew 

1S71 H. G. Kunhanlt 

ls72 J. H. C. Harrison. J. J. Leverson 

1{. C. Maxwell 

1S7U J. ('. Campbell 

M. H. P. K. Sankcv 

ls7i C F. Hadden .] 

H. M. Sinclair 

Is7"> M. A. Cameron 

H. .1. Foster 

1^7'i W. F. Hawkins 

.1. H. Cowan 



/. Herschel. 



Note. -Names in 
Italics are those «>r 
Cadet* who re- 
ceived the Medal 
at Addiscombe. 



J. Stokes. 

Hon. E. T. Gage. 

G. C. Henry. 

A. B. Tyers. S. Cardew. 



Thk Pollock. 

E. C. S. Williams. 
J. J. McL. Lines. 

T. G. Montgomery. G. A. C 'raster. 
P. Stewart. F. S. Stanton. 
11. Goodwi/n. J. P. Baseri. 
A. J/". Lang. S. T. Trcror. 
J. M. Cham pa in. E. It. Holland. 
W. Jeffreys. 
3Z. R. R. Macdonell. 
(\ H. Luard. 
J. Eckford. 
./. M. AfeXeill. 
K. A. J op p. 
L. C. Gordon. 
IF. M. Campbell, 
jr. H. Pierson. 
A. JJ\ Elliott. 
Jl r . Shepherd. 

A. J. <\ Cunningham. K. C. Pye. 
Jr. J. JJ'illiamson. C. S. lieauchamp. 
T. Fraser. V. F. Rowe. 
K. P. Knocker. F. Mascall. 
H. R. G. Georges. W. G. Nicholson. 
S. L. Jacob. C. M. Watson. 
J. E. Broadbent. H. M. Chambers. 

F. R. De Wolski. F. J. Day. 

G. S. Clarke. 

H. H. S. Cunynghame. 

H. J. Harman. 

R. de Vilamil. 

H. C. Chermside. 

P. Cardew. 

H. G. Kunhardt. 

II. E. McCallum. W. C. Godsal. 

J. C. Addison. H. C. Love. 

J. C. Campbell. 

M. H. P. ft. Sankey. 

C. F. Hidden. 

H. M. Sinclair. 

M. A. Cameron. 

H. J. Foster. 

V. H. P. Caillard. 

J. H. Cowan. 



ArrNxnrx. 



Ykar. 


Thk Swiikh. 


Thk Pi ii. i.i m k. 


Thk Tombs. 


1877 


J. A. Henderson. 


W. H. Turton. 


F. E. I). Aelatid. 




W. C. Hussey. 


A. P. Codd. 
II. 1). Laffan. 


W. M. Russell. 


1S78 


S. R. Rice. 


Y,. Agar. 


J. M. Grier8ou. 




K. Druitt. 


A. M. Mantell. 


F. C. E. Childere. 




E. H. Annitage. 


S. Davidson. 


G. V. Kemball. 


1879 


S. (1. Burrard. 


J. Winn. 


J. T. Johnson. 




J. Dallas. 


J. Dallas. 


L. Gardiner. 


1880 


R. S. Maclagan. 


E. H. Hemming. 


F. T. L. Dames. 




M. Nathan. 


M. Nathan. 


G. E. Benson. 




F. J. Aylmer. 


W. F. II. S. Kincaid. 


H. A. Bethell. 


1881 




C. Hill. 


R. A. K. Montgomery. 




J. E. Edmondes. 


J. E. Edmondes. 


H. M. Clark. 


1882 


J. R. L. Macdonald. 


J. R. L. Macdonald. 


J. F. Cadell. 




R. J. H. Mackenzie. 


R. J. If. Mackenzie. 


H. L. A. Jenkinson. 


1883 


G. A. S. Stone. 


G. A. S. Stone. 


C. E. Baynes. 




W. G. Lawrie. 


W. G. Lawrie. 


J. E. W. Headlam. 


188-1 


T. Harrison. 


.T. II. L'E. Johnstone. 


H. G. Smith. 




E. A. (\ Jones. 


C. F. Close. 


W. J. Furee. 




E. A. Edgcll. 


E. A. ¥A\fre\\. 


R. G. Merriman. 


' 1885 


H. B. Williams. 


H. B. Williams. 


W. H. Boyd. 




G. P. Lenox-Conyngham. 


. (x. P. L('nox-( 1 onvngham. 


F. Potts. 


1S8G 


H ; M. St. A. Wade. 


H. M. St. A. Wade. 


A. M. A. Lennox. 




W. S. Nathan. 


C H. Versturme. 


R. E. Bennett. 


1887 


E. C. Ogilvie. 


r J\ E. Naish. 


, G. C. Fordyce-Buchan. 




P. T. Bourne. 


R. F. (;. Bond. 


W. B. R. Sandys. 


1888 


E. G. Godfrey-Fausseit. 


E. (i. Godfrey-Faussett. 


H. B. Roberts. 




H. Coningham. 


G. Dick. 


, J. St. C. MacMillan. 






W. M. Coldstream. 


C. G. Stewart. 


1881) 


H. M. Thomas. 


B. H. Rooke. 


T. S. Hiekens. 




J. M. C. Colvin. 


J. M. C. Colvin. 


W. B. Emery. 


1890 


S. H. Sheppard. 


J. F. W. Johnson. 


L. J. Hext. 




R. P. T. Hawksley. 


E. W. M. Leggett. 


H. A. Cruick8hank. 


1801 


H. F. E. Freeland 


S. G. Fa her. 


, A. C. Boyd. 




J. G. Austin. 


R. Polwhele. 


C. Evans. 


1802 


E. 0. Tyhlen-Pattenson. 


A. H. W. Giuhb. 


; D. F. Nicholl. 




E. B. M'acnaghten. 


C. E. Vickers. 


F. W. H. Walshe. 


1803 


W. C. Symon. 


W. C. Svmon. 


W. C. Symon. 




A. J. Savage. 


E. T. RiVh. 


A. Ollivant, 


1801 


F. B. Tillard. 


J. B. Cony. 


W. E. Edwards. 




J. R. E. Charles. 


A. if. Garrett. 


H. T. Russell. 


180.") 


F. W. Robertson. 


H. (). Mance. 


C. R. Newman. 




' W. Stirling. 


L. C. Jackson. 


P. W. Game. 






H. deL. Pollard-Lowsley. 


H. Ward. 


1800 


J. O'H. Mocrr\ 


R. H. Thomas. 


W. S. Brancker. 




L. W. Melan. 


I). Forster. 


, E. do H. Smith. 


1807 


W. C. E. Twidale. 


C. W. Biggs. 


i H. C. Roehfort-Boyd. 




A. J. Turner. 


C. M. Browne. 


1 S. C. Bartley. 


1808 


S. F. Xcwcombe. 


P. (). G. Ushorne. 


F. C. C. Ensor. 




, L. N. F. J. King. 


K. E. Edgeworth. 


R. K. Hezlet. 


1800 


C. Hordeni. 


C. Hordeni. 


W. S. Beamish. 




A. II. l)u Boulav. 


(J. P. Galbraith). 


L. W. La T. Cockraft. 




C. <\ Trench. 


C. C. Trench. 


C. J. Everard. 


1000 


F. A. Finnis. 


M. X. MacLeod. 


F. A. Finnis. 




i C. S. Rich. 




C. E. Vivian. 



THE QUEEN VICTORIA MEDAL. 

1807 C M. Wagstaffe. 1800 T. H. L. Spaight. 
R. F. A. Hobbs. C. C. Trench. 

1808 LI. Evans. E. F. J. Hill. 1900 M. N. Maclcod. 



INDEX. 



,J A" Division, Tin*, formed, 05; privileges 
of, «.»•"» ; abolished. 154 

Academy, Tlie Royal Military, date of origin. 
1 ; barracks lirst provided, 4 ; Lieutenant- 
Governor ap|*>inted, ; East India cadets 
educated at, 12 ; becomes self-supporting, 
<>:> ; moves to the Common, 42; competi- 
tion supersedes nomination for, 87; 
Arsenal finally vacated, 00 ; nearly amalga- 
mated with R. M. C, 140 

Academy. I'se of the term. . r >0 ; the lower 
started, 25 ; a third formed, 31 ; six 
formed, «>0; number reduced to three, 08 ; 
replaced by the "class," «»S 

Ace. deration introduce I, 117; unusual, 170 

AddisromW started, 42 ; public examination 
at, M> ; broken up. 80 

Adjutants appointed, 00; list of, 250; 
iM'come quartermasters, 124 

Admission in 1741, 3 ; in 1704, 14; lirst 
entrance examination, 14; qualifications 
lor, raised, 44 : alterations in lS20and 1835, 
4»'. ; candidates ineligible for, 47; lirst 
competitive examination for, IK) ; cliauges 
in ls7», 123 

A<lve. Sir .John, 137, 140 

Age of cadets in 1741, 4; limit fixed, 14; 
limits raised, 10; l>etween 1800 ami 1854, 
40, 4^ ; new regulations affecting, in 1820, 
7s: alterations in 1857, 1*0; fixed at 
sixteen to eighteen, 123; temporarily 
raised. 13l»; from 1820 to 1000, 208 

Amalgamation with Sandhurst, 120, 140 

Arsenal, foi merly the Warren, 2; vacated, 
'.1 : ie.»ciipiel. 52; finally vacated, 00; 
neces^iiv for R. M. A. being near, 120 

Artillery, The Ro\al. all cadets commissioned 
in, •'• ; augmented, 11 ; the first company 
of, 43 ; separated from R.K., «7 

Arlilierx combined with fort ilicatioii, 24; the 
conr'.»e in I7ll.2«'i»; in 1704, 25; in 1772, 
_".» : in 17'.»2, :n ; professor appointed, r»0 ; 
at Shoi-burv. 05; li.^t of staff, 201 

A//./ I//.-I Hey, b.2 



Maud. It. A.. 113. 202 

Mallow l'1-.r.^..r. 23 

Mauack- (>.'.' liiiildingn) 

Mat.-li. Tli.' *lorv <»ra. 1 03 

Math-. Iro/.-n. 03; parages to the, 112; 
iii.tn iit-i- taken, l^s 

M-.Ut.-i.K Turn-up. 15; some tnes for, 00, 127 

Mitnn itioii. 107 ; marks given, 270 

MilhanK II I 

- Mlack-uard. The." 133 

M-.at Club. lo-.' t in 

It- in n \ -astir. 1'iofeisor, 2.1 

Mo'ks, S an-ity of. 20 

Mo\ai i-l-j. 172 

H-uX The, 2oi» 

Mu!l<lii^> of K. M. A. in the Wanvn, 4 ; 
i laNo-iiMim*. in 1701, 15; on the Common 
tn^t o.-. upH'd. 12; dcseiiptioii of, in 1800, 



40 ; heated and lighted. 52 ; greatly en- 
larged in 1800, i»0 ; billianl-rooins built, 
114, 143, 100; photo-studios built, 114; 
west wing extension, 143 ; swimming bath, 
101 ; east wing extended and cricket 
pavilion built, 173; window gratings re- 
moved, 174 
Bullying to ensure idleness, 18, 54, 02 ; in- 
stance of, 20 ; eleven dismissed for, 55 ; 
causes of, 50 ; forms of, 57, 00 ; disappear- 
ance of, 205 



Cadets l>efore the " Shop " started, 1 ; in 
1744. 3 ; treated as officers, 3 : moved into 
barracks, 4 ; life of, iu 1750,, 7 ; a cadet of 
thirty, 7; for the E.I.C.S., 12; ignorant 
on admission, 14 ; indulge in liquor, 17, 58, 
205 ; life in 1780, 10 ; quartered on Com- 
mon, 42 ; bully and are idle, 54 ; eleven 
dismissed, 55 ; visit the Netherlands, 70 : 
strange medley of, 88 ; life in 1857, l»l ; 
no touch between officers and, 07 ; placed 
in charge of studies, 1 17 : life in the 'sixties, 
103; life in the 'seventies, 127; justice of 
the, 151 ; at chemistry, 104 ; life in the 
present day, 181 ; the cabbie and the, 207 

"Captain, The," 100 

Captain of Company, The Master-General as, 
0, 258 ; becomes resident, 250 ; given 
]»owers of punishment, 14f ; lists of, 250 

Carshaltou House started, 00 ; abolished, 88 

Cell, Dark, 17, 03 

Chaplains, List of. 200 

Chemistry started, 31 ; lectures, 104; list of 
staff, 203 

Classes, Each academy divided into four, 
25, 28, 31 ; practical and theoretical, 07, 
04 ; supersede academies, 08 ; reduced to 
live, 04 ; reduced to four, 154 ; re- 
numlMM'ed, 170 

Classics in 1772, 2« ; suspended, 30, 34; 
count high iu entrance exam., 05 ; finally 
aliolishcd from course, 154 

Clubs, Rifle, 114; boating, 102, 114; alpine, 
150 

Corked hats, 21 ; done awav with, 22 

Coffey tight ■» for France. 125, 134 

College, II. M., Great Marlow, 12; uniform at, 
22 ; vacated by on I nance cadets, 43 

College, R. M., Sandhurst, Cadets from, 
enter "Shop."8-s, 141 ; amalgamation with 
It. M. A.. 120, 140 ; comiwtitions with, 200, 

Colour*. 2i Hi 

Commissions in the early days, ; in E.I.C., 
12, 42 ; in 17i>4, 32 ; waiting for vacancies 
in U.K., 33. 75; protest against youthful- 
ness, 33 ; affected by peace in 1783, 34 ; 
iiuiiiInt of, 1783-04, 34 ; excess of, caused 
bv war, 35 ; withheld as punishment, 35 ; 
scarcity or, in RE., 37 ; from 1800 to 1854, 
74 ; serious dearth of, caused by half- 
nay list, 75 ; iiuiiiInt of, 1820 to 1000. 208 ; 
large number waiting for, 70 ; direct, 04 ; 



1XDKX. 



huge miiiilH-r of. in U.K.. 117 : in tin- late 
sixth's, lis; extra, due to retirements, 139 ; 
in lbso, 103 : direct, taken by_ cadets, l.Vi ; 
excess caused by lioer War, 170 

Commission, Ko\al, in lsO!\ MO 

Company, The Cadet, forim-d. 4 ; acts as lust 
comiNiuy ot It. A., 43; organised into A, 
IJ, C divisions. 90 

Competition, Effort to introduce, 40 ; for 
choice or corps 70; suiH'isHlfs inclina- 
tion, .S7 

Concerts, "Snooker." 12s. -'I* 4 

Conduct in fiirly days, 7; bad in 1704. 1. ; 
suffers Ironi over-commissioning, 30 ; lroni 
1800 to 1804, . r ) r >: swoid given for ex- 
emplary, 02 : improved by Kfiorts, 03 ; in 
studies, 72 ; bad, aggravated by spying, 
90 ; tin* mutiny. 98 ; mutiny commemor- 
ated, 102, los ; diseiisseil by Koyal Com- 
mission, 120 ; improvement of, 101 

Coimauglit, The Duke of, IIS; bust of, pre- 
sented. 143 ; unveils windows, ITS 

Contribution*. Annual, instituted, 04; in- 
creased, 102 

Corporals abuse their privileges, IS ; rank in- 
dispensable for commission, IS, 03 ; selected 
from 2nd class, 04 ; keep order during 
studies, 72, 117, 124, 105; how selected 
in 1802, 90 ; present method adopted, lo2 ; 
badges of rank, 170 

Council of Military Education, 90, 04, 142 

Course, Educational, in 1741, 2, 204 ; inter- 
rupted in early days, 0; in 1700, 8 ; in 
1704, 2.') ; in 1772, 2S ; in 1702, 31 ; dis- 
organised by war with France, 30 ; trom 
isooto 1804.00 ; divided into practical and 
theoretical branches, 07; gymnastics and 
surveying added, OS ; in 1848, 200 ; riding 
added, 90 ; in the 'sixties, lor, ; military 
history ami acc.i-ler.it ion introduced, 117 ; 
discusse«l by Hoyal Commission. 122; 
voluntary studies introduced, 124 ; in the 
'seventies, 130; upset in the 'eighties, 103; 
bifurcation, 107 ; mounted reconnaissance, 
109 ; practical work of, in 1000, L04 ; in 
LS0S, 1802, ISHO, 270 
Cribbing. 150 

Cricket, Hand authorised for. 112; space tor, 
provided, 142; old cadet describes a 
match, 140 ; the pavilion built, 173 ; re- 
cords of " Shop," 210 ; Sandhurst's record 
score, 228; the beat team, 231 ; the "one- 
run match," 234; Fosters year, 243; the 
Turner epoch, 247 
Cube House, f>l, 143 
Czar, Cadets reviewed by the, 1 .00 



Dances, 207 

Dancing, Lessons in, 10, 31, 00 

Death of a cadet from bullying, 20; ol 

General Mudge, 77 ; of Cadet Uuttar, 102 ; 

of General llewett, 177 
Desks, Lock- up, in class-rooms, 20; abolished, 

124 
Dining-hall. Original windows put m, .02; 

the '-A*' Division, built, 143; windows 

unveiled, 178; description of, 184 
Discipline (see Conduct) 
Dismissal, Consequences of, 18 
Drawing Course, The, in 1741, 204 ; in 1704, 

20; in J 772, 28; list of stall, 203 
Dress (see Uniform) 
Drills in 1807, 00; band authorised for, 113; 

marks given for, 130 
Drink, 17, OS 200 



"Dropping" (see Failure) 
Dukes Day. 208 

Eardley-Wilmot, Captain, 02, 209 
Early days, 2 

Education (see Course), Council of Military 
90. 94, 142; Directoi -General of Military, 
142 
Electricity Staff, List of, 203 
Engineers, Royal, formed as Ixxly of com- 
missioned officers, 0; cadets wait at 
" Shop" for vacancies in, 33, 75 ; scarcity 
of vacancies in, 37 ; cadets as assistant, 
37; separated from It. A., 87; extra 
number sent to, 117 ; augmentation uf, 
130; dropping and cribbing for, 155 
Epaulettes, 20; cease to be worn, t»4 
Establishment of the R. M. A. in 1744, 4; 

in 1704, II ; from 1704 to 1000, 200 
Examinations, Entrance, necessity for start- 
ing, 14 ; regulations for, 1813, 44 ; one 
trial only, 40 ; regulations for, in 1R35, 46 ; 
efficiency harmed by nomination, 47 ; 
competitive started, 87 ; who conducted 
by, 90 ; last fifteen days, 103 ; taken over 
by Civil Service, 123 ; age temporarily 
raised, 139 ; marks given in the, 270 
Examinations, Final, dispensed with in 1795,. 
30 ; from 1800 to 1854, 74 ; nature of in 
! 1820, 7s ; changed in 1820, 80 ; made of 

value in 1848, 80 ; come under independent 
examiners, 94 
1 Examinations, Medical, 91, 103 

Examinations, Periodical, instituted, 07 ; 
come under independent examiners, 95 
1 Examinations, Public, in 1741, 200 ; in 1704, 
j 20 ; disadvantages of, 32 ; cease, 33 ; at 
end of theoretical course, 07; resumed, 
74 ; in 1848, 80 ; humorous account of a, 
80 ; abolished, 94 
I Explosion of Erith magazine, 107 
• Extra cadets, 12, 24 

l Extra drills, 17; Gordon receives one, 84; 
very common. 93; instances of, 130, 190;. 
1 description of, 197 

Failure at examinations, times allowed, 31 ; 
ninety-eight in fourteen years, 72 ; limit 
lixed, 94 ; unusual amount of, 153 ; dis- 
cpialilies for Sappers, 150 
' Fair, Charlton, 01, 107 

Falsehood, Slight punishment for, 121 
i Fire, The, 143 

Firing on the Common, 93 ; at the Governor s. 
1 house, 100 

1 Food at the "Shop" in 1704, 15; 1800 to 
1854, 03; in 1807,02; in the 'seventies, 
j 131, 149 ; late dinner, 158 

Football in the 'seventies, 133 ; rear 
grounds made, 174; records of "Shop," 

Foreigners as military instructors, 24, 05 ; 

as cadets, 47, 130, 102, 171 
Fortification course in 1741, 204 ; combined 

with Artillery. 24 ; instructors foreigners, 

24 ; in 1704, 25 ; in 1772, 29 ; in 1792, 31 ; 

held works included in, 95; list of stall', 

201 
France, Coffey tights for, 125 
French course in 1772, 2S ; omitted in upper 

academy, 30 ; list of staff, 203 

Gaines, Ueneticial effects of, 03, 97, 102;. 
greatly encouraged, 113; records of, 209 



INDEX. 



275 



(Jas, R. M. A. lighted by, 52 

Gentlemen attendants, 3, 13 

Geographv, l'6, 30; abolished, 95 ; list of 
start'. 263 

(it>rinaii, hist of, staff, 263 

Gordon, Adam Lindsay, 85 

Gordon, Charles George, 84 

Governors, List of, 258; their quarters, 51, 
143; Commanders-in-Chief become, 87; 
ap|M)intmeiit of resident, 124 ; powers of, 
124, 141 

Gtavatt, Colonel, Letters of, 19, 34 

Gymnasium, The first, 52 ; the present, built, 
IK) 

Gymnastics heroines part of course, 6S ; ob- 
ligatory for last joined, 95 ; marks given 
for, 139; record of competitions, 256 

Ha-ha, The, 50 ; removal, 142 

Hair ]»o\vder, 21 ; ceases, 22 

" Hani Tunes," 17'.» 

Hindustani. '.»'>; list of staff, 263 

Historv abolished, 95 ; list of staff, 263 

Horn Fair riot, 61 

Hospital built, 51 

Hours of work (see Time Table) 

Housekeeper, 15 

II oxters. S4. 197 

Humane Society's medal to a cadet, 177 

Idleness in 1764, IS; bullying to ensure, 54, 

I Ibrahim Hilinv, 162 

Imperial, Tin* Prince, 135 

India Company's Service, East, Cadets for, 

12, 42 ; combined with the Queen's, 88 
Indies, Cadets sent to the, 6 
Inspectors, List of, 25S ; Phipps an, for 

thirty six >ears, 23 ; tirst appointment of 

an, 27 ; assistant ap|>oiutcd, »S5 ; duties of, 

65; alN.IUheil, 124 
Intoxication (see Drink) 

.lingo. Gunner, at tlie "Shop," .V.» 
Jubilee, Tin-, lss7. l.V.i; l.v.17, 177 
.lustier, The, ,,| the (J. C, 151 

Laiidmauu, Professor. 23, 31, 65 
Lieutenant'* of the Com|Kiuy, List of, 259 
Lieutenant-Governors, office, created, 9; 
difficulties of the first. 10, 27; duration of 
ap|Miintmeiit, 23; list of, 253; abolished, 
124 
Lodges built, 51. 142 
L.wer Srhool (s-e Academy) 
Lunch jaiad.-H, l!»6 



MaeFn-'s iHih.ruiai.ee. ]r.<» 

Ma^i/n.e. The It. \L A., 179 

Mallow (see College) 

Master («.c.- Stall, Educational) 

Masler-«teneial nominates all candidates, 3; 
acts as Governor and Captain, •.» ; at public 
h-iaids. J..; ..Hire of, al»olished, s7 ; list of, 

Matht-maiii-s. Couise in. lTf.l. 26; in 1772, 28 ; 

importance ol, «.5 ; list of staff, 260 
M. ■•.-.. Cadets dine at officers". 3, 17 
Moitai, The.adet^aud the, 150 
Mutm>, The !•-: a ^mallei, 107 



er, L.id.of Magdala, 139 



NeuXy 57 

Nominations to R. M. A., 3 ; an excess of, 45 ; 
disadvantages of, 47 ; supers jded by com- 
petition, 87 

Number of cadets at "Shop" in 1744, 4; 
1764, 11 ; 1782, 11 ; 1793, 12 ; 1805, 13 ; 
1 806-1819, 43 ; 1820-1900, 269 



Object of It. M. A., 2, 10 

Offences of Cadets, Miscellaneous, 59 ; num- 
ber of convictions, 1S35-68, 268 

Officers, The company, in 1744, 4 ; from 1764 
to 1806. and pay, 11 ; quartermaster ap- 
pointed, 11 ; increased in 1806, 43; in 1862, 
96; relations with cadets, 97 ; reduced in 
1870, 124 ; lists of, 259 

Officers attending lectures, 3, 10; cadets re- 
turn as, to complete studies, 33 ; on half- 
l»ay list, 34, 75 

Ordnance Corps : Composition, 6 ; broken 
up, 67 

Oxters (see Hoxters) 



Pattison, James, tlrst Lieutenant-Governor, 9 

Pay of cadets in 1744, 3; in 1764, 11 ; dis- 
tribution of, in 1764, 16; 1806, 53 ; raised 
to three shillings, 96 

Pay of staff in 1764, 11 ; raised, 24 ; altered, 
66; on consolidated footing, 117 

Payments by ]tarents, 64, 102 

** Persons," Definition of, 94 

Photography, 114 

Pigtails, 20 ; abolished, 22 

Pocket money in 1764, 16 ; in 1860. H»5 ; 
disposal of, 131 

Pollock Medal, Story of the, 3$ ; list of 
winners, 271 

Practical class instituted, 67, 78 ; marks 
given to, 70; work of, 93; abolished. 94 

Prince of Wales visits R. M. A., 119, 13s 

Private tuition, 24, 27, «»6 

Prizes in 1741, 266 ; 1764, 26 ; 1806, 71 ; the 
Pollock, 38; the Sword, 62; Tor gym- 
nastics and fencing. 117; winners wear 
gold lace, 64 ; the Tombs, 147 ; the Vic- 
toria, 170 

Prolmtioii, Cadets on, 45 

Promotion, Class, in 1764, 27 ; examinations 
for, instituted, 07 ; provisional, 153 

Public Day, 208 

Punishments in 1764, 17; for bullying, 56 ; 
nullified by influence, 57 ; illegal, 72 ; in 
1857, 93 ; extraordinary inconsistency in, 
121 ; confined to the Governor, 124 



Quarters in lodgings, 3 ; in barracks, 4 ; 

in 1764, 15; in 1S06, 50; in IK57, 91 ; in 

1900, 1S2 
Queen, The, visits R. M. A., 179 
Queues (set; Pigtails) 



Racquets: The courts in 1H06, 50; uiono|K>lised 
by old cadets. 52 ; court 4 iiM«d for bully- 
ing, 60; new court 4 built, 90; record* of, 

! Rajoelson, 171 

Regulations for admission (seo Entrance, 
I Examinations) 
, Reorganisation in 1764, 9, 27 ; in lb06, 6t> ; 

in 1S20, 67, 78 ; In 1840, titf 
' Repository, Drill in the, 93 



276 



INDEX. 



Residence, Length of, in 1704, 15 ; in 1806, 47; 
great variation in, 48 ; fixed at four years, 
0i» ; new regulations affecting, 7S ; fixed at 
two and a half yean*, 04 ; reduced to two 
years, 154 

Revolver shooting : Range built, 173 ; records 
of, 257 

Riding introduced, 05 ; marks given for, 130 ; 
deM-rited. 100 

Rifle Club, 114 

Rooms, IIe»ds of, 50 

Rooms (see Quarters) 

** Rosh " l>ands, 202 

Rupert's Tower, 2, 5 



Salaries (see Pay) 

Sandhurst (see College) 

Secretary appointed. 124 ; list of, 259 

Seniority unaffected by residence, 40 ; not 
tlxed by public examinations, 7!' 

Servants in 1704, 15 

Simmons, Sir Lintorn, 124 ; his influence, 
140 ; his record breakfast, 147 

Smith, Opt. G., tirst inspector, 27 

Smoking a constant offence, 58, 03 ; irksome 
to older cadets, 08 ; allowed, 114 

Sinouching. 27 

" Snookers," etiquette in the 'forties, 50 ; in 
1857, 03; trials of, 112, 127; concerts, 
128, 204 

u Song, Ye. of ye Bar, ' 180 

Sports, Athletic, instituted, 03 ; records of, 
200 

Spying in vogne, 00 ; badly defeated, 101 

Staff, Educational, The 'first. 2 ; bad con- 
duct of, 10, 27, 30 ; receive fees, 13, 24 ; 
long time in their billets, 23 ; foreigners 
| on, 24, 00 ; private, tuition by, 24, 00 ; a 
master's malady, 34 ; powers of punish- 
ment of, 124 ; lists of, 200 

"Staff House," 177 

Study, Hours of (see Time Table) 

"Stuff," Definition of, 105 

Supernumerary cadets : Duke of Connaught, 
118 ; Prince Imperial, 135 ; Ilbrahim 
Hiliny and Azziz Izzet, 102 ; Rajoelson, 
171 ; Bovaradej, 172 

Surgeons, List of, 200 

Swimming, The, pond opened, 52 ; bath built, 
101 

Sword, A, given by Lord Napier, 130 

Sword, The, instituted, 02 ; list of winners, 



Swords, The cadets wear, 19, 21 
Sylvester, Professor, Tricks played on, 100 



Table squads, 110, 131, 138 

Tactics introduced, 117; list of instructors, 

262 
Taxidermy, 114 
Tea squads introduced, 109, 131, 138; up to 

date, 205 
Terms, Length of, 104, 130 
Theatricals, 7 

Theoretical class instituted, 67 
Time Table in 1741, 264 ; in 1764, 25 ; in 1848, 
70; 1857, 02; 1867, 115; 1872, 138; 1885, 
158 
Topography, Military : List of staff, 262 ; 

courses, 08, 122 
Tombs Memorial, The story of the,^147 ; list of 

winners 272 
"Tosh," Definition of, 182 
Tower, The East, 51, 114 
Transition, A period of, 87 
Treasurer (see Secretary) 



Under-otficers created, 54; how selected in 
1802, 95 ; reduction of, 139 ; present 
system instituted, 152 ; marks of rank, 176 

Uniforms given by Government, 3, 16 ; in 
1704, 21 ; in 1800, 63; in 1856, 91 ; in 1870, 
110; treatment of, 130; in 1886, 161 ; in 
the 'nineties, 170 



Vacations, Length of, 104, 139 
Valentin, M., lights for his country, 120 
Victoria Medal, 170 ; list of winners, 272 
Visitors, Boards of, instituted, 123 
Votes, Annual, for R. M. A., 23 



Wales, Prince of (see Prince) 

War, Effect o r , on commissions, in 1783, 33 ; 

in 1703, 35 ; in 1854, 87 ; in 1882, 153 ; in 

1000, 170 (also see Cofley) 
Warrant, Royal, instituting R. M. A., 1 ; 

Master-General's, 14, 64 
Warren, The, 2 
Workshops opened, 52; new ones, 90; 

system of, in 1000, 201 
Writing, A course of, 25 ; materials smouched, 



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